Rapid Response to Active Shooters
Rapid Response Learning Objectives <ul><li>Discuss History of Mass Killings </li></ul><ul><li>Mental and Physical Conditio...
Course Goal <ul><li>The purpose of this course of instruction is to aid police officers, specifically the true  first resp...
Motivating Statement <ul><li>As police officers, we will respond to many crises situations throughout our careers.  None w...
Active Shooter- Defined <ul><li>One or more subjects who participate in a random or systematic shooting spree, demonstrati...
Historical Events
Use of Force Policy Considerations <ul><li>Any  use of force must be consistent with State Law (Chapter 9, Texas Penal Cod...
 
ACTIVE SHOOTER   Vs.   BARRICADED SUSPECT/HOSTAGE SITUATION
Active Shooter Vs. Barricade/Hostage <ul><li>It is critical to know the  difference  in these two types of deployments and...
Characteristics  of a Hostage/Barricade Situation <ul><li>Patrol officers are 1st on the scene </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional...
Patrol  Response  to a Barricade/Hostage Situation <ul><li>Patrol response:  4 “C’s”- C ontain,  C ontrol,  C ommunicate, ...
 
Characteristics of an  Active Shooter <ul><li>Patrol officers are 1st on the scene </li></ul><ul><li>Emotionally charged <...
Patrol Response to an  Active Shooter <ul><li>SEARCH </li></ul><ul><li>FIND </li></ul><ul><li>CONFRONT </li></ul><ul><li>S...
 
Rapid Response Plan <ul><li>Rapid Response  training  and  planning  offers several advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By o...
Command and Control: <ul><li>1st Officer on Scene is Incident Commander </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take Command and Control </l...
Gather Intelligence: <ul><li>Question witnesses/victims when time/situation allows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who, What, When, ...
 
 
Locate the Threat <ul><li>LOOK!- Observe signs of destruction that may yield information </li></ul><ul><li>LISTEN!- Sounds...
Communications Problems <ul><li>Compatibility with other responding agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Signal interference and ove...
Evaluate the Need to Close Distance <ul><li>Can you  eliminate  the threat? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you  restrict  and  isol...
CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES <ul><li>Stay together as much as possible </li></ul><ul><li>540 degrees of coverage around team </...
Officer Safety <ul><li>Don’t leave safety/cover if there is no reason to do so ( Threshold Evaluation ) </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Use of Deadly Force Engaging a KNOWN Armed Threat <ul><li>Has the suspect already harmed, or is threatening to harm, someo...
Searching for Suspect(s)- Unknown Threat Area <ul><li>Systematic Clearing of Building </li></ul><ul><li>Time and Manpower ...
Searching for Suspect(s)- Known Threat Area <ul><li>Move  quickly  to the sounds of gunfire, yelling or commotion </li></u...
Engaging Suspect(s) <ul><li>Verbal Commands </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain Cover! </li></ul><ul><li>Dominate with: </li></ul><...
Contact Team Principals <ul><li>Team of first officers on scene (ideal 4/5) </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Multiple Contact Teams <ul><li>Communications with IC is  CRITICAL! </li></ul><ul><li>Beware of other Contact Teams </li><...
Rescue Teams <ul><li>Secondary Responders </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum 4 Officers </li></ul><ul><li>Follow  behind  Contact T...
The  Future ?
 
Al Qaeda Training Tape Assessment Tom Rudd, I Corps and Ft Lewis ATO
Al Qaeda Training Tape Assessment
Weapons Manipulation <ul><li>Handguns are carried in the “High Ready” </li></ul><ul><li>Long Guns (AK Variants) Carried an...
Specific Scenarios <ul><li>Targeting of law enforcement officers in ambush/assassinations. </li></ul><ul><li>Residential A...
Specific Scenarios <ul><li>Use of tunnels/storm drains/ sewer systems for infiltration and exfiltration during raids. </li...
Conclusions <ul><li>If you find yourself in the middle of one of these attacks, there will not be time for the SWAT team t...
Recommendations <ul><li>The best time to act is most likely to be at the initiation of the attack. </li></ul><ul><li>You m...
“The Perfect Day” <ul><li>Combination of attacks designed to produce the maximum number of casualties (WMD) with attacks t...
 
SUMMARY: We have addressed but a few of the considerations when responding to active shooting scenarios.  These types of s...
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  • Transcript of "Rapid Response To Active Shooters W Terror"

