Diving Into E-Book Usage: Navigating
the Swell of Information
ER&L
Austin
March 17, 2014
Michael Levine-Clark
Associate De...
What can we learn by examining usage of
750,000+ e-books?
• Does quality matter?
• Are there general patterns by subject?
...
Coming Soon:
More data, with more solid
conclusions
The Data Set
• 2010
– 435,417 titles
– 5,295 libraries
• 2011
– 537,743 titles
– 5,899 libraries
• 2012
– 667,427 titles
–...
Combined Data
• 2010-Sept 2013
• 435,417 titles
• 304,417 with an LC call
number
• 32,988 university press
titles
• 2011-S...
Usage Definitions
• Session
– Any time that a user interacts with an e-book
• View
– A count of the number of pages examin...
Some aspects of usage aren’t
comparable
• ebrary has far more libraries than EBL, and an
extra year of data
– Averages and...
Call Numbers
• Assigned to some books, but not all
• More for EBL than ebrary
• Call numbers may be inconsistently applied...
Breadth vs Depth
PERCENTAGE OF TITLES USED
AVERAGEAMOUNTOFUSE
DO HIGHER-QUALITY E-BOOKS GET
USED MORE?
University Press Books
• A proxy for quality
• ebrary – 32,988 titles
• EBL – 21,089 titles
Do better books get used at a ...
Overall Usage:
titles with at least one session
69.61%
88.33%91.72% 89.00%
93.76% 93.80%
0.00%
10.00%
20.00%
30.00%
40.00%...
Overall Usage:
average sessions per title
across all libraries
147.43
69.39
208.64
70.99
339.01
76.74
0
50
100
150
200
250...
Overall Usage:
titles viewed at least once
69.15%
87.30%
91.70%
88.01%
93.74% 92.82%
0.00%
10.00%
20.00%
30.00%
40.00%
50....
Overall Usage:
average page views per title
across all libraries
2245.23
1310.39
3174.31
1341.91
5203.82
1499.78
0
1000
20...
Overall Usage:
titles with at least one full download
24.35%
59.12%
34.42%
59.83%
40.12%
67.77%
0.00%
10.00%
20.00%
30.00%...
Overall Usage:
average downloads per title
across all libraries
2.77
9.34
3.95
9.54
5.64
10.41
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
ebrary EBL
...
University Press Summary
• Used at a higher rate across all categories
BUT
• University press books may be available in
mo...
BROAD DISCIPLINARY DIFFERENCES
The Disciplines
Humanities
B (Philosophy, Religion)
excluding BF (Psychology)
C, D, E, F (History)
M (Music)
N (Fine Arts)...
Percentage of Titles Used
ebrary
Discipline % Titles with a
Session
% Titles Viewed % Titles
Downloaded
Humanities 92.05% ...
Percentage of Titles Used
EBL
Discipline % Titles with a
Session
% Titles Viewed % Titles
Downloaded
Humanities 88.44% 87....
Average Usage
ebrary
Discipline Sessions Page Views Full Downloads
Humanities 207.79 3122.16 3.95
Social Sciences 251.21 3...
Average Usage
EBL
Discipline Sessions Page Views Full Downloads
Humanities 54.18 999.12 6.76
Social Sciences 91.96 1694.91...
Actions Per Session
ebrary
Discipline Views Per Session Downloads Per
Session
Humanities 15.03 0.019
Social Sciences 14.99...
Actions Per Session
EBL
Discipline Views Per Session Downloads Per
Session
Humanities 18.44 0.125
Social Sciences 18.43 0....
Disciplinary Summary
• Social sciences far outperform humanities and
STEM in two categories
– Percentage of books used
– A...
MEASURING PREDICTED USE
Difference from Predicted Use
LC Class % of eBooks
available
% of titles with
a session
Difference
A – General Works 0.19%...
Difference from Predicted Use
LC Class % of eBooks
available
% of titles with
a session
Difference
L - Education 4.61% 4.8...
% of titles used (breadth)
% of titles used (breadth)
% of overall usage (depth)
% of overall usage (depth)
Performance Compared to Expected Use
Better than expected (top five)
• H (Social Sciences)
• L (Education)
• G (Geography,...
INTENSIVE / EXTENSIVE USE
ebrary Sessions – Avg and %
Narrow (low %) but
Deep (more usage of
each title)
Broad (high %) and
Deep (more usage of
each...
EBL Sessions – Avg and %
Narrow (low %) but
Deep (more usage of
each title)
Broad (high %) and
Deep (more usage of
each ti...
ebrary Page Views – Avg and %
Narrow (low %) but
Deep (more usage of
each title)
Broad (high %) and
Deep (more usage of
ea...
