The Problem
Most measures of biological recovery from
acidification are insufficient, clunky, subject to
sampling bias, su...
Leuctridae Simulidae Nemouridae
The Problem
No good quantitative or qualitative method
exists to measure how badly an aquatic
invertebrate community is af...
The Solution?
No metrics are indexed to the effects of
acidification on biological communities… we
need a Hilsenhoff for a...
The Solution!
Consequently builds from:
1. Acid Tolerance Values (like Hilsenhoff’s PTVs)
2. Acid Tolerance Index (the wei...
It all began in 2007…
The Process!
1. Collect, process, and analyze A LOT of data!
– ~50,000 insects; 10,000+ water quality data values
2. Run M...
Macroinvertebrate Weighted Chemical Means
Taxa pH Acidity Alk45 fakeANC ANC CaD AlD FeD MnD NaD MgD KD SO4
Acentrella MWCM...
MWCM PCA
AMD
Sialis
Nigronia
Epeorus
Baetis
Pteronarcys
Peltoperla
Leuctra
Rhithrogena
Acroneuria
Stenelmis
Acentrella
Cluster AnalysisNearest neighbour
S tenacro
Habrophl
Maccaffe
Nyctioph
Neophyla
Tipula M
S tylogom
B ezzia M
Rasvena
A tri...
The results!
Can now calculate the ATI score, which is the weighted
mean value of all ATV scores in sample.
Example:
• 100...
On to the IBA!
With the ATV and ATI (both empirically indices to
measured invertebrate responses to acidification), we
can...
Index of Biotic Acidification (IBA) [βeta v.1]
• 7 Metric Scores summed and averaged
• 5 are unique, 4 of these require AT...
1
2
ILS
ILS
ILS
Glade Run Headwaters: Index of Biotic Acidification 1998-2007
Site 03GR is an
untreated, AMD-
influenced control site
abov...
1
2
ILS
ILS
ILS
2
14GR
16DC
(400m
down-
stream
from 17DC)
2
0
200
400
600
Y1998 Y1999 Y2000 Y2001 Y2002 Y2003 Y2004 Y2005 Y2006 Y2007 Y2008 Y2009 Y2010 Y2011 Y2012 Y2013
Instream Lim...
In 2008, I asked this:
Source: National Atmospheric Deposition Program (1978-2012)
Since 2008, acidic deposition has
dropped dramatically across ...
US Electricity Generated by Source by 2003-2012
Nat. Gas
Nuclear
Hydro
“Green”
Since 2008, coal-fired electricity generati...
Questions?
Instream Limestone Sand Dosing in the Allegheny Plateau Part 2
Instream Limestone Sand Dosing in the Allegheny Plateau Part 2
Instream Limestone Sand Dosing in the Allegheny Plateau Part 2
Instream Limestone Sand Dosing in the Allegheny Plateau Part 2
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Instream Limestone Sand Dosing in the Allegheny Plateau Part 2

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Scott Alexander with Malcolm Crittenden and Robert Ryder, PA Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), “Instream Limestone Sand Dosing in the Allegheny Plateau”

Attendees will learn of the successful recovery of trout populations in low-buffered,
acidic streams by the use of alkaline treatments. Documented low-cost/long term trout restoration methods such as (ILS) may be useful for other watersheds dealing with stream acidification because several high cost alternatives have been proposed in Pennsylvania which on analysis may deliver far less stream-alkalinity per dollar.

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Instream Limestone Sand Dosing in the Allegheny Plateau Part 2

  1. 1. The Problem Most measures of biological recovery from acidification are insufficient, clunky, subject to sampling bias, subjective, difficult to interpret. Water sampling, while quantitative, is expensive and only measures chemistry, not whether the community is recovering.
  2. 2. Leuctridae Simulidae Nemouridae
  3. 3. The Problem No good quantitative or qualitative method exists to measure how badly an aquatic invertebrate community is affected by acidification effects. We need one number, not several: % EPT % Ephemeroptera % Chironomidae % Dominant Taxa Richness Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI) Shannon Diversity PA DEP Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) Density
  4. 4. The Solution? No metrics are indexed to the effects of acidification on biological communities… we need a Hilsenhoff for acid. A good metric should also incorporate facets of community health: richness, diversity, and trophic function… and should be sensitive, but not overly sensitive or biased.