    1. 1. Rapid Response to Active Shooters
    2. 2. Rapid Response Learning Objectives <ul><li>Discuss History of Mass Killings </li></ul><ul><li>Mental and Physical Conditioning of Officers </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence of Events at an Active Shooter </li></ul><ul><li>Response to Active Shooter vs. Hostage/Barricade </li></ul><ul><li>Dangers faced by First Responders </li></ul><ul><li>Initial Actions of First Responders </li></ul><ul><li>Proactive Measures to face a lethal threat </li></ul><ul><li>Contact Team responsibilities/tactics </li></ul><ul><li>Rescue Team responsibilities/tactics </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberate Searching Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Room Entry Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Low Light Techniques </li></ul>
    3. 3. Course Goal <ul><li>The purpose of this course of instruction is to aid police officers, specifically the true first responder , in their ability to safely & effectively respond to and active shooting situation </li></ul><ul><li>To improve our initial actions, therefore increasing the level of effectiveness of the overall operation </li></ul><ul><li>TO SAVE AS MANY LIVES AS POSSIBLE!! </li></ul>
    4. 4. Motivating Statement <ul><li>As police officers, we will respond to many crises situations throughout our careers. None will be more physically or mentally challenging than responding to a “homicide in progress” where life hangs in the balance. Our immediate actions will dictate who lives and who dies. </li></ul><ul><li>We have seen many incidents throughout America that the immediate actions taken by the first responder, or lack thereof, made a difference. These reactionary skills are not inherited. They must be learned and practiced to ensure a correct response. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Active Shooter- Defined <ul><li>One or more subjects who participate in a random or systematic shooting spree, demonstrating their intent to continuously harm others. Their overriding object appears to be that of mass murder, rather than other criminal conduct, such as robbery, hostage taking, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes assault with any deadly weapon </li></ul>
    6. 6. Historical Events
    7. 7. Use of Force Policy Considerations <ul><li>Any use of force must be consistent with State Law (Chapter 9, Texas Penal Code) and Departmental Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Officers must be intimately familiar with their agency’s use of force policy, State Law, and applicable case law </li></ul><ul><li>This is critically important when addressing an Active Shooter situation </li></ul>
    8. 9. ACTIVE SHOOTER Vs. BARRICADED SUSPECT/HOSTAGE SITUATION
    9. 10. Active Shooter Vs. Barricade/Hostage <ul><li>It is critical to know the difference in these two types of deployments and to respond appropriately. </li></ul><ul><li>LIVES ARE DEPENDING ON IT! </li></ul>
    10. 11. Characteristics of a Hostage/Barricade Situation <ul><li>Patrol officers are 1st on the scene </li></ul><ul><li>Emotionally charged </li></ul><ul><li>Very volatile </li></ul><ul><li>Somewhat stable </li></ul><ul><li>No victims are CURRENTLY being killed or attacked </li></ul>
    11. 12. Patrol Response to a Barricade/Hostage Situation <ul><li>Patrol response: 4 “C’s”- C ontain, C ontrol, C ommunicate, C all SWAT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set inner/outer perimeter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gather intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare for smooth transition to traditional tactical operation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish Patrol REACT Team </li></ul></ul>
    12. 14. Characteristics of an Active Shooter <ul><li>Patrol officers are 1st on the scene </li></ul><ul><li>Emotionally charged </li></ul><ul><li>Very volatile </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely unstable </li></ul><ul><li>Victims are CURRENTLY being killed or attacked! </li></ul>
    13. 15. Patrol Response to an Active Shooter <ul><li>SEARCH </li></ul><ul><li>FIND </li></ul><ul><li>CONFRONT </li></ul><ul><li>STOP THE KILLING! </li></ul>
    14. 17. Rapid Response Plan <ul><li>Rapid Response training and planning offers several advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By overwhelming the suspect with intimidating aggression using proper tactics , we can: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isolate the suspect from additional victims, and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distract suspect’s attention away from targets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neutralize the threat. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>You may not save everyone, but the goal is to….. save as many lives as possible! </li></ul>
    15. 18. Command and Control: <ul><li>1st Officer on Scene is Incident Commander </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take Command and Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The uniform will draw a reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expect everyone to key on your actions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TAKE COMMAND AND DO SOMETHING! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Someone should stay outside and direct other responding officers </li></ul></ul>
    16. 19. Gather Intelligence: <ul><li>Question witnesses/victims when time/situation allows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who, What, When, Where, How </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If accurate information is obtained, ACT ON IT! </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate collateral damage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(size of bullet holes, explosive damage) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the sounds of weapons </li></ul>
    17. 22. Locate the Threat <ul><li>LOOK!- Observe signs of destruction that may yield information </li></ul><ul><li>LISTEN!- Sounds of gunfire, screaming </li></ul><ul><li>MOVE!- You are an easy target while standing still (and you can’t stop the killing if you don’t ACT!) </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATE!- Tell other responders what you know and what you see </li></ul>
    18. 23. Communications Problems <ul><li>Compatibility with other responding agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Signal interference and overload </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel without radios </li></ul><ul><li>Noise! </li></ul>
    19. 24. Evaluate the Need to Close Distance <ul><li>Can you eliminate the threat? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you restrict and isolate the suspect’s movements? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you take resources away from the suspect (weapons, escape routes)? </li></ul><ul><li>IF ANSWER IS YES TO ANY OR ALL OF THESE, THEN YOU MUST CLOSE DISTANCE AND ENGAGE THE SUSPECT! </li></ul>