EBL Page Views – Avg and %
Narrow (low %) but
Deep (more usage of
each title)
Broad (high %) and
Deep (more usage of
each ...
ebrary Downloaded – Avg and %
Narrow (low %) but
Deep (more usage of
each title)
Broad (high %) and
Deep (more usage of
ea...
EBL Downloaded – Avg and %
Narrow (low %) but
Deep (more usage of
each title)
Broad (high %) and
Deep (more usage of
each ...
CAN WE DETERMINE LEVEL OF
IMMERSION IN A BOOK?
If more pages are viewed per session in
a subject area, does that mean that
users spend more time in those books?
Page Views Per Session - ebrary
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
T F E Q R C G H D N J M P B K L U A ...
Page Views Per Session - EBL
10.00
12.00
14.00
16.00
18.00
20.00
22.00
24.00
F N T R M A E Q G C H D S B K P V J L Z U
18....
Average Rank Across Both
Aggregators: Page Views Per Session
1. F – History, Americas
2. T – Technology
3. R – Medicine
4....
CONCLUSIONS
There are many ways to measure use
• Difference from predicted use
• Depth vs breadth
– Books used a lot vs a lot of books...
Quality matters (maybe)
• University press books used at a higher rate by
all measures
• Users appear to be making some ju...
There are clear (but nuanced)
differences by subject
• Two examples
– F (History, Americas)
• Low usage as % of available ...
How do we use these observations
to build better collections and
better serve our users?
White Paper
• Coming soon
• Combined data set across both platforms
• Analysis by
– Date of publication
– Length of time i...
For More Information…
• The white paper will be available on the
ebrary and EBL websites this spring
• This presentation i...
Thank You
Michael Levine-Clark
Associate Dean for Scholarly Communication and
Collections Services
University of Denver Li...
Levine-Clark, Michael “Diving into eBook Usage: Assessing the Swell of Information,” Electronic Resources & Libraries, Aus...
Levine-Clark, Michael “Diving into eBook Usage: Assessing the Swell of Information,” Electronic Resources & Libraries, Aus...
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  • ebrary
  • ebrary
  • Ebrary titles viewed. X axis is percentage of titles used at least once. Y axis is average level of use of those titles.
  • Ebrary titles viewed. X axis is percentage of titles used at least once. Y axis is average level of use of those titles.
  • Ebrary titles viewed. X axis is percentage of titles used at least once. Y axis is average level of use of those titles.
  • Ebrary titles viewed. X axis is percentage of titles used at least once. Y axis is average level of use of those titles.
  • Ebrary titles viewed. X axis is percentage of titles used at least once. Y axis is average level of use of those titles.
  • Ebrary titles viewed. X axis is percentage of titles used at least once. Y axis is average level of use of those titles.
  • Levine-Clark, Michael “Diving into eBook Usage: Assessing the Swell of Information,” Electronic Resources & Libraries, Austin, March 17, 2014.

    1. 1. Diving Into E-Book Usage: Navigating the Swell of Information ER&L Austin March 17, 2014 Michael Levine-Clark Associate Dean for Scholarly Communication and Collections Services University of Denver Libraries
    2. 2. What can we learn by examining usage of 750,000+ e-books? • Does quality matter? • Are there general patterns by subject? • Can we identify disciplinary preferences? • What are the best ways to measure use? • Can those patterns and preferences help shape our collections and guide our services?
    3. 3. Coming Soon: More data, with more solid conclusions
    4. 4. The Data Set • 2010 – 435,417 titles – 5,295 libraries • 2011 – 537,743 titles – 5,899 libraries • 2012 – 667,427 titles – 6,474 libraries • 2013 (through Sept 4) – 776,060 titles – 7,118 libraries • 2011 – 225,448 titles – 291 libraries • 2012 – 320,796 titles – 411 libraries • 2013 (through Sept 9) – 378,530 titles – 587 libraries
    5. 5. Combined Data • 2010-Sept 2013 • 435,417 titles • 304,417 with an LC call number • 32,988 university press titles • 2011-Sept 2013 • 217,457 titles • 210,539 titles with an LC call number • 21,089 university press titles
    6. 6. Usage Definitions • Session – Any time that a user interacts with an e-book • View – A count of the number of pages examined • Download – A download of the entire book
    7. 7. Some aspects of usage aren’t comparable • ebrary has far more libraries than EBL, and an extra year of data – Averages and totals only useful when comparing within one aggregator • There may be some platform differences that drive usage in different ways: – More downloads on EBL = fewer pages viewed
    8. 8. Call Numbers • Assigned to some books, but not all • More for EBL than ebrary • Call numbers may be inconsistently applied – Will soon have set with combined titles and single call number
    9. 9. Breadth vs Depth PERCENTAGE OF TITLES USED AVERAGEAMOUNTOFUSE
    10. 10. DO HIGHER-QUALITY E-BOOKS GET USED MORE?