  5. 5. The Solution! Consequently builds from: 1. Acid Tolerance Values (like Hilsenhoff’s PTVs) 2. Acid Tolerance Index (the weighted average of PTVs) 3. Index of Biotic Acidification (the IBA, a multi-metric index)
  6. 6. It all began in 2007…
  7. 7. The Process! 1. Collect, process, and analyze A LOT of data! – ~50,000 insects; 10,000+ water quality data values 2. Run Macroinvertebrate Weighted Chemical Means through Principle Components Analysis (PCA)... 3. Run PCA eigenvectors through k-means clustering to assign ATVs to each taxa collected… 4. Assign co-dominance information to assign ATVs to uncollected taxa… 5. Choose metrics for IBA and test, test, test.
  8. 8. Macroinvertebrate Weighted Chemical Means Taxa pH Acidity Alk45 fakeANC ANC CaD AlD FeD MnD NaD MgD KD SO4 Acentrella MWCM 7.175831 -4.59931 14.14558 18.74489 332.9261 7.834149 0.02278 0.0199 0.00295 0.535483 1.069441 0.500688 8.52376 Atherix MWCM 6.990715 -0.83878 6.860194 7.69897 144.6448 3.482952 0.025238 0.020985 0.002982 1.280265 0.981448 1.054453 7.486414 Stenelmis MWCM 6.988587 -7.1 10.8 17.9 229.9201 3.897 0.03205 0.1605 0.10845 3.354 1.5925 0.999 6.489999 Mystacides MWCM 6.97444 3.974999 5.974999 2 105.9371 2.792499 0.0263 0.021537 0.003487 0.99675 0.82675 1.082666 6.639999 Isogenoides MWCM 6.97444 3.974999 5.974999 2 105.9371 2.792499 0.0263 0.021537 0.003487 0.99675 0.82675 1.082666 6.639999 Agnetina MWCM 6.959685 -4.83808 7.598627 12.43671 202.1648 3.720949 0.026845 0.020783 0.002543 2.382508 1.343942 0.999 6.281492 Rhithrogena MWCM 6.95549 -6 7.699997 13.69999 195.7742 5.256498 0.0177 0.02295 0.0039 5.301998 1.547499 0.999 8.749997 Anthopotamus MWCM 6.947128 -2.9 7.300005 10.20001 200.8297 2.665002 0.0324 0.0199 0.00199 1.034501 1.255001 0.999001 4.320003 Remenus MWCM 6.924595 -5.6 8.099998 13.7 158.7508 4.130999 0.0104 0.0199 0.002895 0.4765 0.964 1.1115 7.419998 Ptychoptera MWCM 6.924595 -5.6 8.1 13.7 158.7508 4.131 0.0104 0.0199 0.002895 0.4765 0.964 1.1115 7.42 Phylocentropus MWCM 6.924595 -5.6 8.099998 13.7 158.7508 4.130999 0.0104 0.0199 0.002895 0.4765 0.964 1.1115 7.419998 Podura MWCM 6.92202 -3.4 9.799998 13.2 203.2675 4.455499 0.05265 0.02795 0.0106 0.718 1.357 0.999 7.449998 Drunella MWCM 6.912731 -5.03859 8.597459 13.63605 202.3538 5.149197 0.021544 0.020743 0.003101 1.971239 1.147833 0.866567 8.23265 Leucrocuta MWCM 6.889013 -1.71557 6.645607 8.361179 151.5079 3.510396 0.030424 0.021253 0.005436 1.512428 1.088057 1.02797 7.35183 Yugus MWCM 6.871548 -3.54104 9.836675 13.37771 242.6052 5.679465 0.025987 0.0199 0.002575 0.559215 0.947632 0.682636 7.420164 Chimarra MWCM 6.871068 -6.49924 10.56733 17.06657 224.785 3.889476 0.034885 0.150743 0.100694 3.149528 1.560355 0.999 6.512453 Paragnetina MWCM 6.867173 -0.48368 5.891577 6.375254 121.1401 2.922677 0.034929 0.029598 0.009933 0.695435 0.881028 1.028056 