PNEUMONIA What are some important things to know about bacterial pneumonia? It accounts for about 10—15% of admissions; Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common agent; Most common mechanism is aspiration Name some other important bacterial agents in bacterial pneumonia. Pseudomonas aeruginoso; Hemophilus influenza; Staphylococcus aureus; Escherichiu coil
Some predisposing factors that increases susceptibility to bacterial pneumonia. Impaired immunity; Impaired gag reflex/mucociliary transport; latrogenic (i.e., endotracheal tube); Chest wall dysfunction What are some clinical features of bacterial pneumonia? Fever, chills, productive cough, purulent sputum, and Pleuritic chest pain
What are some common physical findings in a patient with bacterial pneumonia? Wheezing, Crackles, Dullness to percussion, Egophony, and Tactile fremitus
Some diagnostic tests to consider in addition to the CXR? Arterial blood gas (ABG); Sputum culture (typically for high-risk patients); Blood culture Some complications of bacterial pneumonia? Abscess formation (esp. S. aureus); Sepsis; Empyema
Group B streptococci, E. coli, and C. pneumoniae
Children (5 weeks to 18 years)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Mycoplasmapneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, and S. pneumoniae
Adults (18—40 years)
M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, and S. pneumoniae
Adults (45 years and older)
S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, anaerobes, and gram-negatives most common agents in the following age group
What are some commonly used antibiotics in uncomplicated pneumonia? Penicillin, Macrolides(Azithromycinand erythromycin), Doxycycline What are some commonly used antibiotics for those with comorbidities? Fluoroquinolones(cipro, levaquin)
Three common causes of atypical pneumonia? 1. M. pneumoniae 2. C. pneumoniae 3. L. pneumophilia What are some clinical features of atypical pneumonia? Headache, fever, Nonproductive cough, and myalgias
Some important things to know about mycoplasma pneumonia: Most common cause of atypical pneumonia 1—3 weeks incubation; Most common in ages 4—40 years; CXR often show a reticulo-nodular pattern
What are some complications of mycoplasma pneumonia? Splenomegaly; Aseptic meningitis; Encephalitis; Respiratory failure What is the preferred antibiotic? Erythromycin; Tetracycline, or Doxycycline
Name the most likely organism Alcoholic who presents with fever, chills, and productive cough. Chest x-ray (CXR) shows lobar pneumonia Kiebsiellapneumoniae 45-year-old male who has been in the ICU for 2 weeks on vent sup port develops fever and chills with productive green sputum P. aeruginosa
63-year-old male with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), DM, and debilitation presents with Shortness of breath (SOB), fever, and a Chest x-ray (CXR) that shows patchy infiltrates H. influenza 41-year-old male presents with SOB, dyspnea, and productive cough recalls onset of symptoms after returning from a spa Legionellapneumophila
49-year-old patient with AIDS and a cell count of <200 cells/mm3 presents with fever, nonproductive cough, and dyspnea Pneumocystiscarinii
ASTHMA It is a chronic condition characterized by reversible airway constriction typically initiated by a variety of stimuli More common in children and adolescents; Prevalence is increasing; Asthma-related morbidity is also increasing
Common triggers of asthma. Allergens; Exercise; Medications; Cold exposure What are some of the clinical features of asthma? Dyspnea, cough, and wheezing
What are some important diagnostic tests to consider in asthma? Pulmonary function tests (i.e., PEFR); ABG (if impending respiratory failure); CXR (more to rule out other conditions); ECG (if you suspect ischemia)
Key points in the management of asthma Ensure adequate oxygenation; Optimize lung function (i.e., medication); Identify the cause of exacerbation Three classes of drugs that are the mainstay for the treatment of asthma exacerbation: Beta-adrenergic (albuterol) Anticholinergic (ipratropium) Corticosteroids (methyiprednisolone)
Findings of impending respiratory failure: Use of accessory muscles; Cyanosis; Altered mental status (typically from hypercapma); No breath sounds (no or very little airflow) What procedure should be considered in the setting of impending respiratory failure? Intubation
What are some other agents that can be considered when the mainstay treatment of asthma shows little improvement? Magnesium sulfate (bronchospasm); Heliox (helium to improve airflow); Terbutamine (intravenous terbutaline for severe status asthmaticusthat had not improved after administration of corticosteroidsand inhaled ß2 agonists (albuterol))
What are some important elements to consider when deciding to admit the patient? Social supports; Recent hospitalizations and past intubations; Compliance with medication; Severity of the exacerbation
CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE What are the disease elements that make up chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)? Emphysema: Irreversible airway destruction Asthma: Hyperactive airway and inflammation Chronic bronchitis: Airway hypersecretion What are some important risk factors for the development of COPD? Tobacco use (most common cause); Environmental pollution; Alpha1—antitrypsin deficiency; Cystic fibrosis
What are some clinical features of COPD? Dyspnea, cough, chest tighthess, and occasional hemoptysis Common causes of COPD exacerbation: Infections; Pulmonary embolism (PE); Congestive heart failure (CHF) exacerbation; Tobacco use
What are some of the common clinical features of the following COPD variant: Chronic bronchitis (blue bloaters): Tend to be heavy set; Normal chest diameter; Productive wet cough Emphysema (pink puffer): Tend to be thin; increased AP chest diameter; Dyspneic
What are some possible findings on CXR? Increased AP diameter; Overinflation; Presence of bullae What are some other diagnostic tests to consider in COPD? ABGs; EKG (for ischemia or dysrhythmias) Multifocal atrial tachycardia Atrial fibrillation
What are some key points in the management of COPD? Oxygenation is the cornerstone; Beta-adrenergic agonist; Anticholinergics; Corticosteroids use; Abx if signs of infection— purulent sputum
Anticholinergic bronchodilatorsIn response to irritants such as cigarette smoke, the body produces a chemical "messenger" called acetylcholine that induces the airways to constrict. Anticholinergics are the only medications that act by blocking acetylcholine, thereby relaxing the muscle tissue and keeping the airways open. Anticholinergic medications work via part of the parasympathetic nervous system, which controls airway size. Anticholinergic bronchodilators, as a class, are the number one prescribed bronchodilator used in the treatment of COPD. Currently, the leading anticholinergic medication prescribed by physicians is ipratropium bromide. It is sold alone under the brand name ATROVENT, Inhalation Aerosol or in combination with albuterol sulfate under the brand name COMBIVENT, Inhalation Aerosol.