    11. 11. University Press Books • A proxy for quality • ebrary – 32,988 titles • EBL – 21,089 titles Do better books get used at a higher rate?
    12. 12. Overall Usage: titles with at least one session 69.61% 88.33%91.72% 89.00% 93.76% 93.80% 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% 90.00% 100.00% ebrary EBL All Titles Titles with LC Call Number University Press Titles
    13. 13. Overall Usage: average sessions per title across all libraries 147.43 69.39 208.64 70.99 339.01 76.74 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 ebrary EBL All Titles Titles with LC Call Number University Press Titles
    14. 14. Overall Usage: titles viewed at least once 69.15% 87.30% 91.70% 88.01% 93.74% 92.82% 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% 90.00% 100.00% ebrary EBL All Titles Titles with LC Call Number University Press Titles
    15. 15. Overall Usage: average page views per title across all libraries 2245.23 1310.39 3174.31 1341.91 5203.82 1499.78 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 ebrary EBL All Titles Titles with LC Call Number University Press Titles
    16. 16. Overall Usage: titles with at least one full download 24.35% 59.12% 34.42% 59.83% 40.12% 67.77% 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% ebrary EBL All Titles Titles with LC Call Number University Press Titles
    17. 17. Overall Usage: average downloads per title across all libraries 2.77 9.34 3.95 9.54 5.64 10.41 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 ebrary EBL All Titles Titles with LC Call Number University Press Titles
    18. 18. University Press Summary • Used at a higher rate across all categories BUT • University press books may be available in more libraries
    19. 19. BROAD DISCIPLINARY DIFFERENCES
    20. 20. The Disciplines Humanities B (Philosophy, Religion) excluding BF (Psychology) C, D, E, F (History) M (Music) N (Fine Arts) P (Language & Literature) Social Sciences BF (Psychology) H (Social Sciences) J (Political Science) K (Law) L (Education) U, V (Military, Naval Sciences) STEM Q (Science) R (Medicine) S (Agriculture) T (Technology)
    21. 21. Percentage of Titles Used ebrary Discipline % Titles with a Session % Titles Viewed % Titles Downloaded Humanities 92.05% 92.04% 40.87% Social Sciences 92.70% 92.69% 36.40% STEM 90.19% 90.17% 27.53% Baseline (all titles with an LCCN) 91.72% 91.70% 34.42%
    22. 22. Percentage of Titles Used EBL Discipline % Titles with a Session % Titles Viewed % Titles Downloaded Humanities 88.44% 87.19% 58.62% Social Sciences 89.95% 89.12% 62.40% STEM 88.30% 87.35% 57.68% Baseline (all titles with an LCCN) 89.00% 88.01% 59.83%
    23. 23. Average Usage ebrary Discipline Sessions Page Views Full Downloads Humanities 207.79 3122.16 3.95 Social Sciences 251.21 3766.11 4.74 STEM 162.57 2570.70 3.16 Baseline (all titles with LCCN) 208.64 3174.31 3.95
    24. 24. Average Usage EBL Discipline Sessions Page Views Full Downloads Humanities 54.18 999.12 6.76 Social Sciences 91.96 1694.91 12.54 STEM 59.90 1192.46 8.32 Baseline (all titles with LCCN) 70.99 1341.91 9.54
    25. 25. Actions Per Session ebrary Discipline Views Per Session Downloads Per Session Humanities 15.03 0.019 Social Sciences 14.99 0.019 STEM 15.81 0.019 Baseline (all titles with an LCCN) 15.21 0.019
    26. 26. Actions Per Session EBL Discipline Views Per Session Downloads Per Session Humanities 18.44 0.125 Social Sciences 18.43 0.136 STEM 19.91 0.139 Baseline (all titles with an LCCN) 18.90 0.134
    27. 27. Disciplinary Summary • Social sciences far outperform humanities and STEM in two categories – Percentage of books used – Average amount of use • Humanities stronger than STEM on ebrary • STEM stronger than humanities on EBL • STEM outperforms the others in actions per session
    28. 28. MEASURING PREDICTED USE
    29. 29. Difference from Predicted Use LC Class % of eBooks available % of titles with a session Difference A – General Works 0.19% 0.19% 0.00% B – Philos, Psych, Religion 7.03% 6.88% -0.16% C – Aux Sciences of History 0.40% 0.41% +0.01% D – World History, etc. 3.70% 3.73% +0.03% E – History of the Americas 1.65% 1.71% +0.06% F – History of the Americas 1.96% 1.85% -0.11% G – Geog, Anthro, Rec 2.94% 3.01% +0.07% H – Social Sciences 21.98% 22.27% +0.29% J – Political Science 3.40% 3.50% +0.10% K – Law 3.33% 3.29% -0.04%