6.56967 Hydracarina MWCM 6.84799 -1.59781 6.823503 8.421314 148.6907 2.959577 0.042286 0.044877 0.025913 1.108253 0.972531 0.877806 5.923548 Ectopria MWCM 6.840646 -3.3504 7.513346 10.86374 164.4043 3.925189 0.031747 0.0206 0.003869 1.329609 1.121494 0.970695 7.422215 Ephemera MWCM 6.837595 -1.77644 7.015703 8.792144 156.9036 3.463467 0.042459 0.03454 0.020791 1.360974 1.196446 0.955328 7.11798 Isonychia MWCM 6.833088 2.08821 6.302358 4.214148 153.8725 1.958976 0.065821 0.061034 0.055832 0.811949 1.08118 0.999 3.80583 Dubiraphia MWCM 6.827766 1.936748 6.746132 4.809384 153.6744 2.079516 0.069126 0.087024 0.077793 1.150132 1.116171 0.999 4.091462 Anchytarsus MWCM 6.825107 -5.91476 9.864701 15.77946 211.476 3.801443 0.037346 0.138359 0.092625 2.999634 1.494051 0.989778 6.670819 Hydropsyche MWCM 6.823364 -5.29725 8.366286 13.66353 180.8029 3.345358 0.037098 0.133233 0.071516 2.484172 1.369184 0.999 6.821257 Serratella MWCM 6.810008 -0.14211 6.246692 6.388797 141.7883 2.783601 0.052072 0.04616 0.033496 0.700066 1.031387 0.996058 5.937703 Culicoides MWCM 6.803707 3.6 6.000001 2.4 139.6411 1.745 0.07595 0.0735 0.07215 0.7445 1.0285 0.999 3.65 Epiphragma MWCM 6.788587 -0.8 5.800001 6.600001 140.4362 2.479 0.029 0.0199 0.00199 0.7995 1.4415 0.8505 7.325001 Diphetor MWCM 6.77741 -4.09985 6.644433 10.74429 156.9282 3.129845 0.035424 0.050914 0.02666 1.565227 1.141339 0.965784 6.507166 Pteronarcys MWCM 6.771407 -3.62766 6.324298 9.951957 138.9905 3.557731 0.030186 0.022734 0.005358 1.403033 1.069419 1.000116 7.342066
  9. 9. MWCM PCA AMD Sialis Nigronia Epeorus Baetis Pteronarcys Peltoperla Leuctra Rhithrogena Acroneuria Stenelmis Acentrella
  10. 10. Cluster AnalysisNearest neighbour S tenacro Habrophl Maccaffe Nyctioph Neophyla Tipula M S tylogom B ezzia M Rasvena A trichop P silotre E phemere A croneur Gomphus S phaerii Hexatoma Helichus Isogenoi Mystacid Calopter Heptagen Molophil Orconect Litobran Nematoda B aetisca Tallaper Isoperla Lepidost P rosimul Ceratopo A meletus Ceratops P rostoia Micrasem Turbella S trophop Dolophil S w eltsa Lanthus Lype MW C P romores A ttenell A gapetus Diplectr Dicranot P ycnopsy P seudoli E peorus Haploper A lloperl P aralept P aragnet Chironom Cambarus E uryloph B oyeria A patania Diploper Corduleg Neoplast Ironoqui Taeniopt Molanna S imulium P olycent Optioser Glossoso Leptophl A cerpenn E ccoptur Hydatoph Rhyacoph Leuctra S yrphida P edicia P latycen Oligocha A mphinem P sephenu P aranemo E ctopria Cheumato Habrophl P tychopt Remenus P hylocen Diphetor E phemera A therix S erratel A ntocha E piphrag Cinygmul Leucrocu B aetis M Hydracar Oulimniu P teronar Culicoid Isonychi Dubiraph Ostracod P arapsyc P eltoper P hantola Hydropor S iphlonu Heteropl Tabanus S oyedina P aracapn P tilosto Hydropti Oligosto A dicroph S tygonec Oemopter S tegopte B rachyce W ormaldi