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Chapter 4 Summary

Chapter 4 Summary






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    Chapter 4 Summary Chapter 4 Summary Presentation Transcript

    • CHAPTER 4
    • Work-What is Work?-How to Calculate Work?-How to Calculate work in a gas?
    • ‘ Work is done when A forces moves to In Physics point at which it acts in the direction ofNO! Work is not going to the office… the forces. ‘Work Done = Force X Distance moved by force in the direction of the force (Joules) (Newton) (Metre)
    • Examples 50 N 30 N 10M Work done= 50N-20N X 10 20NX10 200 Joules toward the right. 30 degree 10m So =40xcos30 X 10MTo count the work done in an object, (Force) (Direction)the force must be in the same direction in the direction they move.
    • WORK DONE IN AN EXPANDING GAS Work Done By The Gas = Force X Distance Moved (Joule) Newton (N) Metre (m)Work Done On The Gas = Pressure X Change in Volume (Joule) Pascal (Pa) Metre cube (m^3)When the “gas expands”,work is done by gas. (Distance is moved)If the gas “Contracts” ,then work is done on the gas.(Volume increase or decrease)
    • -What is Energy? -What is Potential Energy?The ability to do work. -What is Kinetic Energy?ENERGY
    • What Is Energy?-Energy is the ability to do work.-Energy cannot be destroyed,nor created.-Energy can only change form.-Every move that we’re doing are consisted of Energy.-Energy have the SI of Joule.
    • Potential Energy 3KG Potential energy is the ability of an object to do work as a result of its position or shape. 10m Potential Energy= Mass X Gravity X Height (Joule) Kilograms (Kg) 9.8 m/s^2 Metre (m)So:EP= 3 X 9.8 X 10EP= 294 Joules
    • Kinetic Energy Kinetic Energy is the energy due to motion.30 KgVelocity= 10 m/s Kinetic Energy= ½ X Mass x Velocity^2 Joules Kg (m/s)^2 1/2MV^2 So: Ek= 1/2Mv^2 ½ X 20 X 10^2 1000 Joules
    • Energy Conversion and Conservation
    • Type Of Energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can only be converted from one form to another. Energy ExplanationHere are a few example of the type of Potential Energy Energy Due to positionenergy that they can be converted into: Kinetic Energy Energy due to motion Elastic or Strain Energy due to stretching an object Energy Electrical Energy Energy associated with moving electric energy Sound Energy A mixture of potential and kinetic energy Wind Energy A particular type of kinetic energy Light Energy Energy released during chemical reaction Solar Energy Light energy from the sun
    • EfficiencyWhat Is Efficiency ?Efficiency gives a measure of how muchof the total energy may be used and is not lost Energy Efficiency Formula? Efficiency = Useful Work Done/Total Energy Input X 100
    • The Deformation Of Solid -Hooke’s Law -Strain Energy -Stress Energy -Young Modulus
    • Hooke’s LawWhat is Hooke’s law?Hooke’s law states that, provided the elastic limit is not exceeded,the extension of a body is proportional to the applied load. Force =K.Extension (Newton) (Metre) Where K is constant . It is known as elastic constant or spring constant. Force is directly proportional to Extension
    • Strain EnergyStrain Energy is energy storedin a body due to change of shape. Formula Straign Energy W = ½ K.Extension^2 Metre Joules
    • The Young Modulus What is The Young Modulus? It is a constant of a particular material which enable us to find extensions knowing the constant and the dimension of a specimen. StressYoung Modulus = -------------------------------- Strain Stress = Force/Area Normal to the force Strain = Extension/Original Length If there is a tie,the area of the circle in the tie is the diameter. Because it is a normal to the force
    • The behaviour of different material under tensile stress. Brittle Material Ductile MaterialA brittle material will snap when exceeding A ductile material will expand and fracturedthe ultimate tensile stress.EX:GlassFibre. when exceeding the ultimate tensile stress.EX:Metals
    • The behaviour of different material under tensile stress.ENERGY
    • Thermal/Heat Energy
    • Specific Heat CapacityWhat is a specific heat capacity? It is the constant to produce an energy with a certain mass and changes in Temperature. Formula Q = Mass X C X Changes in temperature
    • Thermal (Heat) Capacity What is a Thermal (heat) capacity? It is the quantity of the heat energy required to raise the temperature of the whole body by one degree.FormulaQ = C X Changes in temperature
    • Specific Latent Heat What is a specific Latent Heat? It is the heat energy required to convert unit mass of solid to liquid without any change in temperature. FormulaQ = Mass X Latent heat of Fusion/VaporisationLatent heat of Fusion (Lf) = when Ice turns into water or water turns into IceLatent heat ofVaporisation(Lv) = when water turns into gas or gas turns into water.
    • POWER
    • What is Power? Power is the rate of doing work. Power have the SI of Watt/Second. Usually Your bills in the mail,consisted of KW/H instead of W/s .Formula Power= Work done/Time Taken Power=Force X Speed
    • Moment Of Force
    • Moment Of ForceWhat Is Moment Of Force? ThethaIt is the turning effect of a Force. ------------------------------------------ Moment Of Force = Force x distance Nm N m
    • Couples What is a Couple? A couple consist of two forces , equal in magnitude F but opposite in direction whose lines of action do not coincide. r r Moment of Force = F x 2rF
    • The Principle of Moments It is stated that ,for a body to be in rational equilibrium, the sum of the clockwise moments about any point must equal the sum of the anticlockwise moments about the same point. 30 m 10 m 20 m 0.1 N (10 x 0.1)=(20x0.1) + 30f 0.1 N FSum of the clockwise moments= (10 x 0.1) 1=2+30fSum of the anti clockwise = (20 x 0.1) + 30F Moments= 1-2 // -30 = - 29.
    • Equilibrium: What the center of Gravity? The center of gravity of an object is the point at which the whole weight of the object may be considered to act.For a body to be equilibrium:-The sum of the forces in any direction must be zero.- The sum of the moments of the forces about any point must be zero.
    • Thank You