Rethinking Library Acquisition: Demand-Driven Purchasing for Scholarly Books

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American Association of University Presses Annual Conference, Salt Lake City, June 18, 2010.

American Association of University Presses Annual Conference, Salt Lake City, June 18, 2010.

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  • 1. Rethinking Library Acquisition: Demand-Driven Purchasing for Scholarly Books
    Becky Clark, Johns Hopkins University Press
    Matt Nauman, YBP
    Michael Levine-Clark, University of Denver
    Stephen Bosch, University of Arizona
    Kim Anderson, YBP
  • 2. Why Demand-Driven Acquisition?
  • 3. University of Denver Data – All Books
    252,718 titles (25,272 a year)
    46.9% unused (118,387)
    126,953 titles
    39.6% unused (50,226)
    FY 2010
    Approx $1 million spent on monographs
  • 4. University of Denver Data – University Press Books*
    40,058 titles (8,012 a year)
    39.7% unused (15,883)
    20,277 titles
    31.0% unused (6,278)
    *“University Press” in publisher field
  • 5. University of Denver Use Data (Titles Cataloged 2000-2004)
    All U.P.
    4+ 23,854 (18.8%) 4,029 (19.9%)
    3 10,461 (8.2%) 1,954 (9.6%)
    2 16,257 (12.8%) 3,134 (15.5%)
    1 26,155 (20.6%) 4,882 (24.1%)
    0 50,266 (39.6%) 6,278 (31.0%)
  • 6. University of Denver Use Data (U.P. Titles Cataloged in 2000)
    Ever Used Used 2005 or Later
    4+ 932 (22.1%) 882 (20.1%)
    3 424 (10.0%) 349 (8.3%)
    2 682 (16.1%) 439 (10.4%)
    1 968 (22.9%) 475 (11.2%)
    0 1,217 (28.8%) 2,078 (49.2%)
  • 7. The Universe of Titles
    170,663 books published in the U.S. in 2008*
    53,869 books treated on approval by Blackwell in FY 2008 (North America)
    23,097 forms generated in FY 2008
    4,687 titles ordered from forms
    *Library and Book Trade Almanac 2009, p. 506 (preliminary data).
  • 8. Everything is Different
    Users expect everything instantly
    Born-digital books shouldn’t go out of print
    We’re more accountable to our administrations
    Shelf space
  • 9. Developing a Demand-Driven Purchase Model
    Two basic reasons for changing models:
    ROI – return on investment
    In a digital world dominated by network level discovery and access - it is not about the local collection anymore, follow the users.
  • 10.
  • 11. Developing a Demand-Driven Purchase Model
    Circulation data by publisher is hard to gather since publisher is not a field in a MARC record that is “normalized” so many versions of a publisher could exist.
    A rough working of our data shows that overall the average rate for circulating titles was about 55% for University Presses.
    The larger University Presses do have higher rates of circulation than do the smaller presses.
  • 12. Developing a Demand-Driven Purchase Model
    ROI – in since 2000:
    Total # of books purchased 448,840
    Total exp for books $ 24,531,340
    Total # 0 circ books 237,885
    Total exp for 0 circ books $ 13,001,610
    Shelving costs $ 2,440,582
    Processing costs $ 3,394,622
    Total cost of 0 circ books $ 18,836,814
  • 13. Rethinking Monographic Acquisition: Developing a Demand-Driven Purchase Model
    Network level discovery and access:
    This is where our users are going and we need to have business models that support that type of user experience - not building local collections.
    Users must have the broadest possible access w/o dead ends – one way or another they need to be able to quickly obtain the discovered information.
  • 14. Is this what the digital natives will find useful as a library? OR
  • 15. Is this the future “collection”?
  • 16. How We’re Implementing Demand-Driven Acquisition
  • 17.
  • 18. Developing a DDA Plan for DU
    Jan 2009: Begin conversations with Blackwell
    Spring 2009: Begin conversations with EBL
    Summer/fall 2009: EBL/Blackwell platform development
    Dec 2009: YBP/Blackwell announce merger
    Jan 2010: Begin conversations with YBP
    Spring 2010: Implement DDA with EBL
    Spring 2010: Plan DDA with YBP
  • 19. The University of Denver Plan
    Program will begin July 2010
    Print and Electronic Books
    YBP and EBL
    No fiction, reprints, or textbooks
    Discovery through the catalog
    POD (eventually)
    Automatic approval books will continue to come automatically (for now)
  • 20. The User Experience
    Discovery (catalog)
    Print and/or ebook(s)
    Request (catalog)
    Fast, seamless
    Baker & Taylor and Alternative Sources
    Rush (in some cases)
    Drop Ship (in some cases)
  • 21. Assessment
    Feedback Form (p)
    At Request
    At Delivery
    Slip “Ordering” (p)
    Use Data (p and e)
  • 22. Developing the Demand Driven Acquisitions Program
  • 23. What Does Demand Driven Mean? Possible Workflows
    YBP provides the title catalog records
    Profiled each week from approval plan input
    Weekly batch record load based on that title list
