Enlightenment ideas exchanged inclubs, journals, newspapers and salons Salons presided over by elite womenwith focus on sociable conversation “Woman question” – the role andcapabilities of women Two views: lesser access to educationmeant women could not contribute asmen did; women had less intellectualcapacity
Argued that men and women werecompletely different with educationrequired only for boys – “Emile: Or, OnEducation” (1762) Belief regarding the role of woman:“Woman is made specially to pleaseman…and to be subjugated.” Women’s focus should be the home. Nature had created permanentdistinctions between the sexes.
Salons however gave womenopportunities for learning The approval of salon hostesses oftenrequired for men to gain access toprestigious societies e.g. AcademieFrancais (which did not allow women) Salons as part of the public sphere Women increasingly arguing for femalelearning
Enlightenment Philosophers andGender Philosphers not keen to change thesituation of women Rousseau “Social Contract” – naturegave man dominance over woman andchildren Hobbes – no justification in nature orscripture for male domination Mary Wollstonecraft “Vindication of theRights of Women” – women’s plight dueto the tyranny of men
Early work “Thoughts on the Educationof Daughters” (1786) French Revolution attacked by EdmudBurke Wollstonecraft’s response “A Vindicationof the Rights of Man” defending theprinciples of the revolution “A Vindication of the Rights of Woman”(1792) – a milestone for women’s rights.
Emphasizes women’s rationality andargues for women’s education. Extended the Enlightenment philosophy ofreason to women. Women only passive as they were raisedas such – they were equal to men andcould have professions and careers. Proposed education of boys and girlstogether Women to empower themselves
Introduction Race is not a permanent fixture but an ideawith a history Enlightenment focus on natural law – onesystem of law that governed all humanbehaviour Idea of common humanity and thatdifferences were as a result ofexperience/environment However focus on science replacedreligion and led to a hierarchical ordering ofnature.
The Enlightenment and Race 1735 – early attempt at scientificclassification of human types Differentiation of Europeans, AmericanIndians, Asians and Africans. Comte de Buffon – classification of allraces and everything else into a“naturally” ordered hierarchy withEuropeans the top. Inferiority and superiority due toenvironment
Context of discovery and explorationand greater knowledge of rest of theworld Europe as living in the “Age of Light” incomparison the “Dark Continent” “Reason” and “civilisation” = “whitepeople and northern Europe”
Previously little interaction with other racesuntil Enlightenment Allowed for scientific categorization ofraces Yet, at the same time, also believed inindividual rights and the notion that “allmen are created equal” Separation of church and state meant lesspersecution of Jews French Revolution abolished slavery
19thCentury Views on Race Monogenesis – all races had a commonorigin Polygenesis – different races originatedfrom different species Ethnology – anthropology that dealt withthe “origin, distribution andcharacteristics of human racial groups”
JC Prichard – monogenesis and racialdifferences due to “civilizing process”;justified imperial expansion based on“civilizing mission” French – polygenesis – other racesincapable of being raised to the level ofEuropeans – influenced pro-slaverygroups in the southern US
Pre-Darwinian scientific racismparticularly evident in US and Francedespite democratic revolutions Biological unfitness could be used toexclude people from citizenship –women, children, the insane and otherracial groups
Germans reject civic nationalism of theEnlightenment in favour of ethnicnationalism However even civic nationalism can beexclusionary if one is defined as beingless than human However Enlightenment still allowed forracial inclusiveness e.g. SA post-1994