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Combat Pistol


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  • 2. Combat Pistol School
  • 3.
    • All Guns are always loaded.
    • Never let the muzzle cover anything your not willing to destroy.
    • Keep your finger off the trigger until your sights are on the target.
    • Be sure of your target.
    General Safety Rules
  • 4. Safety Considerations for Everyone
    • Handle every Firearm as if it were loaded.
    • Never point a Firearm at anyone or shoot anything you don’t intend to kill.
    • Do not accept a Firearm handed to you unless the action is open.
    • Visually inspect the chamber.
    • Control the muzzle at all times.
    • Don’t trust safeties on Firearms. They are mechanical devices.
  • 6. These Accident Factors must be present for anyone to be injured or killed with a Firearm.
    • Weapon must be loaded.
    • Weapon must be handled.
    • Muzzle must be pointed in the direction of a person or an object that can ricochet the round.
    • The action must work!
  • 7. Handgun Nomenclature Stocks Rear Sight Front Sight Decocking Lever Slide Release Magazine Release
  • 8. Auto Pistol Modifications
    • High Visibility Sights
    • Night Sights
    • Good Crisp Trigger
      • 3 1/2 to 4 1/2 pounds
    • Magazine Floor Plate Pads
    • Laser Sights
    • Trigger Stops
    • Extended Magazine Release
    • Trigger Jobs
  • 9. Modifications to New Generation Pistols
    • Modifications by a “gunsmith” to your life saving piece of equipment puts you and others at risk.
    • The tampering can make the weapon unsafe and unreliable when it is pressed into service.
    • Avoid advertisements that promise to enhance performance of your weapon.
  • 10. Modifications to New Generation Pistols
    • The modification will usually void any manufacturer warranty and the potential of total disclaimer of weapon performance and liability.
    • Killeen Police Department Firearms General Order prohibits these actions and others to the Duty Weapon.
  • 11. Modifications to New Generation Pistols
    • The allure of dressing up one’s duty piece is enticing, but remember the purpose of the Combat Pistol , it must be a dependable, accurate and fully functional life saving piece of equipment that must work 100% of the time. It is not a showpiece, nor a conversation piece. Do not wear your ego in your holster for all to see.
  • 12. Modifications to New Generation Pistols
    • Your new generation pistol is the result of years of research and testing. Your weapon has benefited from the early model competition weapons and street proven techniques that were normally considered “customizing”. Out of the box, your weapon is COMBAT READY .
  • 14. Modern Techniques of Shooting DVC Diligentia Vis Celerita Latin for “accuracy, power, speed”, is the defacto motto of the Modern Technique and of practical shooting in general. An accurate shot is useless if delivered too slowly or with an insufficient blow. A powerful blow delivered too late or which does not hit the target is likewise useless, as is a quickly delivered but inaccurate or weak blow.
  • 15. Modern Techniques of Shooting “The Triad” Gun Handling Marksmanship Mindset
  • 16. The Triad
    • All of the modern techniques, whether for the pistol, shotgun or rifle are based upon what has come to be called “ The Triad .”
    • The Triad consists of three equal and interconnected principals of gun handling, mind set and marksmanship, all of which must be learned through proper training and practice.
  • 17. The Triad
    • Gun Handling - This is the safe and efficient use, presentation, and maintenance of one’s firearm.
    • Marksmanship - This is the ability to hit one’s target quickly and accurately.
    • Mindset - This is the “crisis management” and the ability to hit one’s target while under stress. Failure to think correctly in the use of deadly force, respond to deadly force, or to learn the doctrine and techniques for their management leaves your survival or success to pure chance.
  • 18. Gunfighting
    • The operation of weapons may be considered a science, but the use of weapons to win an engagement is not, it is the “Art of Gunfighting”.
  • 19. Strategy
    • The word Strategy derives from the Greek word “ strategos ” meaning General Officer. Therefore Strategy is the art of the General, indirectly to do with fighting. A good Strategist can be a poor fighter.
  • 20. Tactics
    • The word Tactics derives from the word “ touch ” and implies actually touching one’s foe in combat. Tactics has come to mean simply the more or less systematic conduct of a fight.
  • 21. Tactics
    • The first principal of Tactics is SPEED .
    • If fighting becomes necessary, delays of even split seconds can determine the outcome of the engagement.
    • The best fight is that which is over before the loser ever realizes it has begun.
  • 22. Tactics
    • No Tactical Plan is effective if it’s object is given time to understand it.
    • But even a bad plan will usually succeed if it is executed before it can be intelligently countered.
      • Remember, a bad plan is better than no plan at all.
  • 23. The Tactician
    • The goal of the Tactician is to insure that the fight is never fair. The Tactician must bring overwhelming force to bear upon the opponent and dispose of him before any counter measures can be deployed.
    • This is called “defeat in detail” and both sides are aware of it. The skillful succeeds.
  • 24. The Tactician
    • Your opponent wants to live as much as you do, and while he may appear to be unskilled, do not count on it.