Taenione S tratiom Oreogeto Collembo A llocapn Chelifer Hansonop P erlesta Hemerodr Hyalella Malireku Nigronia P ilaria Ostrocer Chrysops Dytiscid Limonia P lanorbi Dolichop Muscidae B ranchio A gnetina Drunella P odura M A nthopot Rhithrog A nchytar Chimarra S tenelmi Y ugus MW Hydropsy P robezzi S igara M P alaeaga Caecidot S ialis M Ormosia Hygrotus A centrel 240 200 160 120 80 40 0 Taxa bATV Dolichopodidae 10 Dytiscidae 10 Hygrotus 10 Muscidae 10 Ormosia 10 Palaeagapetus 10 Planorbidae 10 Probezzia 10 Sialis 10 Sigara 10 Adicrophleps 9 Allocapnia 9 Chrysops 9 Collembola 9 Hansonoperla 9 Hyalella 9 Nigronia 9 Oemopteryx 9 Oligostomis 9 Oreogeton 9 Ostrocerca 9 Pilaria 9 Stegopterna 9 Stratiomyidae 9 Stygonectes 9 Taenionema 9 Wormaldia 9 Amphinemura 8 Boyeria 8 Brachycentrus 8 Caecidotea 8 Cambarus 8 Chironomidae 8 Hemerodromia 8 Heteroplectron 8 Hydroporus 8 Hydroptila 8 Leuctra 8 Paracapnia 8 Parapsyche 8 Peltoperla 8 Phantolabis 8 Polycentropus 8 Ptilostomis 8 Rhyacophila 8 Siphlonurus 8 Soyedina 8 Tabanus 8 Taeniopteryx 8 Acerpenna 7 Agapetus 7 Apatania 7 Attenella 7 Chelifera 7 Cordulegaster 7 Dicranota 7 Diplectrona 7 Diploperla 7 Dolophilodes 7 Eccoptura 7 Eurylophella 7 Glossosoma 7 Hexatoma 7 Hydatophylax 7 Ironoquia 7 Lepidostoma 7 Leptophlebia 7 Micrasema 7 Molanna 7 Neoplasta 7 Oligochaeta 7 Paranemoura 7 Pedicia 7 Platycentropus 7 Prosimulium 7 Pseudolimnophila 7 Pycnopsyche 7 Simulium 7 Strophopteryx 7 Sweltsa 7 Syrphidae 7 Tallaperla 7 Turbellaria 7 Acroneuria 6 6 Ameletus 6 Baetisca 6 Branchiobdellida 6 Ceratopogon 6 Ceratopsyche 6 Isoperla 6 Lanthus 6 Litobrancha 6 Lype 6 Malirekus 6 Nematoda 6 Optioservus 6 Ostracoda 6 Perlesta 6 Promoresia 6 Prostoia 6 Atrichopogon 5 Bezzia 5 Calopteryx 5 Gomphus 5 Habrophlebia 5 Helichus 5 Heptagenia 5 Isogenoides 5 Limonia 5 Maccaffertium 5 Molophilus 5 Mystacides 5 Neophylax 5 Nyctiophylax 5 Orconectes 5 Paragnetina 5 Psilotreta 5 Rasvena 5 Sphaeriidae 5 Stenacron 5 Stylogomphus 5 Tipula 5 Acentrella 4 Alloperla 4 Antocha 4 Culicoides 4 Epeorus 4 Ephemerella 4 Epiphragma 4 Haploperla 4 Oulimnius 4 Paraleptophlebia 4 Psephenus 4 Pteronarcys 4 Serratella 4 Atherix 3 Baetis 3 Cheumatopsyche 3 Cinygmula 3 Diphetor 3 Dubiraphia 3 Ectopria 3 Ephemera 3 Habrophlebiodes 3 Hydracarina 3 Hydropsyche 3 Isonychia 3 Leucrocuta 3 Phylocentropus 3 Ptychoptera 3 Remenus 3 Agnetina 2 Anchytarsus 2 Anthopotamus 2 Chimarra 2 Drunella 2 Podura 2 Rhithrogena 2 Stenelmis 2 Yugus 2 Caecidotea 8 Cambarus 8 Chironomidae 8 Hemerodromia 8 Heteroplectron 8 Hydroporus 8 Hydroptila 8 Leuctra 8 Paracapnia 8 Parapsyche 8 Peltoperla 8 Phantolabis 8 Polycentropus 8 Ptilostomis 8 Rhyacophila 8 Siphlonurus 8 Soyedina 8 Tabanus 8 Taeniopteryx 8 Acerpenna 7 Agapetus 7 Apatania 7 Attenella 7 Chelifera 7 Cordulegaster 7 Dicranota 7 Diplectrona 7 Diploperla 7 Dolophilodes 7 Eccoptura 7 Eurylophella 7 Acid Tolerance Values [0 to 10]
