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Lecture11 12 Lecture11 12 Presentation Transcript

  • European Salon
  •  Enlightenment ideas exchanged inclubs, journals, newspapers and salons Salons presided over by elite womenwith focus on sociable conversation “Woman question” – the role andcapabilities of women Two views: lesser access to educationmeant women could not contribute asmen did; women had less intellectualcapacity
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  •  Argued that men and women werecompletely different with educationrequired only for boys – “Emile: Or, OnEducation” (1762) Belief regarding the role of woman:“Woman is made specially to pleaseman…and to be subjugated.” Women’s focus should be the home. Nature had created permanentdistinctions between the sexes.
  •  Salons however gave womenopportunities for learning The approval of salon hostesses oftenrequired for men to gain access toprestigious societies e.g. AcademieFrancais (which did not allow women) Salons as part of the public sphere Women increasingly arguing for femalelearning
  • Enlightenment Philosophers andGender Philosphers not keen to change thesituation of women Rousseau “Social Contract” – naturegave man dominance over woman andchildren Hobbes – no justification in nature orscripture for male domination Mary Wollstonecraft “Vindication of theRights of Women” – women’s plight dueto the tyranny of men
  • Mary Wollstonecraft
  •  Early work “Thoughts on the Educationof Daughters” (1786) French Revolution attacked by EdmudBurke Wollstonecraft’s response “A Vindicationof the Rights of Man” defending theprinciples of the revolution “A Vindication of the Rights of Woman”(1792) – a milestone for women’s rights.
  •  Emphasizes women’s rationality andargues for women’s education. Extended the Enlightenment philosophy ofreason to women. Women only passive as they were raisedas such – they were equal to men andcould have professions and careers. Proposed education of boys and girlstogether Women to empower themselves
  • Introduction Race is not a permanent fixture but an ideawith a history Enlightenment focus on natural law – onesystem of law that governed all humanbehaviour Idea of common humanity and thatdifferences were as a result ofexperience/environment However focus on science replacedreligion and led to a hierarchical ordering ofnature.
  • Carl Linnaeus
  • The Enlightenment and Race 1735 – early attempt at scientificclassification of human types Differentiation of Europeans, AmericanIndians, Asians and Africans. Comte de Buffon – classification of allraces and everything else into a“naturally” ordered hierarchy withEuropeans the top. Inferiority and superiority due toenvironment
  • Classifying Race
  •  Context of discovery and explorationand greater knowledge of rest of theworld Europe as living in the “Age of Light” incomparison the “Dark Continent” “Reason” and “civilisation” = “whitepeople and northern Europe”
  • Burning the Jews
  •  Previously little interaction with other racesuntil Enlightenment Allowed for scientific categorization ofraces Yet, at the same time, also believed inindividual rights and the notion that “allmen are created equal” Separation of church and state meant lesspersecution of Jews French Revolution abolished slavery
  • 19thCentury Views on Race Monogenesis – all races had a commonorigin Polygenesis – different races originatedfrom different species Ethnology – anthropology that dealt withthe “origin, distribution andcharacteristics of human racial groups”
  •  JC Prichard – monogenesis and racialdifferences due to “civilizing process”;justified imperial expansion based on“civilizing mission” French – polygenesis – other racesincapable of being raised to the level ofEuropeans – influenced pro-slaverygroups in the southern US
  •  Pre-Darwinian scientific racismparticularly evident in US and Francedespite democratic revolutions Biological unfitness could be used toexclude people from citizenship –women, children, the insane and otherracial groups
  • “Scientific” Racial Classification
  •  Germans reject civic nationalism of theEnlightenment in favour of ethnicnationalism However even civic nationalism can beexclusionary if one is defined as beingless than human However Enlightenment still allowed forracial inclusiveness e.g. SA post-1994