E or P? A Comparative Analysis of Electronic and Print Book Usage
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Levine-Clark, Michael and Christopher C. Brown, “E or P? A Comparative Analysis of Electronic and Print Book Usage,” Electronic Resources & Libraries, Austin, March 19, 2013.

Levine-Clark, Michael and Christopher C. Brown, “E or P? A Comparative Analysis of Electronic and Print Book Usage,” Electronic Resources & Libraries, Austin, March 19, 2013.

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E or P? A Comparative Analysis of Electronic and Print Book Usage Presentation Transcript

  • 1. E or P? A Comparative Analysis ofElectronic and Print Book Usage Electronic Resources & Libraries Austin March 19, 2013 Michael Levine-Clark Christopher C. Brown
  • 2. Methodology
  • 3. Duke University Press eBooks• Added October 2008• Loaded MARC records December 2008• Purchase all e/p• 1,480 e-books – Frontlist approximately 120 per year – Backlist• 2,416 p-books • Many predate the e-book collection• 1,150 in both formats
  • 4. The Data• Gathered circ data – Through December 2008 – Each subsequent December (2009-2012) – Cumulative• Compiled e-book use data – At end of each year, 2009-2012 – For each year
  • 5. Apples and Oranges• pBook checkouts – Undergrad: 3 weeks – Grad: 10 weeks – Faculty: 1 year – Potentially many uses per checkout, and some when deciding to checkout• eBook use – One time in the book is one use
  • 6. About Discovery and Data• Discovery through catalog records• Data merger issues: – Title variations – ISBN complexities – Multi-volume issues
  • 7. E and P Typically Pattern Together in Results Classic Catalog Encore (next-gen) Catalog
  • 8. Data Difficulties: Title Variations Catalog Record Vendor RecordSeries used with title The Sri Lanka reader : World Readers : Sri history, culture, Lanka Reader : History, politics / John Clifford Culture, Politics Holt, ed.Series used with title Julia Childs The French Spin Offs : Julia Childs chef / Dana Polan. The French ChefWord renderings Present tense : rock & Present Tense : Rock roll and culture and Roll and CultureSpaces Percussion : drumming, Percussion: Drumming, beating, striking Beating, StrikingVendors and catalogers don’t necessarily agree on title formation.This makes matching on title impossible.
  • 9. More Title Variations Catalog Record Vendor RecordGremlin characters Affective communities : Affective communities:(diacritics) anticolonial thought, fin-de-anticolonial thought, Fin-De- si├ ¿cle radicalism, and the SiFcle radicalism, and the politics of friendship politics of friendshipPresence/Absence of The life and traditions of the Life and Traditions of the RedSubtitles Red man Man : A rediscovered treasure of Native American LiteratureTitle Discrepencies A coincidence of desires : Coincidence of Desire : anthropology, queer studies, Anthropology, Queer Indonesia Studies, IndonesiaTranslated Titles Desencuentros de la Divergent Modernities : modernidad en América Culture and Politics in Latina. English, Divergent Nineteenth-Century Latin modernities : culture and America politics in nineteenth- century Latin America
  • 10. Data Difficulties: Multiple ISBNs
  • 11. Data Difficulties: ISBN 10? ISBN 13?
  • 12. Data Difficulties: ISBN Irregularities Note the ISBN10 with ISBN 13, the parentheses, and the multiple ISBNs.
  • 13. Data Solution: Create an ISBN 9ISBN 9 eliminates the ISBN 13 – 978 prefixand the final check-digit, creating a useablematch-point, in cases where the electronicand print versions agree on base ISBN.
