Perspective  •  Innovation  •  Productivity O NLINE  C ONSULTANTS  I NTERNATIONAL Five Good Reasons to Clone Librarians. R...
1. Introduction Overview 1. Introduction 2. The Problem 3. The Five Reasons 4. The Road to the Five Reasons Questions and ...
<ul><li>Online Consultants International GmbH... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>   is a  knowledge service provider  (KSP) </li></...
1. The market for legal information is large, diverse and dynamic.  SUPPLY DEMAND 2. Critical  knowledge gaps  prevent dev...
LEGIOS  The OC’s Tale: The Corporate Years Online Consultants International GmbH Online Consultants International Ltd. 200...
Our Environment  Our Associations <ul><li>1988 - 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>Founded company </li></ul><ul><li>Used Lexis-Nexis...
The Problem Stated 2. The Problem “ Houston, we have a problem!” – Another fine example of understatement!    The informa...
<ul><li>Consider the following extract from IBM’s 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Manifesto  on  Autonomic Computing : </li></ul><u...
The Problem Explained: U.S. Supply / Demand  2. The Problem Annual placement statistics from the  American Library Associa...
The Problem Explained: U.S. Supply / Demand 2. The Problem This trend is also apparent in the placement statistics from th...
The Problem Explained: U.S. Future Estimates 2. The Problem EMPLOYMENT Librarians held about  167,000 jobs in 2002 . Most ...
The Problem Explained: Example of Local Market 2. The Problem Lawyers in Germany 2005 Law Firms Type of Firm Lawyers Top L...
The Problem Explained: Example of Local Market 2. The Problem Lawyers in Germany 2005 Law Firms Type of Firm Lawyers Top L...
… are trained to deal with information and are not  technologists but can work with IT. … organisations are  flooded  with...
Key Influence 4. The Road to the Five Reasons A HISTORY OF ENGLISH CRIMINAL LAW And its Adminstration  from 1750 BY LEON R...
Revelation Through Individualisation 4. The Road to the Five Reasons David Lewis, Medien-Psychologe und Bestseller-Autor D...
Consider a simple but important view of the firm or organisation. Firm / Organisation Business Processes Productivity and ...
A diverse information “landscape” connects processes and productivity. Business Processes Productivity and Performance Inf...
Business Processes Productivity and Performance Information Landscape 4. The Road to the Five Reasons Revelation Through I...
Business Processes Productivity and Performance 4. The Road to the Five Reasons Revelation Through Individualisation: Floo...
oci offers consultancy services on the digitalisation of business processes. Business Processes Productivity and Performan...
Mother Knows Best The previous section could be succinctly summarised in the following way… 4. The Road to the Five Reason...
4. The Road to the Five Reasons <ul><li>Introduced the  concept of legal cyberspace  and in doing so provided background f...
4. The Road to the Five Reasons Mother Knows Best: Legal Cyberspace (1994) Legal Cyberspace  Presentation at the 9th BILET...
4. The Road to the Five Reasons Mother Knows Best: Legal Cyberspace (1994) Legal Cyberspace  Presentation at the 9th BILET...
4. The Road to the Five Reasons Mother Knows Best: Legal Cyberspace (1994) Legal Cyberspace  Presentation at the 9th BILET...
4. The Road to the Five Reasons ESSAY:   LEGAL CYBERSPACE – SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE SECTION:   Invisible Applications, b. Theo...
4. The Road to the Five Reasons ESSAY:   LEGAL CYBERSPACE – SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE SECTION:   Invisible Applications, b. Theo...
4. The Road to the Five Reasons <ul><li>Daughter of the radical political “scientist”  William Godwin  and the feminist wr...
4. The Road to the Five Reasons <ul><li>Daughter of  Lady Annabella Byron  who was educated in mathematics and poetry and ...
4. The Road to the Five Reasons <ul><li>Mathematics graduate  who worked under algebraist Oystein Ore in Yale in the 1930’...
The Problem in a nutshell:    The information environment for all levels of organisation, from big businesses  right down...
5. Cloning Librarians: Science Fiction or Fact? Effecting Change Through Environments The second choice...
5. Cloning Librarians: Science Fiction or Fact? Example: SOLON  Buch-Service 5. Ihre Bibliotheksdaten Ihre Bibliotheksdate...
Thank you for your interest. For further information please contact: Michael Fanning Geschäftsführer Online Consultants In...
