Lectures9 10


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Lectures9 10

  1. 1. Enlightenment Philosophers
  2. 2. Francis Bacon (1561-1626) Whatever the “mind seizes and dwells uponwith particular satisfaction is to be held insuspicion” Bacon’s inductive method of reasoning tointerpret nature evident in his work the“Novum Organum” Move from observations to theory – abottom-up approach
  3. 3. Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794) “On Crimes and Punishments” (1764) Influenced leaders in Europe as well asrevolutionary leaders in the Americancolonies The social contract – people choose to live ina society and have to thus give up somepersonal liberties in exchange for the safetyof society. Laws as the framework of society designed toencourage/prohibit acts
  4. 4.  Laws to be determined rationally and bebased upon the idea of the “greatesthappiness shared by the greatest number” Rational punishment – punishment thatwould fit the crime and not be unnecessarilycruel or arbitrary.
  5. 5. Georges-Louis LeclercBuffon (1707-1788) Humankind’s understanding of the worlddominated by Separate Creation (allcreatures were created separately by God)and the age of the earth as 6 000 years. Buffon challenged this 100 years beforeDarwin. Suggested the common ancestry of man andapes and challenged the age of the earth in“Les Epoques de la Nature” (1788)
  6. 6. Denis Diderot (1713-1784)
  7. 7.  Chief editor of the “L’Encyclopedie” – anattempt to collect all human knowledge,consisting of 17 volumes of text and 11volumes of illustrations. Diderot’s own writings “Supplement auvoyage de Bougainville” challengedcolonization and slavery.
  8. 8. Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) Influenced by Sir Isaac Newton and JohnLocke Worked as a printer and published anewspaper Inventor and worked on electricity Increasing involvement in politics andopposed British policies in American colonies Helped draft the Declaration ofIndependence and approved the USConstitution
  9. 9. Olympe de Gouges (1748-1793)
  10. 10.  Advocate of human rights and equality forwomen “The Declaration of the Rights of Women andof the Citizen” (1791) Belief that women had the right to freespeech and the same rights given to men. Guillotined in 1793
  11. 11. David Hume (1711-1776)
  12. 12.  Scottish Enlightenment emphasis on humanreason and rejection of authority that could notbe justified by reason Changes guided by reason could improvesociety. Hume’s “radical skepticism” – the importance ofexperience from which we then derive ideas. “A Treatise of Human Nature” (1739-1740), “AnEnquiry Concerning Human Understanding”(1748)
  13. 13. John Locke (1632-1704) “An Essay Concerning HumanUnderstanding” (1690) – all our ideas arederived from experience thus we cannotknow anything beyond our experience “ Two Treatises of Civil Government: (1690) –government depends on the consent of thosewho are governed; majority rule with theright to revolution if dissatisfied withgovernment. “Letter Concerning Toleration” (1689)
  14. 14. Thomas Paine (1737-1809) Born in England but moved to America. “Common Sense” (1776) – promoted the cause ofAmerican independence “The Rights of Man” – political rights for ALLmen in a democracy; rejection of hereditarygovt; social legislation for the poor. Govt should preserve the natural rights of allmen and rest on the sovereignty of the people Elected to the National Convention in France butarrested during the Terror.
  15. 15. Adam Smith (1723-1790) “The Wealth of Nations” (1776) – “rationalself-interest in a free market economy leadsto economic well-being” Sought to reveal the nature and cause of anation’s prosperity. Advocated the increasing division of labour. Advocated free trade – an economy based on“natural laws” with little govt interference i.e.capitalism
  16. 16. Voltaire (1694-1778)
  17. 17.  Reason over superstition and opposition tointolerance, cruelty and tyranny. Freedom of expression: “I may disapprove ofwhat you say but I will fight to death for yourright to say it.”