Source N.1 1st. What is the third estate? Everything.2nd. What has it been heretofore in the political order? Nothing. 3rd. What does it demand? To become something therein. Abb?Sieyès, What is the Third Estate? (1789)
98% of the French population was part of thethird state. However they did not owned anykind of relevant political participation: theydid not have a voice, and this was entirelyunfair as they were a significant majority inthe society. I think it is reliable and usefull aswell because it was taken from a publishedbook that explained what the third estatewas.
Source N.2 18th century philosophy taught the Frenchman to find hiscondition wretched, unjust and illogical and made himdisinclined to the patient resignation to his troubles that hadlong characterized his ancestors . . . . The propaganda ofthe philosophes perhaps more than any other factoraccounted for the fulfillment of the preliminary condition ofthe French Revolution, namely discontent with the existingstate of things. (Henri Peyre, "The Influence of EighteenthCentury Ideas on the French Revolution," Journal of theHistory of Ideasvol. 10, No. 1 (January 1949).
This source is about, French in the 18th century and the people how realized they did not want to live like their ancestors had: under and unfair conditions. They all lived in poverty and had to pay really high to the aristocracy, the king, the church and the lords. The propaganda was one of the philosophers main factors, that prepared them to the French revolution, which means the general discontent with the existence state of mind.
Source N.3Those Europeans who dreamed about the dawn of a New Jerusalemwere fascinated by the American political experiment. The thirteencolonies began with a defensive revolution against tyrannicaloppression and they were victorious. The Americans showed howrational men could assemble together to exercise control over theirown lives by choosing their own form of government, a governmentsanctified by the force of a written constitution. With this inmind, liberty, equality, private property and representativegovernment began to make more sense to European observers. Ifanything, the American Revolution gave proof to that greatEnlightenment idea - the idea that a better world was possible if itwas created by men using Reason. As R. R. Palmer put it in 1959(The Age of Democratic Revolution: The Challenge)
This source is about, how the American revolution and the Enlightenment influenced in the French revolution. Both gave the idea of freedom and that God was not the explanation for everything. The Americans showed that a man could thought, and that it had rights to choose their own goverment, with written laws. After this the Europeans started to questioned the power of the King. They started to use Reason.This source was written by an American historian, this could mean that the source is not reliable because the writer could be in favour of his country, but this book was awarded and was his best work, so I believe is reliable and we can trust it. I think is useful because is one of the causes of the
Source N.4 Alas, much more lies sick than poor Louis: not the French King only, but the French Kingship; this too, after long rough tear and wear, is breaking down. The world is all so changed; so much that seemed vigorous has sunk decrepit, so much that was not is beginning to be!- -Borne over the Atlantic, to the closing ear of Louis, King by the Grace of God, what sounds are these; muffled ominous, new in our centuries? Boston Harbour is black with unexpected Tea: behold a Pennsylvanian Congress gather; and ere long, on Bunker Hill, DEMOCRACY announcing, in rifle-volleys death-winged, under her Star Banner, to the tune of Yankee-doodle-doo, that she is born, and, whirlwind-like, will envelope the whole world!Thomas Carlyle, The French Revolution (1837) s
I think this source it is not reliable because it was contemporary to the French Revolution. Thomas Carlyle, the person who wrote it could not analise it in hindsight. The source makes reference to the end of the absolutism, the power in excess of the monarchs, and the beginnig of a new form of organisation called Democracy. The fact that every person in the country including the poorest peasants could have a voice and an active participation in their country was totally new. The sources describe this different new world which nobody was used to it, yet.
By: Micaela Cardalda, Sofia Ballester Molina, Sofia Honens y Serena Griffin.