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Five Reasons To Clone Librarians

  1. 1. Perspective • Innovation • Productivity O NLINE C ONSULTANTS I NTERNATIONAL Five Good Reasons to Clone Librarians. Reflections and Musings of an Online Information Specialist. Michael Fanning Geschäftsführer Online Consultants International GmbH Karlsruhe Tel: +49-721-92 12-909 [email_address]
  2. 2. 1. Introduction Overview 1. Introduction 2. The Problem 3. The Five Reasons 4. The Road to the Five Reasons Questions and Discussion 5. Cloning librarians – Science Fiction or Fact? PRESENTATION CONTENTS TIME ALLOCATION 90 Minutes Information Flood Diversity of Information Systems Holistic Information Architecture Information Management and Business Success Knowledge Management and “Soft Skills” Presentation Overview The Online Consultant’s Tale The Problem Stated The Problem Explained Revelation Through Individualisation Mother Knows Best Effecting Change through Environments Replication of the Librarians Knowledge
  3. 3. <ul><li>Online Consultants International GmbH... </li></ul><ul><ul><li> is a knowledge service provider (KSP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> to the legal and business information markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> focuses on legal and business information management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> was founded in Germany in 2003 and in the UK in 1988 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> grew out of academic research in comparative law and linguistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> trades mostly in the Germany and the United Kingdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> comprises two divisions, namely, </li></ul></ul>oci Information and Knowledge Services oci Research and Development The OC’s Tale: oci at a glance! 1. Introduction
  4. 4. 1. The market for legal information is large, diverse and dynamic. SUPPLY DEMAND 2. Critical knowledge gaps prevent development and growth. 3. Online Consultants International  by occupying the middle ground  with its unique perspective on the market  provides critical information as a knowledge service provider (KSP) oci Business Development Services Strategic Operational <ul><li>Knowledge keys: </li></ul><ul><li>Market analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Competitor analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Value proposition analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Product concept specification </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation „Road Maps“ </li></ul><ul><li>For: </li></ul><ul><li>Senior management </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate strategists </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge keys: </li></ul><ul><li>Market analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Market segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Competitor analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Sales support </li></ul><ul><li>Language services </li></ul><ul><li>For: </li></ul><ul><li>Sales and marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Customer services </li></ul>The OC’s Tale: Market position of oci 4. Well placed „knowledge keys“ facilitate innovation and growth. 1. Introduction
  5. 5. LEGIOS The OC’s Tale: The Corporate Years Online Consultants International GmbH Online Consultants International Ltd. 2005 1988 Reed Elsevier Legal Division Lexis-Nexis Europe <ul><li>Head of Sales </li></ul><ul><li>Identification, acquisition and client relationship management of Key Accounts. </li></ul><ul><li>Management of distribution partners. </li></ul><ul><li>Special responsibility for the relationship with the book trade. </li></ul>2002 - 2003 <ul><li>Director of European Development </li></ul><ul><li>Project leader for Reed Elsevier during the Juris privatisation. </li></ul><ul><li>Principal advisor to the LexisNexis Group with respect t othe German </li></ul><ul><li>technical platform. </li></ul>2000 - 2002 1997 - 2000 <ul><li>Director of Legal Information Services </li></ul><ul><li>Led project to implement and launch Lexis-Nexis (LN) Professional (Ausgabe 3). </li></ul><ul><li>Led project to implement and launch the first LNE Website. </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced Lexis-Nexis services to RELD business units in Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Developed the first German language LNE product, German Company Quick Check. </li></ul>1. Introduction
  6. 6. Our Environment Our Associations <ul><li>1988 - 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>Founded company </li></ul><ul><li>Used Lexis-Nexis, CELEX and POLIS extensively for own research </li></ul><ul><li>Built up Language Services </li></ul>oci History Term <ul><li>1989 - 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Co-produced Justis Celex CD-ROM with the UK-based Context Ltd. </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution agreements with EUR-OP, EPMS bv for EU information products </li></ul><ul><li>MF published „Legal Cyberspace“ (1994) </li></ul><ul><li>1995 - 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>WWW arrived, Internet becomes popular </li></ul><ul><li>Developed Training and Sales Support services for legal information providers such as Lexis-Nexis and Juris in Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Developed Market Analysis services </li></ul><ul><li>1997 - 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Language Services sustain company </li></ul><ul><li>MF looks at life on the „other side“ at: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lexis-Nexis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reed Elsevier Legal Division </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LexisNexis Group Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LEGIOS GmbH </li></ul></ul>LITERAL