Case Study: MumbaiKaty Donald & Thomas MutellUESM 634A – Climate Change and CitiesSpring 2013
Early History   Credit to foundation of     the city goes to Raja     Bhimdeva   Reigned from 1022 AD     to 1064 ADhttp...
European Settlement In 1534, the Portuguese  obtained the islands and  named it Bom Bahia,  meaning “the good bay” The c...
British Control 1672, King Charles II of  England married  Catherine of Bragnaza  and received the city as  part of a dow...
A Booming Commercial City Bombay became the  commercial capital of  India Provided goods in  several markets such as  je...
Reclamation Process and19th Century (Mahim, Worli, Parel, The original seven islands  Mazagaon, Isle of Bombay, Little Co...
Reclamation Process The original        Bombay 1893            Bombay 1924   Mumbai 2009seven islandshttp://en.wikipedia.o...
Geographyhttps://maps.google.com/maps?hl=en&q=mumbai&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_qf.&bvm=bv.41524429,d.dmQ&biw=732&bih=590&um=...
Natural Environment    The city is mostly at sea level    Highest elevation is 1,450 feet    Three lakes within city li...
The City     The largest city in India and the sixth largest city in       the world     Population over 18 million peop...
Built Environment                                                 Huge size – high growth                                ...
Drainage Often blocked by debris Exacerbated flooding India’s financial district is prone to flooding, built  on landfi...
Squatter Communities Half of Mumbai’s population Inadequate access to potable water and sanitation Already frequently f...
Potable Water Capacity Depend on rain-fed lakes Increasing rainfall  variability causes worry World Bank’s Bombay  Wate...
Pollution                                                        Air pollution equal to                                  ...
NMTV India
Climatehttp://www.mumbai.climatemps.com/
Danger!     “Climate change and reckless development are       leaving Mumbai increasingly vulnerable to the       elemen...
Monsoon Season Normally starts in June and ends in September Approximately 98 inches of the annual 106 inches of  precip...
Monsoon Seasonhttp://www.mumbairain.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/story8.jpg
Monsoon Seasonhttp://files.myopera.com/Amiraj/albums/3759942/mumbai_deluge_TPE_20060109.jpg
Vulnerability                                                     Precipitation extremes,                                ...
Government Structure 1882 -Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM)   Education, Public    Health, Art & Culture, ...
Disaster Management Act  2005 To substantially increase public awareness of disaster risk so that the public demands safe...
Climate Change Action Plan                                                           Prepared by the                     ...
Mitigation  de Sherbinin, Alex, Andres Schiller, and Alex Pulsipher. “The Vulnerability of Global Cities to Climate Hazard...
Mitigation  de Sherbinin, Alex, Andres Schiller, and Alex Pulsipher. “The Vulnerability of Global Cities to Climate Hazard...
Mitigationde Sherbinin, Alex, Andres Schiller, and Alex Pulsipher. “The Vulnerability of Globa
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Student case study mumbai, india

  1. 1. Case Study: MumbaiKaty Donald & Thomas MutellUESM 634A – Climate Change and CitiesSpring 2013
  2. 2. Early History  Credit to foundation of the city goes to Raja Bhimdeva  Reigned from 1022 AD to 1064 ADhttp://www.mahim.com/et/epage1.htm
  3. 3. European Settlement In 1534, the Portuguese obtained the islands and named it Bom Bahia, meaning “the good bay” The city became an important trading place for products such as tobacco, onyx, rice, silk, and cotton http://vasai.files.wordpress.com/2007/ 06/madh-fort1.jpghttp://www.bl.uk/learning/histcitizen/trading/bombay/history.html
  4. 4. British Control 1672, King Charles II of England married Catherine of Bragnaza and received the city as part of a dowry He rented the city to the East India Company for 10 pounds of gold a year http://www.indoislamica.com/images/ PR000088.lg.jpg By 1675, the population http://www.bl.uk/learning/histcitizen/t grew from 60,000 from rading/bombay/history.html
  5. 5. A Booming Commercial City Bombay became the commercial capital of India Provided goods in several markets such as jewelry, textiles, cotton, and agriculturehttp://www.bl.uk/learning/histcitizen/tra http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/smitham/ding/bombay/history.html smith300.jpg
  6. 6. Reclamation Process and19th Century (Mahim, Worli, Parel, The original seven islands Mazagaon, Isle of Bombay, Little Colaba, and Colaba) were filled in beginning in the early 1800s 1n 1853, the first Indian railway was created, and went from Bombay to Thana By 1864, there were over 800,000 people living in the cityhttp://www.bl.uk/learning/histcitizen/trading/bombay/history.html
  7. 7. Reclamation Process The original Bombay 1893 Bombay 1924 Mumbai 2009seven islandshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_Islands_of_Bombay
