Gerard RecioKamille SalemZaira RiveraMica Pusing3OTB
 To distinguish between the two types of  deafness To know the proper method of performing  the Rinne and Weber tests
In doing the experiment there are two tests that we shouldperform. First is the Rinne test. From our group we chose therep...
For the next test which is the Weber’s test,another member of the group was selected tobe the subject. On the heel of the ...
 Outer ear – pinna, external auditory canal Middle ear – tympanic membrane, three           ossicles and the Eustachian ...
1.   Pinna/auricle/earlobe – funnels the sound     waves into the ear2.   External auditory canal – passageway of     soun...
6. Cochlea – organ of hearing; Lt. for “snail  shell”; has Organ of Corti    ▪ Scala tympani    ▪ Scala vestibuli    ▪ Sca...
Malleus  faceplate of stapes (3/4 of theamplitude of movement)Surface area of tympanic mem. : 55 sq. mm.Surface area of s...
 Reduces the intensity of the sound by as  much as 30-40 decibels Latent period of 40-80 ms Stapedius – pulls stapes ou...
Sound energy  Mechanical energy  Hydraulic movements  Chemical energy  Electrical energy  BRAINMechanical Energy: Vib...
 Scala tympani – perilymph              Scala vestibuli – perilymph              Scala media – endolymph Reissner’s me...
Tympanic  membrane>malleus>incus>s  tapes>oval     window>scala  vestibuli>scala  tympani>basilar  membrane>hair          ...
 The movement of the  basilar membrane  cause the hair cell  stereocilia to bend. Stereocilia is  directionally sensitiv...
 From the bending of  the stereocilia opens  ionic channel>influx of  K. Membrane potential  decreased to -50mV  from 60...
Spiral ganglion (cochlear  nerve)> dorsal and ventral  cochlear nerve (acoustic  striae)>superior olivary  nucleus> latera...
 1st order neuron: located in SPIRAL  GANGLION 2nd order neuron: dorsal and ventral cochlear  nuclei[form 3 groups of ac...
 Area 41 and 42>>Primary auditory area-anterior part: low frequencyPosterior part:reception of high frequency Area 22>>S...
 Superior olivary nucleus- fibers joins ipsi and  contralateral lateral lemnisci. Localization of  sound in space Nucleu...
 Whispered Voice Test Ticking Watch Test Weber Test Rinne Test Schwabach Test
 Conductive hearing loss  Neural hearing loss (Nerve deafness)  Mixed hearing loss 
 sound vibrations dont go from the air around   a person to the moving bones of the inner ear  sounds are heard, but the...
 auditory nerve, which goes from the inner ear   to the brain, fails to carry the sound   information to the brain cause...
 Heredity  Diseases of the Ear Injuries of the Ear
 born deaf cause is unknown something that happened to the mother  during her pregnancy
 Ear infections   cause fluid or mucus to build up inside the ear  fluids drain out of the ear or are absorbed into the...
 Meningitis inflammation of the membrane(called the    meninges) that surrounds the brain and the spinal    column
 Punctures of the Eardrum a hole in the eardrum, which could be caused by    either injury or disease Nerve Damage res...
 Loud Noises common cause of deafness is repeated or long-  term exposure to loud noises often cause moderate to severe...
 sound-amplifying devices  to aid people who have a hearing  impairment.
 Microphone  Amplifier Receiver/ Speaker Battery
 picks up sound from the environment converts it into an electrical signal, which it   sends to the amplifier. AMPLIFIER...
 changes the electrical signal back into sound   and sends it into the ear those impulses are sent to the brain.  BATTER...
 design technology used to achieve amplification   (i.e., analog vs. digital) special features
 Directional microphone T-coil (Telephone switch)  Direct audio input  Feedback suppression 
 help you converse in noisy environments allows sound coming from a specific direction   to be amplified to a greater le...
 allows you to switch from the normal microphone setting to a "T-coil" setting to hear better on the telephone. Direct au...
 helps suppress squeals when a hearing aid gets too close to the phone or has a loose- fitting earmold
 Behind-the-ear (BTE) aids "Mini" BTE (or "on-the-ear") aids In-the-ear (ITE) aids In-the-canal (ITC) aids and complet...
 contained in a small plastic case that rests  behind the ear case is connected to an earmold or an  earpiece by a piece...
 fits behind/on the ear, but is smaller very thin, almost invisible tube is used to  connect the aid to the ear canal a...
 contained in a shell that fills in the outer part  of the ear mild to severe hearing loss it can accommodate direction...
 contained in tiny cases that fit partly or  completely into the ear canal smallest hearing aids available In-the-canal...
 Completely-in-the-canal (CIC) appropriate for mild to moderate hearing  loss, and its even smaller than the ITC  hearin...
 Analog hearing aids Digital hearing aids
 aids amplify sounds amplify all sounds equally Digital hearing aids contain a computer chip analyzes the sound based ...
 Young, P.A., Young,P.H.,&Tolbert,D. (2008).  Basic clinical neuroscience. (2 nd ed.).  USA:Lippincott Wlliams and Wilkin...
 http://health.howstuffworks.com/medicine/  modern-technology/hearing-aid3.htm http://science.jrank.org/pages/3242/Heari...