MEANING ABSTRACT MEANING <ul><li>Proprietary data-networks, information systems, retrieval languages etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Boolean Operators </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of database GUIs </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of context-sensitive help into user-interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Stand-alone information systems </li></ul><ul><li>Ubiquitous networks </li></ul><ul><li>Information access becomes document-centric rather than database-centric </li></ul><ul><li>Networked information systems </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of GUIs and remote database systems </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of the insufferably impatient „Generation G“ i.e. Google generation! </li></ul>„ Online “ referred to the actual business of obtaining access to a database in a remote location. „ Online “ referred more to the user experience with the information system at the level of the user-interface and thus became a pragmatic way of explaining why a firm with „Online“ in its name was actively espousing CD-ROMs, notionally „offline“ products. „ Online “ referred increasingly to a deeper, more complete user experience with the information system. Where for example, the interrogation of a database was more document-centric, the successful search relied more on the user‘s knowledge of their subject than on an ability to navigate a specific interface. „ Online “ now refers to a more abstract relationship between humans and the machine. Users expect the machine to solve problems and to do so with only a minimal input from the human operator. Machines are expected to be intelligent or at least to demonstrate intelligence. The OC’s Tale: “Online” – A term in transition 1. Introduction
  7. 7. The Problem Stated 2. The Problem “ Houston, we have a problem!” – Another fine example of understatement!  The information environment for all levels of organisation, from big businesses right down to family units, is becoming increasingly complex.  The complexity is increasing faster than organisations have the ability to deal with it.  Librarians as trained information professionals are best qualified to deal with the complexity of information in organisations.  However, there is not enough of them to go around, i.e. compared to the potential exponential growth in the need for library like services.
  8. 8. <ul><li>Consider the following extract from IBM’s 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Manifesto on Autonomic Computing : </li></ul><ul><li>Problem: </li></ul><ul><li>Our IT infrastructure is becoming increasingly more complex . </li></ul><ul><li>The complexity threatens to undermine the benefits IT aims to provide. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently there are not enough IT workers to support today’s IT infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to the exponential rate of growth of IT infrastructure complexity there will not be enough IT workers in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: </li></ul><ul><li>The design of IT systems has to fundamentally change. </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal: </li></ul><ul><li>Model IT systems on the human autonomic system , that is develop IT systems with a greater degree of self-diagnosis and self-healing . </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomic computing </li></ul>The IT Sector has a similar problem… The Problem Explained: Sector Comparison 2. The Problem
  9. 9. The Problem Explained: U.S. Supply / Demand 2. The Problem Annual placement statistics from the American Library Association indicate a decline in the number of librarians seeking jobs in the last 10 years…
  10. 10. The Problem Explained: U.S. Supply / Demand 2. The Problem This trend is also apparent in the placement statistics from the American Library Association for their Midwinter meetings…
  11. 11. The Problem Explained: U.S. Future Estimates 2. The Problem EMPLOYMENT Librarians held about 167,000 jobs in 2002 . Most worked in school and academic libraries, but nearly a third worked in public libraries. The remainder worked in special libraries or as information professionals for companies and other organizations. JOB OUTLOOK Employment of librarians is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations over the 2002–12 period. However, job opportunities are expected to be very good because a large number of librarians are expected to retire in the coming decade, creating many job openings. Also, the number of people going into this profession has fallen in recent years , resulting in more jobs than applicants in some cases. Colleges and universities report the greatest difficulty in hiring librarians, because the pay is often less than the prospective employees can get elsewhere. Jobs for librarians outside traditional settings will grow the fastest over the decade. Nontraditional librarian jobs include working as information brokers and working for private corporations , nonprofit organizations , and consulting firms . Many companies are turning to librarians because of their research and organizational skills and their knowledge of computer databases and library automation systems. Librarians can review vast amounts of information and analyze, evaluate, and organize it according to a company’s specific needs . Librarians also are hired by organizations to set up information on the Internet. Librarians working in these settings may be classified as systems analysts , database specialists and trainers , webmasters or web developers , or local area network (LAN) coordinators . Nevertheless, the U.S. Department of Labor remains optimistic about jobs for Librarians and clearly notes the potential for jobs outside traditional settings. Consider the following… Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Handbook.