Beta2-agonistsBeta2-agonists work via part of the nervous system that controls muscle tissue around the airways. They work by stimulating receptors in the sympathetic nervous system, leading to dilation of air passages. Two types of beta2-agonists are available: short-acting beta- agonists and long-acting beta-agonists. Short-acting beta2-agonistsThese medications are recommended by the American Thoracic Society for patients with COPD who experience intermittent symptoms. They are also used as a "rescue" medication to fend off an impending attack of shortness of breath. Short-acting beta2- agonists are typically prescribed along with anticholinergics to open up the airways of COPD patients with continuing symptoms. The short-acting beta2-agonist most commonly prescribed by physicians is albuterol. In clinical studies, the most common side effects of albuterol included tremor, nausea, tachycardia, palpitations and nervousness. Long-acting beta-agonistsThese bronchodilators are taken twice a day and, like short-acting beta-agonists, work via part of the nervous system that controls muscle tissue around the airways. They are recognized as a treatment for COPD by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease.
Long-acting beta-agonists are often prescribed for nighttime breathing problems because they provide up to 12 hours of relief. Patients using long-acting beta-agonists need to be reminded to continue using their short-acting beta-agonist for "rescue" therapy, because long-acting beta-agonists do not work as quickly and are indicated for use only twice a day. The most common side effects seen with use of long-acting beta-agonists by patients with COPD include headache, upper respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngitis and cough. TheophyllineAnother bronchodilator used in the treatment of COPD is theophylline, which is taken orally. Theophylline affects many parts of the body, including muscle tissue and the heart. It works by opening up the airways, increasing muscle endurance, and decreasing muscle fatigue. At one time, theophylline was the most widely prescribed COPD medication, but it has lost favor because of side effects. However, theophylline may have benefits that go beyond bronchodilation, and it is still an important part of COPD management. Theophylline is taken orally once or twice a day, so it may be particularly valuable for noncompliant patients who cannot optimally use aerosol therapy. The dosage should be adjusted to reach a therapeutic serum level, so blood levels should be monitored. However, some patients experience side effects even at low serum levels. The most common side effects seen are nausea, vomiting, headache and insomnia.
CorticosteroidsCurrently, inhaled corticosteroids are not indicated for the treatment of COPD. They are the cornerstone of asthma therapy, but have a limited role in the maintenance of lung function in patients with COPD. Only about 10 percent of patients with COPD show a significant improvement in lung function when treated with corticosteroids. The reason is that different mediators cause inflammation in asthma and COPD. The mediators that cause inflammation in COPD have only limited responsiveness to corticosteroids, while those mediators responsible for inflammation in asthma are dramatically affected by inhaled corticosteroids. Surveys of clinicians' prescribing habits, however, have shown little difference in the use of inhaled corticosteroids for asthma patients and for COPD patients.,34] Guidelines for the treatment of COPD suggest that because inhaled corticosteroids play only a minor role in the maintenance treatment of COPD and may produce systemic side effects, they should be reserved for patients whose symptoms are not optimally controlled with bronchodilators. This subgroup of patients should receive inhaled or oral corticosteroids for a trial period. If a significant objective clinical response is not achieved, corticosteroids should be discontinued. When a benefit is observed with oral corticosteroids, the dose should be tapered to the lowest possible dose. At that point, a trial of an inhaled corticosteroid should be initiated.[19,21] The most common side effects of inhaled corticosteroids include upper respiratory infection, headache and pharyngitis.
AntibioticsAntibiotics may be given to patients with COPD for acute bacterial infections of the respiratory tract, including sinusitis, acute bronchitis and some types of pneumonia. Antibiotics are also used to treat exacerbations when symptoms of infection are present, such as fever, increased cough and sputum changes.