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  1. 1. social structure
  2. 2. foundations of social structures <ul><li>statuses: the positions people occupy in a group or society </li></ul><ul><li>roles: expectations of what individuals should do in accordance with their statuses </li></ul>
  3. 3. what is a status <ul><li>an identification of a person in terms of his or her relationship with another person or group; classified into: </li></ul><ul><li>ascribed status: statuses of sex and race as well as age; status which we are born with </li></ul><ul><li>achieved status: statuses that result from our actions </li></ul>
  4. 4. what is a role? <ul><li>dynamic, shaped by specific situations and persons, i.e. children enjoy the right of receiving food and shelter and love from parents, but are expected to show respect obedience, gratitude and affection to them </li></ul>
  5. 5. what is a role? <ul><li>a role can be </li></ul><ul><li>prescribed role : the set of expectations or norms about how a person should behave </li></ul><ul><li>role performance : how a person actually carries out the role </li></ul><ul><li>role conflict : when we are expected to play two conflicting roles at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>role strain : a single role involving conflicting expectations </li></ul>
  6. 6. patterns of social relations <ul><li>exchange </li></ul><ul><li>cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>competition </li></ul><ul><li>conflict </li></ul>
  7. 7. exchange <ul><li>exchange: a transaction between two individuals, groups or societies in which one takes an action in order to obtain a reward in return; social exchanges are usually govern by the norm of reciprocity </li></ul>
  8. 8. cooperation <ul><li>cooperation: a relationship of two or more individuals working together to achieve a common goal and may be classified into: </li></ul><ul><li>spontaneous cooperation : unpredictable, i.e. when neighbors come together to help a family whose house has just burned down </li></ul><ul><li>traditional cooperation : a form of cooperation that occur frequently enough for them to become customary in society </li></ul>
  9. 9. cooperation <ul><li>directed cooperation : based not on custom but on the direction of someone in authority </li></ul><ul><li>contractual cooperation : it does not originate from tradition or authority, but from voluntary action; neither does it happen spontaneously; it involves, instead, some planning; individuals freely and formally agree to cooperate in certain limited, specified ways </li></ul>
  10. 10. competition <ul><li>competition: each tries to achieve a goal before another does thus there can be only one winner </li></ul><ul><li>it is commonly believed that competition encourages people to do their best and thus benefits society </li></ul>
  11. 11. conflict <ul><li>conflict: when competing parties no longer play by the set of rules; defeating the opponent, by hook or by crook, is the goal </li></ul>
  12. 12. large-scale social structure <ul><li>group: two or more people who interact with one another and share some sense of a common identity </li></ul><ul><li>organizations: groups that form to achieve specific goals </li></ul><ul><li>social institutions: stable sets of widely shared beliefs, norms, roles and procedures that are organized to satisfy certain basic needs of society </li></ul><ul><li>societies: beyond the structure of social institutions having patterns of stable relationships and in turn make up even a larger structure – an international community – characterized by certain patterns of social relationships between nations </li></ul>
  13. 13. varieties of preindustrial societies <ul><li>preindustrial societies: are often classified on the basis of how they obtain their food; using this method, we find four types: </li></ul><ul><li>hunting-gathering societies </li></ul><ul><li>pastoral societies </li></ul><ul><li>horticultural societies </li></ul><ul><li>agricultural societies </li></ul>
  14. 14. preindustrial and industrial compared <ul><li>gemeinschaft: “community,” meaning that people in such a society have a strong sense of community and relate to each other in a personal way </li></ul><ul><li>gesellschaft: “society,” people think of themselves as individuals first and relate to each other in an impersonal way </li></ul>
  15. 15. preindustrial and industrial compared <ul><li>mechanical solidarity: social unity comes about because people perform the same tasks and have similar values </li></ul><ul><li>organic solidarity: arise when people are forced to depend on one another because their jobs are very specialized </li></ul>
  16. 16. preindustrial and industrial compared <ul><li>folk societies: small, nonliterate, homogenous </li></ul><ul><li>urban societies: large, literate and heterogeneous, with very little group solidarity </li></ul>
  17. 17. preindustrial and industrial compared <ul><li>simplicity vs complexity </li></ul><ul><li>homegenity vs heterogenity </li></ul><ul><li>intimacy vs impersonality </li></ul><ul><li>traditionalism vs modernism </li></ul>