  12. 12. The Problem Explained: Example of Local Market 2. The Problem Lawyers in Germany 2005 Law Firms Type of Firm Lawyers Top Law Firms 117- 546 Lawyers Large Law Firms 30 - 100 Lawyers Small Law Firms 2 - 4 Lawyers ca. 4.361 ca. 2.500 ca. 35.000 77.639 135.000 Single Lawyer Law Firms of which Legal Departments Total: 20 ca. 50 ca. 15.300 ca. 77.639 10 . 000 Juve-Handbuch 2004/2005 and DAV Statistics, Numbers are partly estimates © Dr. Benno Heussen Middle sized Law Firms 4 - 30 Lawyers ca. 2300 ca. 18.000
  13. 13. The Problem Explained: Example of Local Market 2. The Problem Lawyers in Germany 2005 Law Firms Type of Firm Lawyers Top Law Firms 117- 546 Lawyers Large Law Firms 30 - 100 Lawyers Small Law Firms 2 - 4 Lawyers ca. 4.361 ca. 2.500 ca. 35.000 77.639 135.000 Single Lawyer Law Firms of which Legal Departments Total: 20 ca. 50 ca. 15.300 ca. 77.639 10 . 000 Juve-Handbuch 2004/2005 and DAV Statistics, Numbers are partly estimates © Dr. Benno Heussen Middle sized Law Firms 4 - 30 Lawyers ca. 2300 ca. 18.000 Law Librarians YES YES HARDLY NO NO
  14. 14. … are trained to deal with information and are not technologists but can work with IT. … organisations are flooded with information and pressured by information related technologies… FLOOD 1. DIVERSITY EUROS MOTHER WHOLE 2. 3. 4. 5. … organisations are under pressure to see their whole organisation in information terms… … organisations are under increasing pressure to link information management to business success measured in financial terms … … organisations need to cultivate a more maternal approach to information and in particular knowledge management… … organisations are under increasing pressure to integrate diverse and disparate information systems… „ Donkey bridge“ … because… … and librarians… 3. The Five Reasons Organisations will be in dire need of librarians…….. … are used to operating across all parts of the organisation. … by working across all parts of the organisation have a birds eye view and are least likely to cultivate thinking in silos. … as information specialists can embrace business thinking and skills more readily than a business person can embrace information thinking. … for the most part are women, to whom a maternal mind set comes more easily!
  15. 15. Key Influence 4. The Road to the Five Reasons A HISTORY OF ENGLISH CRIMINAL LAW And its Adminstration from 1750 BY LEON RADZINOWICZ M.A. (CANTAB), LL.D. (CRACOW), (LL.D. (ROME) VOLUME 1 THE MOVEMENT FOR REFORM LONDON STEVENS & SONS LIMITED 1948 A key influence on the way oci subsequently developed was Sir Leon Radzinowicz‘s marvelous book on English criminal law, obtained from the UB, Frankfurt am Main in 1989. The book underlined the value of perspective and the revealling powers of individualisation.
  16. 16. Revelation Through Individualisation 4. The Road to the Five Reasons David Lewis, Medien-Psychologe und Bestseller-Autor Der Spiegel vom 10.11.2003, 46 / 2003, Seite 191. ” Information ist die einzige Ressource, deren Umfang immer weiter zunimmt. Allein im vergangenen Jahr wurden pro Erdenbürger etwa 800 Megabyte an Daten erzeugt – das entspricht 800 voll geschriebenen Büchern. Ein Großteil der neuen Daten ist redundant. Die Menschen verbringen deshalb inzwischen zu viel Zeit damit, wichtige Informationen von überflüssigen zu trennen.“
  17. 17. Consider a simple but important view of the firm or organisation. Firm / Organisation Business Processes Productivity and Performance expand expand 4. The Road to the Five Reasons Revelation Through Individualisation: Flood?
  18. 18. A diverse information “landscape” connects processes and productivity. Business Processes Productivity and Performance Information Landscape 4. The Road to the Five Reasons Revelation Through Individualisation: Flood?
