Iacp Taser Study Oc Pgso Lp Pwr Pt (As Of 7 23 04)

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Iacp Taser Study Oc Pgso Lp Pwr Pt (As Of 7 23 04)

  1. 1. IACP Legal Officers Section Los Angeles Annual Conference The Taser A PowerPoint presentation by Eric Edwards Phoenix Police Dept.
  2. 2. Note to viewers: Several non-text video slides have been removed by AELE
  3. 3. CONDUCTED ENERGY- ELECTRO MUSCULAR DISRUPTION WEAPONS <ul><li>M26/X26 TASER IS MOST COMMON TYPE </li></ul><ul><li>NEW TYPES BECOMING AVAILABLE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STINGER SYSTEMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 DART LESS LETHAL GUN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>31 FOOT RANGE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RHEINMETALL W&M (German) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PLASMA TASER (WIRELESS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AERSOL SPRAY- CREATES A CONDUCTIVE CHANNEL FOR A SHOCK CURRENT </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. LEGAL ISSUES <ul><li>IS A TASER A DEADLY WEAPON </li></ul><ul><li>IS A TASER A DANGEROUS WEAPON/ INSTRUMENT </li></ul><ul><li>MAY AN OFFICER USE DEADLY FORCE WHEN CONFRONTED WITH A TASER </li></ul><ul><li>FAILURE TO ISSUE TASERS </li></ul><ul><li>NEGLIGENT TRAINING </li></ul>
  5. 5. LEGAL ISSUES <ul><li>IS A TASER A DEADLY WEAPON </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: IS IT DESIGNED FOR LETHAL USE ? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. TYPES OF TASER <ul><li>M26 (15-20 PULSES PER SECOND) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AUTOMATIC CYCLE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SHUTS OFF IN 5 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MANUAL CYCLE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CONTINUOUS TRIGGER PULL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>X26 (2 SECONDS AT 20 PPS, 3 AT 15) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MANUAL CYCLE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PHOENIX PD REPROGRAMED X26 TO CONSTANT 20 PPS RATE </li></ul>
  7. 7. TASER <ul><li>FIRES 2 PROBES USING COMPRESSED NITROGEN AT 1800 PSI </li></ul><ul><li>THE PROBES ARE STRAIGHTENED FISH HOOKS WHICH DELIVER 50,000 VOLTS </li></ul><ul><li>CAUSES ELECTRO MUSCULAR DISRUPTION </li></ul>
  8. 8. STUN VS EMD <ul><li>STUN SYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>JAMS THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM WITH ELECTRICAL NOISE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AFFECTS SENSORY NERVOUS SYSTEM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PAIN COMPLIANCE ONLY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EMD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>JAM AND OVERRIDE THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CAUSING UNCONTROLLABLE CONTRACTIONS OF THE MUSCLE TISSUE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AFFECTS BOTH THE SENSORY AND MOTOR NERVOUS SYSTEMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DO NOT RELY ON PAIN ALONE </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. STUN VS EMD <ul><li>CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>COMMAND CENTER (BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD) PROCESSES INFORMATION AND MAKES DECISIONS </li></ul><ul><li>SENSORY NERVOUS SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>NERVES THAT CARRY INFORMATION FROM THE BODY TO THE BRAIN. TOUCH, TEMPERATURE, ETC. </li></ul><ul><li>STUN SYSTEMS AFFECT THESE NERVES </li></ul><ul><li>MOTOR NERVOUS SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>NERVES THAT CARRY COMMANDS FROM THE BRAIN TO THE MUSCLES TO CONTROL MOVEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>EMD SYSTEMS AFFECT BOTH THE SENSORY AND MOTOR NERVES </li></ul>21
  10. 10. 27
  11. 11. LEGAL ISSUES <ul><li>IS A TASER A DEADLY WEAPON </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: IS IT DESIGNED FOR LETHAL USE ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A: NO </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. LEGAL ISSUES <ul><li>IS A TASER A DEADLY WEAPON </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: IS IT LIKELY TO CAUSE DEATH OR SERIOUS PHYSICAL INJURY? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> THAT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> IS THE MILLION DOLLAR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> QUESTION </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. TASER RELATED DEATHS <ul><li>68 REPORTED DEATHS WHERE TASER HAS BEEN USED SINCE 1999 (AZ REPUBLIC ARTICLE 8/25/04) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 CASES M.E. STATED TASER CAUSED OR CONTRIBUTED TO DEATH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 CASES M.E. COULD NOT RULE OUT TASER </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. TASER RELATED DEATHS <ul><li>5 CAUSED OR CONTRIBUTED </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monroe County, Ind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple Taser cycles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cause of death </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ENLARGED HEART </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PHARMACOLOGIC INTOXICATION </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ELECTRICAL