  • 14. Data Difficulties: Too Many Sources• Usage reports include only titles that are actually used – Needed to pull in unused titles from elsewhere • Different formats
  • 15. Data Methodology using Microsoft Access• Get annual use stats of e-books from vendor• Get master list of e-titles from vendor.• Derive ISBN9 for each list for proper overlay• Overlay annual use stats onto master list of e-books• Get circ stats for print books from ILS• Derive master list of all print titles from ILS• Derive ISBN 9 for each p title.• Overlay annual circ stats onto master list of p-books• Merge circ and use data together
  • 16. Summary of Data Issues Vendor’s idea of titleCataloger’s idea of title ISBN Differences Vendor records mayCatalog records contain Title Differences: contain ISBN 10 ormultiple ISBNs, 10 or “and” vs “&”, etc. ISBN 1313 digit Print Books Print Books E-Books E-BooksCirculation stats purged Can we compare What does an e-usageafter a time a print circ with an mean?What does a e-use?“circulation” mean?
  • 17. Data Conclusions• Microsoft Access for overlays; Microsoft Excel for analysis• Overlay on title is nearly impossible• Better standards are needed – a single ISBN, please!• Deriving an “ISBN9” was the only way to get anywhere, but even this was far from perfect
  • 18. Usage
  • 19. eBooks• User Sessions – 588 titles used (39.7%) – 5,149 sessions • 8.8 per title used • 3.5 per title in the collection – 892 titles not used• Pages Viewed – Total pages: 35,236 – Average (for books used): 59.9 – Highest: 2,861
  • 20. eBooks• Pages Printed – 68 titles – Total pages: 3,244 – Average: 47.7 pages – Highest: 380• Pages Copied – 54 titles – Total pages: 640 – Average: 11.9 pages – Highest: 64
  • 21. pBooks• 1,528 titles used (63.2%)• 903 titles used since Dec 2008 (37.4%)• 4,611 checkouts (2,930 before Dec 2008) – 3.0 per title used – 1.9 per title – 1.1 per title (post 2008 use) – 0.7 per title (post 2008)
  • 22. Most Used eBooks, User Sessions• Women and Gender Equity in Development Theory and Practice (2006) – 1,821 user sessions (1,706 in 2012) – 2,861 pages viewed (2,765 in 2012) – 380 pages printed (all in 2012) – 8 checkouts (6 since 2008)• Date Which Will Live (2003) – 399 User Sessions (all in 2011-2012) – 494 pages viewed – 93 pages printed – 3 checkouts (1 each in 2009, 2011, 2012)
  • 23. Most Used pBooks• The Argumentative Turn in Policy Analysis and Planning (1993) – 37 checkouts (36 before Dec 2008) – 2 user sessions, 0 pages printed• Displacing Whiteness: Essays In Social and Cultural Criticism (1997) – 24 checkouts (22 before Dec 2008) – 3 user sessions, 0 pages printed
  • 24. Most Used pBooks Since 2008• Kurosawa: Film Studies and Japanese Cinema (2000) – 19 checkouts (12 since 2008) – No eBook• The Cinema of Naruse Mikio (2008) – 11 checkouts (all since 2008) – 6 user sessions, 45 pages viewed• Vibrant Matter: A Political Ecology of Things (2010) – 11 checkouts (all since 2010) – 7 user sessions, 205 pages viewed
  • 25. Dual Format Availability: A Preference for Print• 1,150 titles available in both formats• Print Use – 619 titles checked out since Dec 2008 (53.8%) – 825 titles checked out (including before Dec 2008) (71.7%)• Electronic Use – 451 titles with user sessions (39.2%)
  • 26. Dual Format Use• 394 titles used in both formats – 4,221 user sessions (2,400 without the 1,821 use title) • 10.7 per title used (6.1) – 1,524 p-book checkouts (801 before Dec 2008) • 3.9 per title used (1.8 for uses since 2008) – 54 titles with pages printed (out of 68) • 7.4 pages per title used – 68.4 pages viewed on average
  • 27. Dual Format Use post-2008• 332 titles used in both formats – 3981 user sessions (2,160 without the 1,821 use title) • 12.3 per title used (6.7) – 712 p-book checkouts • 2.2 per title used – 48 titles with pages printed (out of 68) • 8.3 pages per title used – 72.0 pages viewed on average
  • 28. P Used, E Not• 431 titles – 1,004 checkouts • 2.3 per title used – 297 titles with checkouts since 2008 • 479 checkouts – 1.6 per title used
  • 29. E Used, P Not• 57 titles• 246 user sessions – 4.3 per title• 906 pages viewed – 15.9 per title• 3 titles with pages printed
  • 30. eBook Use
  • 31. eBook Use
  • 32. Print Use
  • 33. How Closely Are P/E Usage Linked?