  19. 19. Business Processes Productivity and Performance Information Landscape 4. The Road to the Five Reasons Revelation Through Individualisation: Flood? Digitalisation is rolling over the landscape like a tidal wave… D I G I T A L I S A T I O N
  20. 20. Business Processes Productivity and Performance 4. The Road to the Five Reasons Revelation Through Individualisation: Flood? D I G I T A L I S A T I O N … with consequences that vary from the “simple” to the complex. Information Landscape <ul><li>Sales & Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Book distribution e.g. Amazon </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost airlines e.g. Ryanair </li></ul><ul><li>Product Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Online newspapers e.g. FT.com </li></ul><ul><li>Online books e.g. Juris PK </li></ul><ul><li>Product Concept & </li></ul><ul><li>Product Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Legal services e.g. Blue Flag </li></ul><ul><li>Banking e.g. HSBC Customer Services </li></ul>“ Simple” Complex
  21. 21. oci offers consultancy services on the digitalisation of business processes. Business Processes Productivity and Performance D I G I T A L I S A T I O N “ Simple” Complex Sales & Distribution Product Structure Product Concept Product Environment O NLINE C ONSULTANTS I NTERNATIONAL 4. The Road to the Five Reasons Revelation Through Individualisation: Flood?
  22. 22. Mother Knows Best The previous section could be succinctly summarised in the following way… 4. The Road to the Five Reasons INFORMATION It’s alive! It’s escaped ! These two lines have also been used as the shortest story synopsis for this Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein . The link here started at the UN in Vienna .
  23. 23. 4. The Road to the Five Reasons <ul><li>Introduced the concept of legal cyberspace and in doing so provided background for the workshops entitled “Navigating Legal Cyberspace.” </li></ul><ul><li>The problem area concerned legal cooperation in Europe to combat terrorism . </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal justice systems remain the preserve of national governments . </li></ul><ul><li>The scope for constructive cooperation in the near future lies in the exchange of information . </li></ul><ul><li>The essay described the issues and problems that arise when researching legal materials in Europe . </li></ul>Mother Knows Best: Legal Cyberspace (1994) Legal Cyberspace Presentation at the 9th BILETA Conference at the University of Warwick in 1994.
  24. 24. 4. The Road to the Five Reasons Mother Knows Best: Legal Cyberspace (1994) Legal Cyberspace Presentation at the 9th BILETA Conference at the University of Warwick in 1994. <ul><li>The research task involved finding legislation case law and legal commentary in various forms on national anti-terrorist law. </li></ul><ul><li>Each of the jurisdictions involved maintained a electronic database of 1. and 2. legal material. </li></ul><ul><li>The databases used different technical systems and indexing and retrieval software. </li></ul><ul><li>The databases varied too in their technical orientation . The common law database LEXIS emphasised full-text retrieval whereas Juris disposed over powerful means for searching in indexes (referred to as REGISTERS) </li></ul><ul><li>The databases also varied in their content coverage and scope . </li></ul>
  25. 25. 4. The Road to the Five Reasons Mother Knows Best: Legal Cyberspace (1994) Legal Cyberspace Presentation at the 9th BILETA Conference at the University of Warwick in 1994. <ul><li>The current implementation of the electronic information systems tends to preserve the legal material in a linguistic, legal and technical silos . </li></ul><ul><li>Yet the information and knowledge within the law itself is interlinked and can be compared once it has been correctly mapped and transcribed . </li></ul><ul><li>The recommended solution was to build knowledge base systems around the data depositories to assist the researcher in terms of, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>administration. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. 4. The Road to the Five Reasons Mother Knows Best: Legal Cyberspace (1994) Legal Cyberspace Presentation at the 9th BILETA Conference at the University of Warwick in 1994. <ul><li>A true legal cyberspace research environment has been achieved when the technology implementing the systems is largely invisible to the user . </li></ul><ul><li>The user should be able to interact with the information system at a higher knowledge level . </li></ul><ul><li>COMPARING NOW AND THEN: </li></ul><ul><li>Note, this view of enhancing information systems with modest, simple but interlinked KBS was at variance with the then trend towards expert systems . </li></ul><ul><li>Today, situation has improved marginally in that courtesy of the WWW the electronic research environment has gone from being data-centric to document-centric. </li></ul><ul><li>However, current systems still lack depth in terms of knowledge . </li></ul>