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Hearing. Anatomy and Physiology of the ears.

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  • Triggers presynaptic vesicular vesicle to release the neurotransmitter onto the post synaptic sites at the distal ends of spiral ganglion. This lead to activation of the of afferent nerve.
  • Hearing

    1. 1. Gerard RecioKamille SalemZaira RiveraMica Pusing3OTB
    2. 2.  To distinguish between the two types of deafness To know the proper method of performing the Rinne and Weber tests
    3. 3. In doing the experiment there are two tests that we shouldperform. First is the Rinne test. From our group we chose therepresentative to whom we would perform the experiment.One ear of the subject was plugged. On the heel of the hand, atuning fork was set in motion by striking it. At the level of theupper portion of the unplugged ear canal, the stem of thetuning fork was placed on the mastoid processes. When thesound from the vibrating fork disappears, the subject wasasked to make a signal. Then, place the line of the fork in frontof the unplugged ear at a distance of 3 to 6 inches. Whetherthe subject hears any sound or not indicate it. The procedurewas repeated on the other ear.
    4. 4. For the next test which is the Weber’s test,another member of the group was selected tobe the subject. On the heel of the hand, thetuning fork was strike. On the forehead of thesubject the stem of the tuning fork wasplaced. We asked the subject to compare thesounds that was heard in each ear. Weindicate whether the sound was heardequally or not.
    5. 5.  Outer ear – pinna, external auditory canal Middle ear – tympanic membrane, three ossicles and the Eustachian tube Inner ear – cochlea, semicircular canals, nerves * All three parts are involved in hearing while for vestibular functions, the inner ear is the only one involved.
    6. 6. 1. Pinna/auricle/earlobe – funnels the sound waves into the ear2. External auditory canal – passageway of sound to the middle ear; lined with hair3. Eardrum/tympanic membrane – transmits sound from the outer ear to the ossicles4. Malleus, incus, stapes – three small bones of the ear5. Eustachian tube – equalizes the pressure in the middle ear and the throat
    7. 7. 6. Cochlea – organ of hearing; Lt. for “snail shell”; has Organ of Corti ▪ Scala tympani ▪ Scala vestibuli ▪ Scala media7. Semicircular canals – three (anterior, lateral, posterior); for balance8. Vestibule – central part of the bony labyrinth
    8. 8. Malleus  faceplate of stapes (3/4 of theamplitude of movement)Surface area of tympanic mem. : 55 sq. mm.Surface area of stapes: 3.2 sq. mm.22 TIMES MORE PRESSURE ON THE FLUID.
    9. 9.  Reduces the intensity of the sound by as much as 30-40 decibels Latent period of 40-80 ms Stapedius – pulls stapes outward Tensor tympani muscles – pulls malleus inward Reduce ossicular conduction Protect cochlea, mask low-frequency sounds in the env., and dec. sensitivity to own voice
    10. 10. Sound energy  Mechanical energy  Hydraulic movements  Chemical energy  Electrical energy  BRAINMechanical Energy: Vibrations of the eardrum  lever-like action of the ossiclesHydraulic Energy: Faceplate and oval window  Organ of Corti
    11. 11.  Scala tympani – perilymph  Scala vestibuli – perilymph  Scala media – endolymph Reissner’s membrane (vestibular membrane) – s. vestibuli from s. media Basilar membrane – s. media from s. tympani; modiolus (high freq. at oval window, low freq. near the apex) Organ of Corti – contains a series of electromechanichally sensitive cells, hair cells; transduces pressure waves to action potentials
    12. 12. Tympanic membrane>malleus>incus>s tapes>oval window>scala vestibuli>scala tympani>basilar membrane>hair cells receptorsImpedance matching-ossicular system reduce distance but increase the force of movement by 1.3X about 22X pressure exerted in the fluid.
    13. 13.  The movement of the basilar membrane cause the hair cell stereocilia to bend. Stereocilia is directionally sensitive: Upward towards scala vestibuli: hair cells depolarized Down towards the scala tympani:hair cell hyperpolarized
    14. 14.  From the bending of the stereocilia opens ionic channel>influx of K. Membrane potential decreased to -50mV from 60mV(resting membrane potential) Opens the Ca2+ channel
    15. 15. Spiral ganglion (cochlear nerve)> dorsal and ventral cochlear nerve (acoustic striae)>superior olivary nucleus> lateral lemniscus>nucleus of lateral lemniscus>inferior colliculus>medial geniculate nucleus>auditory radiation>heschl gyrus brodmann 41,42
    16. 16.  1st order neuron: located in SPIRAL GANGLION 2nd order neuron: dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei[form 3 groups of acoustic striae(lateral lemniscus): ventral striae-most prominent forms trapeziod body] 3rd order: superior olives nucleus 4th order neuron: medial geniculate nucleus
    17. 17.  Area 41 and 42>>Primary auditory area-anterior part: low frequencyPosterior part:reception of high frequency Area 22>>Secondary auditory areaInterpretation of sound and for association of auditory inputs.
