K9 History Ashley

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  • 1. History of Police K-9 Basic K-9 Handler Development Course
  • 2. Lesson Objective • Historical overview of canines used in times of war and conflict • Canine use in U.S. Military • PSD’s • Specialized Support Teams • SAR • Guide Dogs for the Blind • Canine use in other countries
  • 3. Historical overview • Canines have been utilized as working dogs since ancient times • Used in times of war Before Christ • Trained to attack enemy soldiers and protect their masters • Used by Ancient Greeks to disclose where enemy was by sending dog in and drawing fire to them • Romans utilized dogs during battle- cut loose on enemy during hand to hand combat » “LET SLIP THE DOGS OF WAR
  • 4. WWI • Germany had 30,000 dogs ready to deploy By 1930, the “Dog War School” at Frankfurt Germany turned out 2,000 dogs annually • “Guide Dogs For The Blind” instituted in Germany during later part of WWI
  • 5. WWII • Before Pearl Harbor, Germany sold 10,000 dogs to the Japanese • America develops “military K-9 corps” in 1942 • In 1952, First United States Air Force Sentry Dog School at Showa AS, Japan • In 1953, Second USAF Sentry Dog School in Wiesbaden, Germany.
  • 6. Police Service Dogs • In 1890’s, fist official use of canines for police service took place in Ghent, Belgium. • K-9’s trained and used to assist in enforcement of laws on American soil. • Training and used different from “centurion” dogs once used by military.
  • 7. Police Service Dogs • In 1907, New York Police Department began an experimental police canine program with dogs imported from Belgium. South Orange, New Jersey, also started their K-9 program, followed by Glen Ridge, New Jersey in 1910. Detroit, Michigan (1917), Berkeley, California (1930), Pennsylvania State Police (1931), and Connecticut State Police (1944). All but the Canadian program ended by the 1950’s.
  • 8. • In 1909, French ring sport was developed in Belgium, Brussels, and Holland, seeding techniques for future police K-9 team exercises throughout the continent.
  • 9. “What we are dealing with in law enforcement is a situation that does not even exist in a wartime environment. We have placed people in urban warfare-type situations for 20 years with no relief. K-9 officers in particular are on the front lines. Typically, a city officer will have three calls waiting when he goes on shift, then dispatch keeps updating the calls…there is court the next day. No wonder some officers have to shut down in order to survive…we have no idea [how these officers’ got there, or what kind of people they were when they started. We have no idea if the people who started resemble the people who are out there now…” » Bill Schroeder, canine trainer
  • 10. 1960’s • The reputation of police service dogs was scarred because of their use in the civil disputes of the 60’s. • Dogs used in many of these riots were shocking because they were used as a “weapon”, not a “tool” of law enforcement. • Dogs became one symbol of racist repression.
  • 11. • Units grew at a remarkable pace. Reached an apex in 1962-1963. • Thereafter, the start-up rate dramatically decreased and the termination rate began to increase.
  • 12. 1970’s • Realization that public opinion would not allow dogs in crowd-control situations, due to civil disorder from previous decade. Contemporary use: “Friendly”demonstrations at schools and public functions.
  • 13. 1970’s Also a time of specialization. Increasing number of departments deploying specialty dogs, detecting explosives, narcotics, and cadavers. “Bite and fight” dogs no longer useful.
  • 14. 1970’s Role of patrol dog began to expand, incorporating search and rescue and the specialty roles. In 1971, the United States Police Canine Association became the largest and oldest active organization of its kind; “Ever striving for the betterment of all police K-9”. In august, 1971, when two existing associations, Police Canine Association and the United States K-9 Association, merged.
  • 15. 1980’s – 1990’s • 1980’s had seen more expansion of PSD units across the country. • Public opinion, court decisions, and training changed police departments’ methods of law enforcement. Education and professionalism emphasized like never before.
  • 16. 1980’s - 1990’s • 1992 Follow-up of INTERPOL survey determines Great Britain, European Continent countries, and Canada, provide a minimum of 12-14 weeks basic training for police dog teams.
  • 17. 1980’s – 1990’s • Policies change, training imperative. • Protection from litigation and civil suits, PSD units now emphasize the use of “reasonable force” in suspect apprehension. Dog and handler must also perfect the concept of “direct control”.
  • 18. 1980’s – 1990’s • Fair Labor Standards Act issues affect departments. Again, we see a decrease in programs throughout the country.
  • 19. 1990’s - 2000 • By 2000, the order of magnitude of police service dog programs in the United States had fluctuated between 300 and over 700 agencies. Lawsuits resulting from implementation of the FLSA as applied to K-9 teams ended many U.S. Programs, including some of the largest, such as the highly productive K-9 unit of the Chicago Police Department, and the most remote, such as the Alaska Department of Corrections K-9 unit, Seward, Alaska.
  • 20. • In 1997, Police Dog Tactics Training, deployment, and K-9 academy instruction information for police and rescue dog handlers and administrators, including specialized POST courses.
  • 21. Canine Specialized Support Teams • SAR • In 1974, first dog trained for forensic (cadaver) search by a police department began work. • In 1975, first California rescue dog unit, WOOF, Inc. (Wilderness Finders, Inc.) Was dispatched by El Dorado County Sheriff’s Department, currently by Marin County Sheriff’s Department, traveling worldwide via U.S. Military, to assist search for missing persons, disaster victims, and to perform forensic detection.
  • 22. SAR Trained to locate human scent. [Non-aggressive find.] • Human remains detection dog (HRD). Trained to locate human decomposition. [Will not alert on live human scent.] NOT cross-trained for other work. Institute for canine forensics. Evidence detection / scent discrimination dogs.
  • 23. 2001 • “Law Enforcement Canines”, designed to accompany the Model Policy on Law Enforcement Canines established by the IACP National Law Enforcement Policy Center. • Today, civilian law enforcement agencies and military units throughout the world use police K-9 in widely ranging detection and apprehension functions. The demand for dogs is high, and the volume of case law affecting their deployment has grown to maintain the highest possible level of professionalism is clear, trained law enforcement K-9.
  • 24. Contact Information: • Police Dog Tactics. WWW.K9TACTICS.COM/ • Canine Specialized Support Team, Santa Clara Coroner’s Office. (888) 413-2778 • Institute for Canine Forensics. WWW.PRUSIK.COM/ K-9FORENSIC • National Association for Search and Rescue • (NASAR) WWW.NASAR.ORG
  • 25. Contact Information: • United States Police Canine Association. WWW.USPCAK9.COM/ Department of Defense Military Working Dog Program, Lackland AFB, Texas. //DODMWD.LACKLAND.AF.MIL/ (Government or military working dog handler or supervisor access only. Training and dog procurement programs information.)