  27. 27. 4. The Road to the Five Reasons ESSAY: LEGAL CYBERSPACE – SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE SECTION: Invisible Applications, b. Theoretical Reasons „ 1. Systems should have a childhood Expert system development which has tended to dominate the discussion of knowledge-based system in law, starts with a specific knowledge domain, namely that of the expert. Legal cyberspace architecture also uses expert systems but sees them mainly as part of an interlinked network of knowledge. The perspective used in the legal cyberspace architecture has been well described by (Smith 1989) who remarked that we should treat computers like children. He used the example of HAL, the meglomanic computer in Stanley Kubrick's film 2001. The space station's sole human survivor eventually switches off HAL who subsequently regresses to a stage where the once omniscient computer is only able to recite verses of Daisy, Daisy. Posing the question &quot;why would a computer assigned the task of running a space station ever need to know a silly, simple song&quot; and &quot;why, for that matter, do children need to know nursery rhymes ?&quot;, Smith concludes, The performance of an adult or child is based upon that of the individual as a whole rather than on the items of knowledge that individual possesses. Similarly the usefulness of legal cyberspace should be judged upon the performance of the system as a whole and not on its individual knowledge-bases. Also, an integrated knowledge-bases systems approach increases the plasticity of the system. It is important that a knowledge base knows the limits of its own knowledge, that it may refer to alternatives. To quote Samual Johnson, &quot;knowledge is of two kinds, we know a subject ourselves or we know where we can find information upon it&quot;.“ &quot;The answer is that knowledge has to be extensively interlinked for us to function as well as we do, and that the human brain is built the way it is in order to cope with the vast amount of knowledge which we accumulate. Each of the hundred billion neurons in the brain is connected to up to a thousand others. This means that items of knowledge are interdependent and that newly acquired knowledge is integrated with existing knowledge so that learning becomes a process of learning that which you almost know. This, in turn, means that the knowledge an adult possesses is to an extent dependent upon and integrated with the knowledge acquired during childhood.&quot; Mother Knows Best: An Information Childhood
  28. 28. 4. The Road to the Five Reasons ESSAY: LEGAL CYBERSPACE – SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE SECTION: Invisible Applications, b. Theoretical Reasons „ 2. The Frankenstein Syndrome A serious conceptual restraint to building computer systems is what may be referred to as the Frankenstein syndrome. This describes the general tendency to build computer applications in our own image. I have already fallen foul of the Frankenstein syndrome by referring to a systems childhood, in the previous section. A good example of what is meant is provided by expert systems. These are essentially computer applications which mimic human performance, namely that of an expert. True, they may be used under conditions hostile or difficult for their human equivalent. Or alternatively they may enable a specific expertise to be distributed to a wider audience. Nevertheless, they always exist in the shadow of the human expert. The general point here is that some information processing tasks, for example information storage and retrieval, are better suited to machines than they are to humans. Whereas other tasks, in particular pattern recognition, are far more efficiently carried out by humans. For system developers the question is one of approach. Should the system reproduce human skills or enhance them. If the latter is the case, system developers need to be able to appreciate knowledge processing skills that are non-human. Legal cyberspace seeks to enhance human performance by combining and exploiting both human and machine information processing abilities. The aim after all is to remove &quot;low-level barriers to high-level thinking (10).&quot; Some have described the approach as &quot;intellectual amplification&quot;. For more on this approach see (Brooks, Jr. 1977).“ Mother Knows Best: Beware Instant Knowledge!
  29. 29. 4. The Road to the Five Reasons <ul><li>Daughter of the radical political “scientist” William Godwin and the feminist writer Mary Wollestonecroft. </li></ul><ul><li>Elopes to the Continent in 1813 with Percy Bysshe Shelley , accompanied by her stepsister Claire Clairmont . </li></ul><ul><li>Marries Percy Bysshe Shelley the political activist and Romantic writer and poet in 1816. </li></ul><ul><li>Starts her most famous novel Frankensten: The Modern Prometheus while staying with the family friend Lord Byron , at the Villa Diodati on the banks of Lake Geneva in Switzerland. </li></ul><ul><li>Frankenstein is published anonymously in 1818. </li></ul><ul><li>An author of other novels, travel histories and biographies Mary Shelley was more famous in her own lifetime than her husband whose work she nevertheless protected, preserved and promoted for future generations. </li></ul>Mary Shelley August 30th, 1797 – February 1st, 1851 Mother Knows Best: Perspective Champions