SHOCKS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jailer charged w/ 2 cts of felony battery while armed w/ a deadly weapon (faces 16 yrs) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. TASER RELATED DEATHS <ul><li>5 CAUSED OR CONTRIBUTED </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Las Vegas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7 Taser cycles (some while handcuffed) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High on PCP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple Taser cycles prevented ability to breath and ultimately contributed to cardiac arrest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Same subject had similar incident 2 weeks prior, no Taser used </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. TASER RELATED DEATHS <ul><li>5 CAUSED OR CONTRIBUTED </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Orange County, Fla </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>11 Taser cycles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taser shocks and cocaine contributed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>M.E. looking at positional asphyxia, “Taser probably got him in that situation” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd opinion- died primarily from cocaine overdose </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. TASER RELATED DEATHS <ul><li>2 COULD NOT BE RULED OUT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Los Angeles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5 Taser cycles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meth and cocaine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Died while being restrained </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>M.E. - relationship between Taser and the heart attack </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. TASER RELATED DEATHS <ul><li>2 COULD NOT BE RULED OUT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Hamilton, Ohio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 Taser cycles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Swallowed bag of cocaine 7 hours before death </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>M.E. – the exact role of Taser in this individual’s demise is unknown </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. TASER RELATED DEATHS <ul><li>TASER ESTIMATES 45,000 POLICE TASER APPLICATIONS (Phoenix PD currently has 1,500 Tasers on the street, approx. 1,132 applications since 6/01) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>68 REPORTED DEATHS WHERE TASER HAS BEEN USED SINCE 1999 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>APPROX O.15% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 CASES M.E. STATED TASER CAUSED OR CONTRIBUTED, OR COULD NOT RULE OUT TASER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>APPROX 0.0155% </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. LEGAL ISSUES <ul><li>IS A TASER A DEADLY WEAPON </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: IS IT LIKELY TO CAUSE DEATH OR SERIOUS PHYSICAL INJURY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> THAT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> IS THE MILLION DOLLAR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> QUESTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A: THE MILLION DOLLAR ANSWER IS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. TASER RELATED DEATH ISSUES <ul><li>A. MULTIPLE TASER CYCLES </li></ul><ul><li>B. PRESENCE OF DRUGS </li></ul><ul><li>C. HEART CONDITION </li></ul><ul><li>D. PHYSICAL STRUGGLE </li></ul><ul><li>E. HOLSTER POSITION </li></ul>
  22. 22. TASER RELATED DEATHS <ul><li>A. MULTIPLE TASER CYCLES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EACH CYCLE SIMILAR TO A STRENUOUS WORKOUT, INCREASES BLOOD FLOW, ADRENALINE RUSH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASSESS EFFECTIVENESS OF EACH CYCLE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ADTL CYCLE OR DIFFERENT TACTIC </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. TASER RELATED DEATHS <ul><li>A. MULTIPLE TASER CYCLES (Cont) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CRITICAL TO ATTEMPT TO CONTROL SUBJECT DURING TASER CYCLE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TRAIN OFFICERS TO GO HANDS ON DURING TASER CYCLE, UNLESS UNSAFE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ARMED SUBJECTS FREQUENTLY DO NOT DROP THE WEAPON, UNSAFE TO APPROACH WHILE STILL ARMED </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. 12