    Library loads records into catalog
    Full Record (OCLC Plus service from YBP)
    Brief records
    Load to OCLC WorldCat Local
  • 24. What Does Demand Driven Mean? Possible Workflows
    Button for users to request the book
    Options available to user (format, rush, normal, notify, don’t notify?)
    Acquisitions retrieves requests daily and places orders
  • 25. University of Kansas DDA Workflow
  • 26. KU Uses a Special Location
    for Patron Choice Titles
  • 27. Full record in KU OPAC
    Identifier in catalog
    record so Patron
    Choice records can
    easily be removed
    after 6 months
  • 28. Considerations for DDA
    • Print books, eBooks, or both?
    Mediated or non-mediated?
    Mediated: patron requests go to acquisitions staff, who make final decision on whether title gets ordered, fund availability, format in which title is ordered
    Non-mediated: patron request is ordered immediately
  • 29. Considerations for DDA
    Allow duplication between e and print formats?
    Mirror existing approval plan profile, or set up a separate profile?
    Budget control – monitoring so funds are available for duration of program or fiscal year
    Must patrons authenticate to request a title?
  • 30. Considerations for DDA
    How long will MARC records stay in OPAC?
    • How do we remove them?
    • 31. Will selectors review before removal to order any that users didn’t want?
    How will the ‘request screen’ look in the ILS?
    • Which users requested what (how much, and in what subject areas)?
  • What Universe of Titles Shall We Expose to Patrons?
    Demand Driven Profile Components
    Subject areas
    Non-Subject Parameters
    How far back shall we go?
  • 32. Metrics
    What type of material was requested?
    By subject
    By publisher
    By Format
    What was the ratio of records to requests?
    By Subject
    For Print
    For Digital
  • 33. Metrics
    What were the fulfillment times?
    To the library
    To the Patron
    What was the Patron Type?
    Graduate Students
    Undergraduate Students
  • 34. Metrics
    What was the distribution of requests across subjects?
    How did DDA requests compare to Librarian selections?
    What savings did the institution experience?
    Materials costs
    Staff costs
  • 35. Was the Patron Satisfied?
  • 36. Implications
  • 37. Developing a Demand-Driven Purchase Model
    What about?
    Collections of record
    Current structures and processes in collection management and acquisitions
    Traditional user expectations
  • 38. Impact on Scholars
    Will they be able to
    browse the collection?
    get books as needed?
    get older books?
  • 39. Impact on Libraries
    What about Interlibrary Loan?
    Blur between ILL/Acquisitions
    eBook Rental Replaces ILL?
    Are we still building collections, or are we just buying books?
  • 40. PDA will force changes in the way content moves from publishers to academic libraries
    There will be implications throughout the supply chain
    Four reasons PDA may be the way of the future:
    Current model breaking down
    Better technology exists for library decisions
    Changing mission of academic libraries
    Economic conditions
  • 41. How we got here and where we might be going
    Collections have been built by Approval Plans
    “Just in Case” Collections
    Problems include budgets, space & usage statistics
    Better technology makes new models possible
    One model for getting started
    Core, must have titles
    PDA based on subject & publisher profiles
    Includes print and ebooks
    Integration with aggregator partners
    “Just in Time” Ordering
  • 42. Impact on Academic Publishing
    Print Books
    “Fewer books, fewer copies, higher prices”
    Frontlist sales will be reduced
    Possible reduction in total copies sold
    Both can lead to higher prices
    Maybe some titles won’t be published, or
    Published in another format
  • 43. Impact on Academic Publishing
    Pilot libraries want E-Preferred PDA
    Libraries and vendors working on electronic collection development services
    Increased pressure for simultaneous P and E
    Increased pressure on vendor for discovery and delivery systems
    Potential for Ebooks first backed by POD
    Usage-based pricing
  • 44. Impact on Book Vendors
    New value and service proposition
    Must provide an infrastructure for PDA
    MARC records prior to purchase
    Rush order and delivery for print
    Improved discoverability & delivery
    Print on Demand options
    Direct to Consumer options
    New processing options for print books
  • 45. Impact on Book Vendors
    Vendors also forced to replace lost revenue
    Potential for a new business model
    Based on charging for services
    Decrease library’s cost-per-use
    Vendors and publishers will cooperate to make sure titles are discovered
    PDA has to be built while maintaining traditional services