  • 34. Increased Checkouts, 2008-2012• For titles available at the start of the project (Dec 2008), how many more checkouts were there by Dec 2012?• Was that increase linked in any way to e- usage?• Was it linked in any way to type of e-usage?
  • 35. Increased Checkouts 2008-2012• 686 titles with increased checkouts – Measuring titles available prior to Dec 2008• 408 available in both formats• 235 also had e-use – 15.5 user sessions per title – 81.2 pages viewed per title
  • 36. Observations• Use of E may lead to use of P• Use of P doesn’t seem to lead to use of E• If both formats are used, – they are both used at a higher rate than average – They have greater meaningful use as e-books • Pages viewed • User sessions
  • 37. Thoughts• If dual format usage is higher by all measures, does this mean that people’s preference is for good content, not format? BUT• When both formats are available, print is more likely to be used (53.8% vs 39.2%). – Does e-discovery drive p-use?
  • 38. Does Subject Impact Use?
  • 39. LC Class Example: B – Philosophy, Psychology, Religion• 148 titles in print (6.1% • 1.9 checkouts per title of all Duke print titles) used (all print) (+0.8) – 64 titles checked out • 2.3 checkouts per title since 2008 (7.1%) (both formats used)• 102 e-books (6.9%) (+0.5) – 49 e-books used (8.3%) • 5.1 user sessions per title• 79 titles available in (both formats used) (-1.0) both formats (6.9%) – 48 titles checked out (7.8%) – 40 e-books used (8.9%)
  • 40. LC Class – Best & Worst in Print (Difference Between % of Collection and % of Checkouts – post 2008)• P – Lang & Lit (n=579): • M – Music (63): +2.4% -4.6% • F – Hist of Americas• H – Soc Sci (515): -1.1% (183): +1.5%• J – Poli Sci (178): -0.8% • G – Geog, Anth, Rec• Q – Science (38): -0.7% (82): +1.3%• T – Technology (44): • E – Hist of Americas -0.5% (140): +1.2% • B – Phil, Psych, Rel (148): +1.0%
  • 41. LC Class – Best & Worst eBooks (Difference Between % of Collection and % of Titles with User Session)• P – Lang & Lit (n=285): • B – Phil, Psych, Rel -3.3% (102): +1.4%• Q – Science (23): -0.5% • F – Hist of Americas• M – Music (64): -0.4% (158): +0.9%• T – Technology (22): • N – Art (42): +0.7% -0.3% • D – History (107): +0.4%• K – Law (40): -0.2% • E – Hist of Americas (98): +0.4%
  • 42. LC Class – Best & Worst E &P (Difference Between % of Collectionand % of Titles Used – Both Available)• P – Lang & Lit (n=231): • E – Hist of Americas -3.9% P, -3.9% E (81): +1.0% P, +0.9% E• Q – Science (18): -0.6% • B – Phil, Psych, Rel (79): P, -0.7% E +1.4% P, +2.0% E• T – Technology (19): • H - Soc Sci (260): +0.4% -0.5% P, -0.5% E P, 0.0% E• G – Geog, Anth, Rec • D – History (87): +0.4% (52): -0.3% P, +2.0% E P, -0.2% E
  • 43. Two Oddities – E&P Available• J – Poli Sci (54): +1.0% P, -0.5% E• M – Music (48): +1.3% P, -0.8% E
  • 44. Observations• Some of the subject and format differences have to do with publication date – Lots of old social science material in print• Some differences are surely local• The sample size for most LC Classes is too small to be meaningful
  • 45. Further Questions• How does discovery play in?• What might ILL/resource sharing tell us about demand for P when E is available?
  • 46. Thank You