    18. 18.  Superior olivary nucleus- fibers joins ipsi and contralateral lateral lemnisci. Localization of sound in space Nucleus of lateral lamniscus- send axons on both epsi and contralateral lemnisci. Aids in bilateralism by sending axon to the contralateral side.
    19. 19.  Whispered Voice Test Ticking Watch Test Weber Test Rinne Test Schwabach Test
    20. 20.  Conductive hearing loss  Neural hearing loss (Nerve deafness)  Mixed hearing loss 
    21. 21.  sound vibrations dont go from the air around  a person to the moving bones of the inner ear  sounds are heard, but they are weak,  muffled, and distorted
    22. 22.  auditory nerve, which goes from the inner ear  to the brain, fails to carry the sound  information to the brain cause a loss of loudness or a loss of clarity in  sounds. Mixed hearing loss  combination of conductive and neural  hearing losses
    23. 23.  Heredity  Diseases of the Ear Injuries of the Ear
    24. 24.  born deaf cause is unknown something that happened to the mother  during her pregnancy
    25. 25.  Ear infections  cause fluid or mucus to build up inside the ear fluids drain out of the ear or are absorbed into the  body Otosclerosis  common cause of hearing loss hereditary disease in which portions of the middle  ear or inner ear develop growths like bony  sponges can be in the middle ear, the inner ear, or both  places
    26. 26.  Meningitis inflammation of the membrane(called the  meninges) that surrounds the brain and the spinal  column
    27. 27.  Punctures of the Eardrum a hole in the eardrum, which could be caused by  either injury or disease Nerve Damage result of nerve damage is that the electrical  signals of sounds do not get transmitted from the  ear to the brain
    28. 28.  Loud Noises common cause of deafness is repeated or long- term exposure to loud noises often cause moderate to severe hearing loss.
    29. 29.  sound-amplifying devices  to aid people who have a hearing  impairment.
    30. 30.  Microphone  Amplifier Receiver/ Speaker Battery
    31. 31.  picks up sound from the environment converts it into an electrical signal, which it  sends to the amplifier. AMPLIFIER increases the volume of the sound  and sends it to the receiver
    32. 32.  changes the electrical signal back into sound  and sends it into the ear those impulses are sent to the brain. BATTERY  provides power to the hearing aid
    33. 33.  design technology used to achieve amplification  (i.e., analog vs. digital) special features
    34. 34.  Directional microphone T-coil (Telephone switch)  Direct audio input  Feedback suppression 
    35. 35.  help you converse in noisy environments allows sound coming from a specific direction  to be amplified to a greater level sound coming from in front of you is  amplified to a greater level than sound from  behind you
    36. 36.  allows you to switch from the normal microphone setting to a "T-coil" setting to hear better on the telephone. Direct audio input  allows you to plug in a remote  microphone or an FM assistive  listening system or connect to other  devices
    37. 37.  helps suppress squeals when a hearing aid gets too close to the phone or has a loose- fitting earmold
    38. 38.  Behind-the-ear (BTE) aids "Mini" BTE (or "on-the-ear") aids In-the-ear (ITE) aids In-the-canal (ITC) aids and completely-in- the-canal (CIC) aids
    39. 39.  contained in a small plastic case that rests behind the ear case is connected to an earmold or an earpiece by a piece of clear tubing often chosen for young children because it can accommodate various earmold types can help with all types of hearing loss, from mild to profound Sound travels from the earmold into the ear
    40. 40.  fits behind/on the ear, but is smaller very thin, almost invisible tube is used to connect the aid to the ear canal allow not only reduced occlusion or "plugged up" sensations in the ear canal mild hearing loss who can still hear low- and mid-frequency sounds
    41. 41.  contained in a shell that fills in the outer part of the ear mild to severe hearing loss it can accommodate directional microphones and other added features
    42. 42.  contained in tiny cases that fit partly or completely into the ear canal smallest hearing aids available In-the-canal (ITC) aids works only for mild to moderate hearing loss users sometimes experience feedback noise with this type of hearing aid because the microphone and receiver sit close together
    43. 43.  Completely-in-the-canal (CIC) appropriate for mild to moderate hearing loss, and its even smaller than the ITC hearing aid barely visible
    44. 44.  Analog hearing aids Digital hearing aids
    45. 45.  aids amplify sounds amplify all sounds equally Digital hearing aids contain a computer chip analyzes the sound based on the  persons hearing loss and listening  situation adjusts for feedback
    46. 46.  Young, P.A., Young,P.H.,&Tolbert,D. (2008). Basic clinical neuroscience. (2 nd ed.). USA:Lippincott Wlliams and Wilkins Hall, J.E., (2010). Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology. (12th ed.). Ganong,William F.(2006).Review of Medical Physiology 23rd edition.San Francisco,California:Lange Medical Publications
    47. 47.  http://health.howstuffworks.com/medicine/ modern-technology/hearing-aid3.htm http://science.jrank.org/pages/3242/Hearing. html http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/Products andMedicalProcedures/HomeHealthandCons umer/ConsumerProducts/HearingAids/ucm18 1470.html

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