  25. 25. TASER RELATED DEATHS <ul><li>B. PRESENCE OF DRUGS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SIGNIFICANT FACTOR IN VAST MAJORITY OF CASES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POLICY CONSIDERATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LIMIT/PROHIBIT MULTIPLE CYCLES WHEN REASONABLE GROUNDS TO BELIEVE DRUGS IN SYSTEM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SIMILAR TO LIMIT ON MULTIPLE USES OF CAROTID CONTROL TECHNIQUE </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. TASER RELATED DEATHS <ul><li>C. HEART CONDITION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FREQUENT FACTOR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TASER CYCLE SIMILAR TO STRENUOUS WORKOUT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO WAY FOR OFFICERS TO KNOW </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. TASER RELATED DEATHS <ul><li>D. PHYSICAL STRUGGLE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>COMMON FACTOR IN MAJORITY OF CASES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HOWEVER, WHAT BETTER TIME TO USE A TASER </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POLICY AND TRAINING ISSUE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OFFICERS SHOULD BE AWARE OF EXCITED DELIRIUM AND INTERACTION BETWEEN DRUGS AND PHYSICAL STRUGGLE REGARDLESS OF WHAT TYPE OF FORCE USED </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. TASER RELATED DEATHS <ul><li>E. HOLSTER POSITION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WEARING ON STRONG SIDE MAY LEAD TO ACCIDENTAL SHOOTINGS DUE TO MUSCLE MEMORY DURING SERIOUS ALTERCATIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POLICY- REQUIRE WEARING TASER ON SUPPORT SIDE </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. LEGAL ISSUES <ul><li>2. IS A TASER A DANGEROUS WEAPON/ INSTRUMENT </li></ul><ul><li>U.S v WALLACE 800 F.2D 1509 (9 TH Cir, 1988) #51 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STUN GUN IS A DANGEROUS WEAPON AS A MATTER OF LAW FOR PURPOSES OF 42 USC 1472(L), (CONCEALED ON AIRPLANE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>REASONING VERY FACT SPECIFIC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MAY CAUSE PERMANENT EYE INJURY </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MAY INCAPACITATE 20-40 PEOPLE AT A TIME </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>INJURY TO FLIGHT CREW DEVASTATING </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PROVOKES FEAR IN PASSENGERS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COMPARE YOUR STATE LAW DEFINITION OF DANGEROUS WEAPON/ INSTRUMENT </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. LEGAL ISSUES <ul><li>3. MAY AN OFFICER USE DEADLY FORCE WHEN CONFRONTED WITH A TASER </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NO CASES FOUND </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LOOK TO REASONABLENESS UNDER TOTALITY OF THE CIRCUMSTANCES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TASER TEMPORARILY INCAPACITATES </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OFFICER MAY BE DISARMED </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TASER MAY CAUSE INJURY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FROM FALL </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PROBE TO EYE </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. LEGAL ISSUES <ul><li>4. FAILURE TO ISSUE TASERS </li></ul><ul><li>CARSWELL v BOROUGH OF HOMESTEAD </li></ul><ul><li>381 F.3d 235 (3rd Cir, 2004) #2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NO MUNICIPAL LIABILITY FOR FAILURE TO EQUIP OFFICER WITH NON-LETHAL WEAPONS (also see) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PLAKAS v DRINSKI 19 F.3d 1143 (7 th Cir, 1994) #32 </li></ul>
  32. 32. LEGAL ISSUES <ul><li>5. NEGLIGENT TRAINING </li></ul><ul><li>MATEYKO v FELIX 913 F.2d 744 (9th Cir 1989) #46 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MUNICIPAL LIABILITY ONLY WHERE FAILURE TO TRAIN AMOUNTS TO DELIBERATE INDIFFERENCE TO THE RIGHTS OF PERSONS WITH WHOM THE POLICE COME INTO CONTACT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THE FOCUS MUST BE ON THE ADEQUACY OF TRAINING IN RELATION TO TASKS PARTICULAR OFFICERS MUST PERFORM </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. TRAINING AND POLICY <ul><li>TASER TRAINING MUST BE REALISTIC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TRAINING FREQUENTLY TEACHES ONE CYCLE AND SUBJECT SURRENDERS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually because used on officer who is not driven to fight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avg 2-2.5 Taser cycles to gain compliance from combative subjects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bad guys who want to fight usually still want to fight after being tased </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. USE ON ANIMALS 88 USE ON ANIMALS DO BAD GUYS STILL WANT TO FIGHT, OR AM I FULL OF BULL
  35. 35. TRAINING AND POLICY <ul><li>TASER TRAINING MUST BE REALISTIC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TRAINING SHOULD BE FORCE ON FORCE WITH INSTRUCTOR WHO CONTINUES TO FIGHT AFTER TASER CYCLES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADDRESS OFFICERS VULNERABILITY WHEN CONFRONTED WITH A TASER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TEMPORARY INCAPACITATION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SHOULD OFFICERS BE REQUIRED TO BE TASED TO UNDERSTAND EFFECT? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RED TASER IS LETHAL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TASER EFFECTIVE THROUGH BODY ARMOR </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. BODY ARMOR PENETRATION 39