    20. 25. CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES <ul><li>Stay together as much as possible </li></ul><ul><li>540 degrees of coverage around team </li></ul><ul><li>Communication with team/I.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Work the Angles </li></ul><ul><li>Threshold Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Move only as fast as you can shoot accurately and think </li></ul>
    21. 26. Officer Safety <ul><li>Don’t leave safety/cover if there is no reason to do so ( Threshold Evaluation ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Call suspect to you </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take shot from hallway instead of entering danger area/room </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Points of COVER </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Action is faster than reaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be prepared for deadly encounter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember “Totality of Circumstances” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Quick Scanning Technique </li></ul></ul>
    22. 27. Use of Deadly Force Engaging a KNOWN Armed Threat <ul><li>Has the suspect already harmed, or is threatening to harm, someone with the use of deadly force? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the suspect have the means (weapon) to carry out or continue carrying out the threat? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there still persons or peace officers the suspect can carry out the threats upon? </li></ul>
    23. 28. Searching for Suspect(s)- Unknown Threat Area <ul><li>Systematic Clearing of Building </li></ul><ul><li>Time and Manpower Intensive </li></ul><ul><li>Patrol best used to supplement SWAT </li></ul><ul><li>Search every room (open and closed doors) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum of 2 officers per room (small room exception, i.e. bathroom, closet, etc.) </li></ul></ul>
    24. 29. Searching for Suspect(s)- Known Threat Area <ul><li>Move quickly to the sounds of gunfire, yelling or commotion </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain 540° coverage while moving to threat area </li></ul><ul><li>Quickly, but tactically, clear corners and intersecting hallways (Don’t bog down) </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate with witnesses for updated information </li></ul>
    25. 30. Engaging Suspect(s) <ul><li>Verbal Commands </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain Cover! </li></ul><ul><li>Dominate with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surprise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violence of Action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quick Scan </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t forget other force options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OC </li></ul></ul>
    26. 31. Contact Team Principals <ul><li>Team of first officers on scene (ideal 4/5) </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate or Contain Threat! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Must bypass wounded </li></ul><ul><li>Direct victims to safety </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Rescue Team towards victims </li></ul>
    27. 32. Multiple Contact Teams <ul><li>Communications with IC is CRITICAL! </li></ul><ul><li>Beware of other Contact Teams </li></ul><ul><li>Work/Search by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Floors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buildings </li></ul></ul>
    28. 33. Rescue Teams <ul><li>Secondary Responders </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum 4 Officers </li></ul><ul><li>Follow behind Contact Team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work at direction of/in coordination with Contact Team </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use Contact Team tactics, however responsible for evacuating injured/non-injured </li></ul><ul><li>Be prepared to IMMEDIATELY become Contact Team! </li></ul>
    29. 34. The Future ?
    30. 36. Al Qaeda Training Tape Assessment Tom Rudd, I Corps and Ft Lewis ATO
    31. 37. Al Qaeda Training Tape Assessment
    32. 38. Weapons Manipulation <ul><li>Handguns are carried in the “High Ready” </li></ul><ul><li>Long Guns (AK Variants) Carried and fired rotated 90 degrees (ejection port up) </li></ul>
    33. 39. Specific Scenarios <ul><li>Targeting of law enforcement officers in ambush/assassinations. </li></ul><ul><li>Residential Assassination. </li></ul><ul><li>Assassination on golf course. </li></ul><ul><li>2 and 4 man live-fire room entry with target discrimination (shoot/ no shoot). </li></ul><ul><li>Raid on compound with Kidnapping. </li></ul><ul><li>Drive up kidnapping. </li></ul>
    34. 40. Specific Scenarios <ul><li>Use of tunnels/storm drains/ sewer systems for infiltration and exfiltration during raids. </li></ul><ul><li>Rappelling from roof of building to make entry on upper floors was shown on more than one occasion. </li></ul><ul><li>Motorcycle drive-by target practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous assaults on large structures with large number of occupants. (School or Office Buildings). </li></ul>
    35. 41. Conclusions <ul><li>If you find yourself in the middle of one of these attacks, there will not be time for the SWAT team to intervene on your behalf. Compliance will buy you only very little time*. </li></ul><ul><li>If, by feigned compliance, you make it through the first cut you will be restrained, searched, and controlled with threats to the rest of your group or other groups. “We will blow up the women and children in the next room if you do not do what we say.” </li></ul>
    36. 42. Recommendations <ul><li>The best time to act is most likely to be at the initiation of the attack. </li></ul><ul><li>You must plan on providing effective resistance at the first opportunity. </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to acquire a better weapons system at the first opportunity! </li></ul><ul><li>Detect the terrorist conducting pre-mission activities. </li></ul>
    37. 43. “The Perfect Day” <ul><li>Combination of attacks designed to produce the maximum number of casualties (WMD) with attacks that would give them the opportunity to get “face time” on the news channels to deliver their rhetoric. </li></ul>
    38. 45. SUMMARY: We have addressed but a few of the considerations when responding to active shooting scenarios. These types of scenes are extremely dynamic and the appropriate response will change drastically from scene to scene. Officers must continue to train on those fundamental skills that will adapt to any type of scenario. These skills will provide the individual officer with a tactical advantage. This “tactical advantage” may make the difference. One point is clear: a swift and effective response by law enforcement many times will serve to minimize the damage and save the lives of potential victims.
    39. 46. Question and Answer
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