  8. 8. Geographyhttps://maps.google.com/maps?hl=en&q=mumbai&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_qf.&bvm=bv.41524429,d.dmQ&biw=732&bih=590&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&tab=il
  9. 9. Natural Environment  The city is mostly at sea level  Highest elevation is 1,450 feet  Three lakes within city limits: Tulsi Lake, Vihar Lake and Powai Lake. Tulsi and Vihar provide drinking water  Several bays, rivers, creeks, and mangrove swamps  Soil is sandy due to its proximity to the water  City in proximity of three fault lines, and can receive earthquakes up to a 6.5 magnitudehttp://www.mumbainet.com/template1.php?CID=15&SCID=3
  10. 10. The City  The largest city in India and the sixth largest city in the world  Population over 18 million people  City is 233 sq miles http://media-cdn.tripadvisor.com/media/photo- http://www.bobzworldcity.com/wp- s/01/36/90/fb/gate-way-of-india.jpg content/uploads/2011/07/City-of-Mumbai- India.jpghttp://www.census2011.co.in/census/district/357-mumbai-city.html
  11. 11. Built Environment  Huge size – high growth rate (4% per year)  Urban Sprawl  Traffic congestion  Inadequate sanitation  Pollutionhttp://media-cdn.tripadvisor.com/media/photo-s/01/36/90/fb/gate-way-of-india.jpg
  12. 12. Drainage Often blocked by debris Exacerbated flooding India’s financial district is prone to flooding, built on landfill area http://crs-blog.org/wp- content/uploads/2009/02/ind18 01.jpg
  13. 13. Squatter Communities Half of Mumbai’s population Inadequate access to potable water and sanitation Already frequently flooded Past resolution of http://www.myseveralworlds.com/20 09/04/05/slums-around-the-world/ problems: demolish and relocate
  14. 14. Potable Water Capacity Depend on rain-fed lakes Increasing rainfall variability causes worry World Bank’s Bombay Water Supply and Sewage Disposal Projects 1975 to 1995 Brought water supply to 2,460 million liters per http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2010/06/bombay- hand-drawn-water-tank-for.html day; require about 8,000
  15. 15. Pollution  Air pollution equal to smoking  Virtually untreated sewagehttp://wowpics.in/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/10-new-delhi.jpg
  16. 16. NMTV India
  17. 17. Climatehttp://www.mumbai.climatemps.com/
  18. 18. Danger!  “Climate change and reckless development are leaving Mumbai increasingly vulnerable to the elements. A news report on an ongoing climate study places Indias financial capital sixth in a list of 20 port cities worldwide at risk from severe storm-surge flooding, damage from high storm winds and rising seas. By 2070, according to the study, an estimated 11.4 million people and assets worth $1.3 trillion would be at peril in Mumbai due to climatic extremes.”http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-11-12/global-warming/35067898_1_climate-change-mumbai-oecd-study
  19. 19. Monsoon Season Normally starts in June and ends in September Approximately 98 inches of the annual 106 inches of precipitation occurs during this time In July 2005, the city received 37 inches of rain in one 24 hour period and killed more than 1,000 peoplehttp://prattinfographicsworkshop.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/03-de-sherbinin-vulnerability-of-global-cities.pdf
  20. 20. Monsoon Seasonhttp://www.mumbairain.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/story8.jpg
  21. 21. Monsoon Seasonhttp://files.myopera.com/Amiraj/albums/3759942/mumbai_deluge_TPE_20060109.jpg
  22. 22. Vulnerability  Precipitation extremes, more than a flooding issue  Coastal, marine, low- lying issues  Flat topography  Perilous building conditions  Cycloneshttp://www.asiadailywire.com/2012/09/india-vulnerable-to-climate-change-report-says/  Earthquakes
  23. 23. Government Structure 1882 -Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM)  Education, Public Health, Art & Culture, Heritage Conservation, Urban Amenities
  24. 24. Disaster Management Act 2005 To substantially increase public awareness of disaster risk so that the public demands safer communities in which to live and work; and To significantly reduce the risks of loss of life, injuries, economic costs, and destruction of http://www.outlookindia.com/printarticle.aspx? 228280
  25. 25. Climate Change Action Plan  Prepared by the Environmental Department  Approved August 20, 2009  Sustainability science and climate change are still new areas of studyhttp://www.ekalavvya.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/NationalActionClimateChange.jpg
  26. 26. Mitigation de Sherbinin, Alex, Andres Schiller, and Alex Pulsipher. “The Vulnerability of Global Cities to Climate Hazards.” Environ
  27. 27. Mitigation de Sherbinin, Alex, Andres Schiller, and Alex Pulsipher. “The Vulnerability of Global Cities to Climate Hazards.” Enviro
  28. 28. Mitigationde Sherbinin, Alex, Andres Schiller, and Alex Pulsipher. “The Vulnerability of Globa
  29. 29. Similarities to New YorkCity?
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