Francis Bacon (1561-1626) Whatever the “mind seizes and dwells uponwith particular satisfaction is to be held insuspicion” Bacon’s inductive method of reasoning tointerpret nature evident in his work the“Novum Organum” Move from observations to theory – abottom-up approach
Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794) “On Crimes and Punishments” (1764) Influenced leaders in Europe as well asrevolutionary leaders in the Americancolonies The social contract – people choose to live ina society and have to thus give up somepersonal liberties in exchange for the safetyof society. Laws as the framework of society designed toencourage/prohibit acts
Laws to be determined rationally and bebased upon the idea of the “greatesthappiness shared by the greatest number” Rational punishment – punishment thatwould fit the crime and not be unnecessarilycruel or arbitrary.
Georges-Louis LeclercBuffon (1707-1788) Humankind’s understanding of the worlddominated by Separate Creation (allcreatures were created separately by God)and the age of the earth as 6 000 years. Buffon challenged this 100 years beforeDarwin. Suggested the common ancestry of man andapes and challenged the age of the earth in“Les Epoques de la Nature” (1788)
Chief editor of the “L’Encyclopedie” – anattempt to collect all human knowledge,consisting of 17 volumes of text and 11volumes of illustrations. Diderot’s own writings “Supplement auvoyage de Bougainville” challengedcolonization and slavery.
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) Influenced by Sir Isaac Newton and JohnLocke Worked as a printer and published anewspaper Inventor and worked on electricity Increasing involvement in politics andopposed British policies in American colonies Helped draft the Declaration ofIndependence and approved the USConstitution
Advocate of human rights and equality forwomen “The Declaration of the Rights of Women andof the Citizen” (1791) Belief that women had the right to freespeech and the same rights given to men. Guillotined in 1793
Scottish Enlightenment emphasis on humanreason and rejection of authority that could notbe justified by reason Changes guided by reason could improvesociety. Hume’s “radical skepticism” – the importance ofexperience from which we then derive ideas. “A Treatise of Human Nature” (1739-1740), “AnEnquiry Concerning Human Understanding”(1748)
John Locke (1632-1704) “An Essay Concerning HumanUnderstanding” (1690) – all our ideas arederived from experience thus we cannotknow anything beyond our experience “ Two Treatises of Civil Government: (1690) –government depends on the consent of thosewho are governed; majority rule with theright to revolution if dissatisfied withgovernment. “Letter Concerning Toleration” (1689)
Thomas Paine (1737-1809) Born in England but moved to America. “Common Sense” (1776) – promoted the cause ofAmerican independence “The Rights of Man” – political rights for ALLmen in a democracy; rejection of hereditarygovt; social legislation for the poor. Govt should preserve the natural rights of allmen and rest on the sovereignty of the people Elected to the National Convention in France butarrested during the Terror.
Adam Smith (1723-1790) “The Wealth of Nations” (1776) – “rationalself-interest in a free market economy leadsto economic well-being” Sought to reveal the nature and cause of anation’s prosperity. Advocated the increasing division of labour. Advocated free trade – an economy based on“natural laws” with little govt interference i.e.capitalism