Week 3 apostrophe and "" mark

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  • 1. 10 TH GRADE INTERMEDIATE GRAMMAR WEEK 3 Apostrophes & Quotation mark Raimes, A., & Miller-Cochran, S. K. (2014). Keys for writers (7th ed.). Boston: Wadsworth Pub Co. Thursday, February 20, 14
  • 2. WHAT IS AN APOSTROPHE? Apostrophe looks like comma but we use it above the line of writing. Raimes, A., & Miller-Cochran, S. K. (2014). Keys for writers (7th ed.). Boston: Wadsworth Pub Co. Thursday, February 20, 14
  • 3. WHY DO WE USE APOSTROPHE? Possession To  indications  ownership  or  possession. Fred’s  books the  government’s  plans a  year’s  pay (the  books  belonging  to  Fred,  the  plans  of  the  government,  the  pay  for  a  year) Raimes, A., & Miller-Cochran, S. K. (2014). Keys for writers (7th ed.). Boston: Wadsworth Pub Co. Thursday, February 20, 14
  • 4. POSSESSION Use  –‘s  for  the  possessive  form  of  all  nouns  except   plural  nouns  that  end  with  –s: the  hero’s  misfortunes,  the  nation’s  capital,  the  people’s  advocate. Use  an  apostrophe  alone  for  the  possessive  form   of  plural  nouns  that  end  with  –s the  heroes’  misfortunes,  the  states’  governors,  liberal  politicians’  efforts. Raimes, A., & Miller-Cochran, S. K. (2014). Keys for writers (7th ed.). Boston: Wadsworth Pub Co. Thursday, February 20, 14
  • 5. POSSESSION When  to  use-­‐‑‘s  to  single  possession: With  individual  and  joint  ownership With  compound  nouns With  singular  proper  nouns  ending  in  –s In  all  words  that  need  an  apostrophe  to  single  possession Use  only  an  apostrophe  to  single  possession  in  plural  nouns  already  ending  in  –s Use  an  apostrophe  in  contractions Two  occasions  to  use    -­‐‑‘s  to  form  a  plural Use  -­‐‑‘s  for  the  plural  form  of  leIers  of  the  alphabet Use  –‘s  for  the  plural  form  of  a  word  referred  to  as  the  word  itself Raimes, A., & Miller-Cochran, S. K. (2014). Keys for writers (7th ed.). Boston: Wadsworth Pub Co. Thursday, February 20, 14
  • 6. WHY DO WE USE APOSTROPHE? Contraction Use  an  apostrophe  to  indicate  the  omission  of  le2ers  in   contracted  forms.   didn’t,  they’re,  can’t,  and  let’s. some  readers  of  formal  academic  writing  may  object  to   such  contractions. Raimes, A., & Miller-Cochran, S. K. (2014). Keys for writers (7th ed.). Boston: Wadsworth Pub Co. Thursday, February 20, 14
  • 7. DON’T USE 1.    Generally,  do  not  use  an  apostrophe  to  form  the  plurals  of  nouns  (see  46). 2.    Never  use  an  apostrophe  before  an  –s  ending  on  a  verb.  Note  that  let’s  is  a   contracted  form  for  let  us;  the  –s  is  not  a  verb  ending. 3.    Do  not  write  possessive  pronouns(hers,  its,  ours,  yours,  theirs)  with  an     apostrophe. 4.    Do  not  use  an  apostrophe  to  form  the  plural  of  names  or  numbers:  the  Browns;   the  1990s[not  1990’s];  the  ’90s  [not  0’s]. 5.    With  inanimate  objects  and  concepts,  of  is  often  preferred  to  an  apostrophe:   the  cost  of  service,  the  top  of  the  mountain,  the  back  of  the  desk. Raimes, A., & Miller-Cochran, S. K. (2014). Keys for writers (7th ed.). Boston: Wadsworth Pub Co. Thursday, February 20, 14
  • 8. QUOTATION MARKS Use quotation marks [ “ ” ] to set off material that represents quoted or spoken language. Quotation marks also set off the titles of things that do not normally stand by themselves: short stories, poems, and articles. Usually, a quotation is set off from the rest of the sentence by a comma. Capital Community College Foundation (n.d.). Quotation Marks. Retrieved from http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/marks/quotation.htm Thursday, February 20, 14
  • 9. QUOTATION MARKS RULES Quote  exactly  the  words  used  by  the  original  speaker  or  writer. Pair  opening  quotation  marks  with  closing  quotation  marks  to  indicate   where  the  quotation  ends  and  your  ideas  begin. Use  correct  punctuation  to  introduce  and  end  a  quotation,  and  place  other   marks  of  punctuation  carefully  in  relation  to  the  Quotation  marks. Enclose  the  titles  of  articles,  short  stories,  songs,  and  poems  in  Quotation   marks. Enclose  any  added  or  changed  material  in  square  brackets. Raimes, A., & Miller-Cochran, S. K. (2014). Keys for writers (7th ed.). Boston: Wadsworth Pub Co. Thursday, February 20, 14
  • 10. QUOTATION MARKS RULES After  an  introductory  verb,  such  as  say,  state,  or  write,  use  a  comma   followed  by  a  capital  leIer  to  introduce  a  direct  quotation. Use  a  colon  after  a  complete  sentence  introducing  a  quotation,  and  being   the  quotation  with  a  capital  leIer When  a  quotation  is  integrated  into  the  structure  of  your  own  sentence,   use  no  special  introductory  punctuation  other  than  quotation  marks Raimes, A., & Miller-Cochran, S. K. (2014). Keys for writers (7th ed.). Boston: Wadsworth Pub Co. Thursday, February 20, 14
  • 11. Thursday, February 20, 14