groups and organizations in this topic, we examine the nature, types, and models of organization
social groups <ul><li>a collection of people who share some characteristics, interact with one another, and have some feel...
ingroup vs outgroup <ul><li>every social group defines a boundary between itself and everyone else to some extent but a co...
other kinds of social groups <ul><li>people use  reference group  as a frame of reference for evaluating their behavior or...
small group <ul><li>small group  is one whose members are few enough to be able to interact with one another: </li></ul><u...
small group: leadership & conformity <ul><li>in all small groups larger than triads, there are two kinds of leaders: </li>...
formal organizations <ul><li>a secondary group whose activities are rationally designed to achieve specific  goals  – the ...
formal organizations:  power and involvement <ul><li>in virtually every organization, there are “higher participants” and ...
formal organizations:  power and involvement <ul><li>three kinds of power (higher participants) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>coer...
formal organizations:  power and involvement <ul><li>three kinds of involvement (lower participants) </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
formal organizations:  most common types <ul><li>coercive organizations , i.e. prisons, concentration camps, and custodial...
formal organizations:  most common types <ul><li>utilitarian organizations , i.e. banks, factories, and other businesses <...
formal organizations:  most common types <ul><li>normative organizations,  i.e. churches and political parties; sometimes ...
organizational models <ul><li>scientific management:  proposed by an American engineer Frederick Taylor, he assumed that t...
organizational models <ul><li>human relations model,  proposed by industrial psychologist Elton Mayo, he argued the follow...
organizational models <ul><li>bureaucratic model,  proposed by Max Weber, he tried to construct what he called an  ideal t...
organizational models <ul><li>collectivist model,  proposed by Karl Marx, he claimed that bureaucracies will be replaced b...
realities of bureaucracy <ul><li>deficiencies: </li></ul><ul><li>rules and regulations are of little help when something u...
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6groupsandorganizations

  1. 1. groups and organizations in this topic, we examine the nature, types, and models of organization
  2. 2. social groups <ul><li>a collection of people who share some characteristics, interact with one another, and have some feeling of unity; different from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>social aggregate: just a collection of people who happen to be in one place but no not interact with one another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social category: a number of people who have something in common but neither interact with one another nor gather in one place </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. ingroup vs outgroup <ul><li>every social group defines a boundary between itself and everyone else to some extent but a cohesive ingroup has three characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>members of the ingroup normally use symbols to identify themselves so that they will be distinguishable from the outgroup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>its members view themselves in terms of positive stereotypes and the outgroup in negative stereotypes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it is inclined to compete with the outgroup, or even to get involved in conflict with it </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. other kinds of social groups <ul><li>people use reference group as a frame of reference for evaluating their behavior or forming opinions </li></ul><ul><li>primary groups are those where individuals have strong emotional ties, i.e. family </li></ul><ul><li>secondary group are those where relationships among the members are less personal </li></ul>
  5. 5. small group <ul><li>small group is one whose members are few enough to be able to interact with one another: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dyad: smallest group which contains two people; can easily become the most cohesive of all the groups because its members are inclined to be most personal and interact most intensely with each other; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>triad: a three-person group </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. small group: leadership & conformity <ul><li>in all small groups larger than triads, there are two kinds of leaders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>instrumental leaders who are concerned about achieving goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>expressive leaders who are more concerned with members’ feelings, making sure that everybody is happy so that harmony and cohesiveness can reign in the group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>groupthink : the tendency for members of a cohesive group to maintain consensus to the extent of ignoring the truth </li></ul>
  7. 7. formal organizations <ul><li>a secondary group whose activities are rationally designed to achieve specific goals – the raison d’etre of organizations </li></ul><ul><li>whatever the goals, organizations develop certain common means of achieving them and they engage in rational planning </li></ul><ul><li>in formal organizations, there is division of labor , whereby workers with different skills are assigned different tasks and is managed by a hierarchy of control </li></ul>
  8. 8. formal organizations: power and involvement <ul><li>in virtually every organization, there are “higher participants” and “lower participants” </li></ul><ul><li>the function of the higher participants is to exercise power over the lower participants so that the latter will help the organization to achieve its goals </li></ul>
  9. 9. formal organizations: power and involvement <ul><li>three kinds of power (higher participants) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>coercive power or the use of physical force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>remunerative power or the use of material rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>normative power or the use of moral persuasion, the prestige of a leader or the promise of social acceptance </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. formal organizations: power and involvement <ul><li>three kinds of involvement (lower participants) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>alienative in which case they do not support the organization’s goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>calculative which means they are moderately supportive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>moral involvement which means they strongly support the organization </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. formal organizations: most common types <ul><li>coercive organizations , i.e. prisons, concentration camps, and custodial mental hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>coercion is the main form of power used and the involvement by lower participants is alienative </li></ul>
  12. 12. formal organizations: most common types <ul><li>utilitarian organizations , i.e. banks, factories, and other businesses </li></ul><ul><li>the higher participants use incentives such as money to ensure that lower participants work to achieve the organization’s goals </li></ul><ul><li>the power used is remunerative and typical form of involvement by lower-level participants is calculative </li></ul>
  13. 13. formal organizations: most common types <ul><li>normative organizations, i.e. churches and political parties; sometimes called voluntary organizations </li></ul><ul><li>primary form of power is normative and involvement by the rank and file is moral </li></ul>
  14. 14. organizational models <ul><li>scientific management: proposed by an American engineer Frederick Taylor, he assumed that the primary goal of an organization is to maximize efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor argued that the success of an organization depends on three elements: maximum division of labor, close supervision of workers and an incentive system of piecework wages </li></ul>
  15. 15. organizational models <ul><li>human relations model, proposed by industrial psychologist Elton Mayo, he argued the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>workers’ productivity is not determined by their physical capacity but their social capacity, their sensitivity to the work environment; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>noneconomic rewards, such as friendship with co-workers and respect from management, play a central role in determining the motivation and happiness of workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the greatest specialization is not the most efficient division of labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>workers do not react to management and its incentives as isolated individuals but as members of a group </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. organizational models <ul><li>bureaucratic model, proposed by Max Weber, he tried to construct what he called an ideal type, its essential characteristics are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>there is a clearcut division of labor among those in the bureaucracy, assigning to each position certain limited duties and responsibilities; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>there is a well defined hierarchy; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>employees are hired and hold authority on the basis of technical qualifications which are often determined by examinations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the activities of the bureaucrats and their relationships are governed by an elaborate system of explicit, formal, written rules and regulations </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. organizational models <ul><li>collectivist model, proposed by Karl Marx, he claimed that bureaucracies will be replaced by collectivist organization, in which mangers and workers work together as equals and for equal pay </li></ul>
  18. 18. realities of bureaucracy <ul><li>deficiencies: </li></ul><ul><li>rules and regulations are of little help when something unexpected happens </li></ul><ul><li>blind adherence to rules may prevent necessary action </li></ul><ul><li>its tendency to produce a seemingly endless number of rules and regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Parkinson’s Law: work expands to fill the time available for its completion; </li></ul><ul><li>Peter principle: in every hierarchy every employee tends to rise to his level of incompetence </li></ul>

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