    30. 30. Difference from Predicted Use LC Class % of eBooks available % of titles with a session Difference L - Education 4.61% 4.80% +0.19% M - Music 0.81% 0.85% +0.04% N – Fine Arts 1.06% 1.10% +0.04% P – Language & Literature 10.87% 11.00% +0.13% Q - Science 13.09% 12.51% -0.58% R - Medicine 10.83% 10.73% -0.10% S - Agriculture 2.01% 2.08% +0.07% T - Technology 8.65% 8.69% +0.04% U – Military Science 0.69% 0.58% -0.11% V – Naval Science 0.12% 0.12% 0.00% Z – Bibliography and LIS 0.67% 0.69% -0.02%
    31. 31. % of titles used (breadth)
    32. 32. % of titles used (breadth)
    33. 33. % of overall usage (depth)
    34. 34. % of overall usage (depth)
    35. 35. Performance Compared to Expected Use Better than expected (top five) • H (Social Sciences) • L (Education) • G (Geography, Anthropology, Recreation) • N (Fine Arts) • D (World History) Worse than expected (bottom five) • Q (Science) • F (History of the Americas) • P (Language & Literature) • K (Law) • U (Military Science)
    36. 36. INTENSIVE / EXTENSIVE USE
    37. 37. ebrary Sessions – Avg and % Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
    38. 38. EBL Sessions – Avg and % Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
    39. 39. ebrary Page Views – Avg and % Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
    40. 40. EBL Page Views – Avg and % Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
    41. 41. ebrary Downloaded – Avg and % Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
    42. 42. EBL Downloaded – Avg and % Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
    43. 43. CAN WE DETERMINE LEVEL OF IMMERSION IN A BOOK?
    44. 44. If more pages are viewed per session in a subject area, does that mean that users spend more time in those books?
    45. 45. Page Views Per Session - ebrary 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 T F E Q R C G H D N J M P B K L U A S V Z 15.21
    46. 46. Page Views Per Session - EBL 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00 18.00 20.00 22.00 24.00 F N T R M A E Q G C H D S B K P V J L Z U 18.90
    47. 47. Average Rank Across Both Aggregators: Page Views Per Session 1. F – History, Americas 2. T – Technology 3. R – Medicine 4. E – History, Americas 5. N – Fine Arts 6. Q – Science 7. C – Aux Sciences of History 8. G – Geography, Anthropology, Re creation 9. M – Music 10. H – Social Sciences 11. D – History, World, etc. 12. A – General Works 13. B – Philos, Psych, Religion 14. J – Political Science 15. P – Language & Literature 16. K – Law 17. S – Agriculture 18. L – Education 19. V – Naval Science 20. U – Military Science 21. Z – Bibliography and LIS
    48. 48. CONCLUSIONS
    49. 49. There are many ways to measure use • Difference from predicted use • Depth vs breadth – Books used a lot vs a lot of books used • Type of use (session, view, download) • Amount of use per session – Does this measure amount of time spent?
    50. 50. Quality matters (maybe) • University press books used at a higher rate by all measures • Users appear to be making some judgment about quality • But, UP books may be available in more libraries
    51. 51. There are clear (but nuanced) differences by subject • Two examples – F (History, Americas) • Low usage as % of available F titles • Low average usage rate • Very poor performance relative to availability of F titles • Highest # of page views by session – L (Education) • High usage as % of available L titles • High average usage rate • Very strong performance relative to availability of L titles • Very low # of page views by session
    52. 52. How do we use these observations to build better collections and better serve our users?
    53. 53. White Paper • Coming soon • Combined data set across both platforms • Analysis by – Date of publication – Length of time in the book • More (and better?) call numbers
    54. 54. For More Information… • The white paper will be available on the ebrary and EBL websites this spring • This presentation is available on SlideShare: http://www.slideshare.net/MichaelLevineClark
    55. 55. Thank You Michael Levine-Clark Associate Dean for Scholarly Communication and Collections Services University of Denver Libraries michael.levine-clark@du.edu

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