  11. 11. The results! Can now calculate the ATI score, which is the weighted mean value of all ATV scores in sample. Example: • 100 X Leuctra (ATV = 8) = 800 • 50 X Baetis (ATV = 3) = 150 • 25 X Epeorus (ATV = 4) = 100 • 15 X Hydropsyche (ATV = 3) = 45 • 10 X Isonychia (ATV = 3) = 30 1125/200 = 5.63 average ATV, or the sample’s Acid Tolerance Index (ATI).
  12. 12. On to the IBA! With the ATV and ATI (both empirically indices to measured invertebrate responses to acidification), we can design better metrics and build a multi-metric Index of Biotic Acidification (IBA). By the way, the ATI alone can be used as a measure of acidification, but is not sensitive enough to differentiate between AMD and natural, chronic acidification… and between borderline episodic (at risk) and more neutral streams.
  13. 13. Index of Biotic Acidification (IBA) [βeta v.1] • 7 Metric Scores summed and averaged • 5 are unique, 4 of these require ATV or ATI derived information • Shannon Diversity and Taxa Richness use PA DEP IBI benchmark values • 0-35 ≈ non acidic, 36-70 ≈ episodic, 71-90 ≈ chronic & AMD influenced, <90 ≈ AMD Metric Scores βIBA-----> 45.21
  14. 14. 1 2 ILS ILS ILS
  15. 15. Glade Run Headwaters: Index of Biotic Acidification 1998-2007 Site 03GR is an untreated, AMD- influenced control site above one of the three ILS dosing sites; an upstream ALD went online in 2001, which the IBA seems to have picked up. Site 02FRR (Flat Rock Run) is an untreated chronically acidified control site upstream from 03GR. 1
  16. 16. 1 2 ILS ILS ILS
  17. 17. 2
  18. 18. 14GR 16DC (400m down- stream from 17DC) 2
  19. 19. 0 200 400 600 Y1998 Y1999 Y2000 Y2001 Y2002 Y2003 Y2004 Y2005 Y2006 Y2007 Y2008 Y2009 Y2010 Y2011 Y2012 Y2013 Instream Limestone Sand (MT) 1998-2013 3 year bug sampling & ILS dosing gap 3 year bug sampling & ILS dosing gap 3- and 2- year ILS dosing gap X = no ILS before bugs,  = ILS before | red bar = chronic, orange bar = episodic range Dunbar Creek: Index of Biotic Acidification 1998-2013 Glade Run: Index of Biotic Acidification 1998-20132 a a b b c c
  20. 20. In 2008, I asked this:
  21. 21. Source: National Atmospheric Deposition Program (1978-2012) Since 2008, acidic deposition has dropped dramatically across the Mid-Atlantic, from a mean pH of ~4.6 to ~4.9—a 50% decrease in H+ ion concentration in 5 years. pH 4.6 pH 4.6 pH 4.5 pH 4.5 pH 5.2 pH 4.9 pH 4.9 pH 4.9
  22. 22. US Electricity Generated by Source by 2003-2012 Nat. Gas Nuclear Hydro “Green” Since 2008, coal-fired electricity generation has decreased 468k KW, or 23.6% 0 500,000 1,000,000 1,500,000 2,000,000 2,500,000 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Coal Source: US Energy Information Administration, www.eia.govImage: Wikipedia Commons MW
  23. 23. Questions?

×