  30. 30. 4. The Road to the Five Reasons <ul><li>Daughter of Lady Annabella Byron who was educated in mathematics and poetry and Lord Byron , the Romantic poet and later political activist. </li></ul><ul><li>Studied mathematics under Mary Somerville who translated LaPlace’s works into English. </li></ul><ul><li>Met Charles Babbage in 1834 and worked with him on his Analytical Engine . </li></ul><ul><li>In her copious notes to Menabrae’s article on Babbage’s work predicted in 1843 that such a machine might be used to compose complex music, produce graphics and would be used for both practical and scientific use. </li></ul><ul><li>Is credited with being the first computer programmer. </li></ul><ul><li>Advocated the approach of “poetical science” </li></ul><ul><li>Had a computer language named after her by the U.S Department of Defence in 1980. </li></ul>Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace December 10th, 1815 - November 27th, 1852 Mother Knows Best: Perspective Champions
  31. 31. 4. The Road to the Five Reasons <ul><li>Mathematics graduate who worked under algebraist Oystein Ore in Yale in the 1930’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Life time service as reservist in the U.S Navy. </li></ul><ul><li>Invented the computer compiler , the intermediate program that translates English language instructions into the language of the target computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Invented COBOL which opened computing for business related applications instead of being confined to scientific and mathematical functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Her work embodied or foreshadowed enormous numbers of developments that are now the bones of digital computing : subroutines, formula translation, relative addressing, the linking loader, code optimization, and even symbolic manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered the very first “computer bug” which has been preserved in her log book and is now on display in the Smithsonian Museum in Washington D.C, USA. </li></ul>Admiral Grace Murray Hopper December 9th, 1906 – January 1st, 1992 Mother Knows Best: Perspective Champions
  32. 32. The Problem in a nutshell:  The information environment for all levels of organisation, from big businesses right down to family units, is becoming increasingly complex.  The complexity is increasing faster than organisations have the ability to deal with it.  Librarians as trained information professionals are best qualified to deal with the complexity of information in organisations.  However, there is not enough of them to go around, i.e. compared to the potential exponential growth in the need for library like services. WHAT CAN WE DO? 5. Cloning Librarians: Science Fiction or Fact? Quick Review
  33. 33. 5. Cloning Librarians: Science Fiction or Fact? Effecting Change Through Environments The second choice...
  34. 34. 5. Cloning Librarians: Science Fiction or Fact? Example: SOLON Buch-Service 5. Ihre Bibliotheksdaten Ihre Bibliotheksdatenbank beinhaltet die Titeldaten Ihres juristischen Literaturbestandes. Dabei spielt es keine Rolle, ob sich Ihre Bibliothek in einer Einzelkanzlei, einer überörtlichen Sozietät, einem Gericht, einer Staatsanwaltschaft oder einem Verbund solcher Einrichtungen befindet. Sie erfahren von mein-bibliothekar.de bei jeder Titelrecherche, ob und in welcher Auflage Sie einen gefundenen Titel besitzen. Sie sehen sofort, wo sich ein Buch befindet und wer es eventuell ausgeliehen hat. Auf einen Blick haben Sie alle wesentlichen Statusinformationen nebst einer Bewertung der Aktualität des Titels. Statusinformationen geben Auskunft darüber, ob das Buch bestellt oder schon vorhanden, ob es verfügbar oder ausgeliehen ist und wo es steht. Jedes neuerworbene Buch wird von uns in Ihre Bibliotheksdatenbank eingearbeitet. Beispiel:   1. In 93% der von mein-bibliothekar.de gepflegten Bibliotheken kommt dieser Titel vor. 2. Dieser Titel ist in das Sachgebiet 05.02.00 ... eingeordnet. Ein Titel kann mehreren Sachgebieten zugeordnet sein. 3. Dieser Titel ist in Ihrer Bibliothek 2mal vorhanden. 4. Alle Ihre Exemplare sind alte Auflagen. 5. Ein Exemplar steht an seinem Standort. Ein Exemplar ist verliehen (n.v. = nicht verfügbar). 6. Drei Exemplare wurden von Mitarbeitern Ihres Hauses zur Bestellung beim Bibliotheksverantwortlichen angefordert. Source: http://www.mein-bibliothekar.de/solon/Uebersicht/IhreBibliotheksdaten.html Consider the following product from the Berlin based book seller, SOLON Buch-Service GmbH mein-bibliothekar.de Die Bibliotheksverwaltung für Juristen An example of, „ poetical science“
  35. 35. Thank you for your interest. For further information please contact: Michael Fanning Geschäftsführer Online Consultants International GmbH Unterreut 6 76135 Karlsruhe Tel: +49-721-92 12-909 [email_address] Questions and Discussion The End of the Beginning

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