  37. 37. TRAINING AND POLICY <ul><li>TASER TRAINING MUST BE REALISTIC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DEMONSTRATE REASONS TASER MAY FAIL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy clothing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clothing falls away from body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only one probe makes contact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drive stun still effective </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. TRAINING AND POLICY <ul><li>MULTIPLE TASER CYCLES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ADDRESS WHETHER OR WHEN APPORPRIATE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AVG 2-2.5 TASER CYCLES TO GAIN COMPLIANCE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OFFICERS SHOULD INFORM OTHER OFFICERS AND JAIL WHEN TASER HAS BEEN USED </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASSESS EFFECTIVENESS OF EACH CYCLE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ADTL CYCLE OR DIFFERENT TACTIC </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. TRAINING AND POLICY <ul><li>ADVISE OTHER OFFICERS ON THE SCENE WHEN READY TO DEPLOY TASER </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IMPORTANT TO AVOID CONTAGIOUS FIRE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SURPRISE THE SUSPECT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MORE EFFECTIVE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DISTRACTION OR DIVERSION MAY BE AS EFFECTIVE AS SURPRISE </li></ul>
  40. 40. TRAINING AND POLICY <ul><li>LIMITS ON USE WHEN: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SUBJECT IS PREGNANT- DANGER TO FETUS FROM FALL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ONLY WHEN ACTIVE AGGRESSION </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ONLY TO AVOID DEADLY FORCE </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DO NOT USE </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SUBJECT IS DRIVING </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ONLY WITH COMPELLING REASON </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DO NOT USE </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SUBJECT HOLDING FIREARM/ WEAPON </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MAY RAISE WEAPON </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CAN STILL SHOOT </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SUBJECT HANDCUFFED OR SECURED </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EXCEPTION- AGGRAVATED AGGRESSION </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. TRAINING AND POLICY <ul><li>DO NOT USE: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WHEN FLAMMABLES PRESENT (OC, DRUG LABS,ETC) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WHEN FALL MAY REASONABLY CAUSE SERIOUS INJURY OR DEATH (IN TREE, ON FENCE, ETC) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PUNITIVELY OR TO IMPROPERLY COERCE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exception? ok to coerce person who is threatening to fight by arcing Taser </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TO AWAKEN UNCONCIOUS OR INTOXICATED PERSONS </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. TRAINING AND POLICY <ul><li>TASER USE IS APPROPRIATE AT WHAT LEVEL OF RESISTANCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VERBAL NON-COMPLIANCE? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DEFENSIVE RESISTANCE? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ACTIVE AGGRESSION? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EARLY USE MAY PREVENT THE ESCALATION OF FORCE </li></ul>
  43. 43. TRAINING AND POLICY <ul><li>PROBES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PENETRATES THE SKIN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>REMOVE AND IMPOUND </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ALONG WITH SOME OF THE A.F.IDS (ID TAGS) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DISCARD WIRES </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PRIOR TO FIRES ARRIVAL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IF NOT, FIRE CONSIDERS IT A SURGICAL PROCEDURE AND WILL TRANSPORT TO HOSPITAL FOR REMOVAL </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FACE, THROAT OR GROIN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DO NOT REMOVE </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. 46
  45. 45. TASER <ul><li>MAXIMUM RANGE OF 21 FEET </li></ul><ul><li>OPTIMUM EFFECTIVE DISTANCE IS 7 TO 15 FEET </li></ul><ul><li>MINIMUM DISTANCE IS 3 FEET </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ALLOWS FOR SUFFICIENT PROBE SPREAD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USE AT CLOSER RANGE HAS THE SAME EFFECT AS A DRIVE STUN </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. TASER TARGETS <ul><li>WHEN POSSIBLE FIRE AT THE SUSPECTS BACK </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SURPRISE FACTOR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CLOTHING FITS TIGHTER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LARGER MUSCLE GROUP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EVEN MORE OVERWHELMING </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NON-TARGET AREAS NOT EXPOSED </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. TASER TARGETS <ul><li>DRIVE STUN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MAY BE LESS EFFECTIVE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PAIN COMPLIANCE ONLY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>THE FACE, THROAT AND GROIN SHOULD NOT BE TARGETED </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UNLESS IN A DEADLY FORCE ENCOUNTER </li></ul></ul>

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