      • Prior training
      • Military
      • Survival School
      • Militia
  • 25. The Tactician
    • As you try to confound him, he will try to confound you. The faster of the two and the one with a plan will win.
    • This is where discipline to your tactical training counts.
  • 26. The Tactician
    • Do not always rely upon strength in numbers, one skilled, alert and determined opponent can be the equivalent of a dozen men that are unskilled and undisciplined.
    • Rethink numbers as units of force.
  • 27. The Tactician
    • Remember the Principals of Tactics
  • 28. Applied Tactics
    • After you have fired at a threat: Scan, then lower to the “hunt” so that you can see and assess the threat.
    • If the immediate threat is neutralized, start looking for other threats.
    • Don’t forget to look left, right and over your shoulder.
  • 29. Applied Tactics
    • Think Ammunition.
    • Think Malfunction (is my gun still functioning)?
    • Think Cover.
  • 30. Applied Tactics
    • Rules for winning a gun fight
    • 1. Bring a gun!
    • 2. Bring a big gun!
    • 3. Bring lots of friends with guns!
    • “ The best reason for carrying a handgun is so you can fight your way back to the rifle you should have had in the first place” John Farnam
  • 31. Applied Tactics
    • Remember, everything that can go wrong will probably go wrong, Don’t stand there, Do something, even if it’s the wrong thing it may buy you time to do the right thing…
    • This comes back to a BAD PLAN is better than no plan at all.
  • 32. Applied Tactics
    • Move when you make your presentation.
    • Move after several shots or after several seconds.
    • Move when you reload.
    • Move when your gun stops.
    • MOVE, MOVE, MOVE...
  • 33. Applied Tactics
    • Never cross your feet or lose your balance.
    • Never leave an area unchecked before advancing.
    • Never put your foot down where you can not see. Always step forward.
    • Never holster an empty gun. If it’s in the holster, it’s ready to fight with.
  • 34. Applied Tactics
    • Interview Stance: Stand with your body bladed, non-weapon side closest to the threat, gun side back. Mindset conditioned to react to level of threat.
  • 35. Applied Tactics
    • Rules of Cover
    • Find it before the fight starts.
    • Get to it before the fight starts.
    • Don’t leave it until the fight is over.
    • If you must move, take what you need with you.
  • 36. Applied Tactics
    • Rules of Cover
    • Minimum amount of exposure for a minimum amount of time.
    • No more than 2 or 3 shots from any one position.
    • Never come out in the same position consecutively.
  • 37. Applied Tactics
    • Rules of Cover
    • Stay well back from cover.
    • Cover is better than concealment, but concealment is better than nothing.
    • If you think its cover, it probably isn’t.
  • 38. The Combat Mind Set
    • Man fights with his mind
      • Hands and weapons are simply an extension of his will.
      • The fallacy is that equipment is the equivalent of force.
      • Specialized Teams are aware of these fallacies and factor them into their plans.
  • 39. What is the Combat Mind Set
    • “ State of mind which insures victory in a gunfight.”
  • 40. The Combat Mind Set is composed of:
  • 41. Combat Mind Set
    • Above all else, it’s essence is
  • 42. Combat Mind Set
    • When “Cop Killers” were interviewed in prison, the most common response to the question of why did you shoot the police officer was-
    • Because the Cop lost control of the situation and I took control...
  • 43. Mental Conditioning
    • When you are in a fight, your response should not be “Oh, my God, I’m in a fight, how did this happen”. But rather;
    • “ I thought this could happen, I’m ready and I know what to do”.
  • 44. Mental Conditioning “ The Combat Mind Set”
  • 45. Mental Conditioning
    • Most people exist in the WHITE phase and are not ready to react to any type of threat, this is called the “Relaxed Condition”
    • This condition is a de-stressor, but only to Officers when it is safe to do so.
  • 46. Mental Conditioning
    • Officers should be in this mind set when they are known in their community as a Law Enforcement Official, on and off duty.
    • The mind is conditioned to say, “I may have to use deadly force today”.
  • 47. Mental Conditioning
    • This mind set is used when the aggressor is singled out or in a situation that can lead to deadly force.
    • The mind is conditioned to say “I must be ready to use deadly force and I have a plan of action”.
  • 48. Mental Conditioning
    • You are engaged in a deadly force situation and you are determined to stop the threat being directed against you or others.
    • The technical matter of placing the shot is your task.
  • 49. Mental Conditioning
    • Instinct and mental conditioning will determine the outcome of your reaction.
    • It is easier to get to RED when you are already in ORANGE .
    • Training is the only way to overcome a negative or unsatisfactory reaction.
  • 50. Combat Mind Set Response
    • Before the fact;
      • Alert, prepared and aware
      • Fear should be channeled into Anger.
    • During the fight;
      • Total concentration upon the technical matter of placing the shot effectively.
  • 51. Combat Mind Set Response
    • After the conflict;
      • Probably relief, gratification and PRIDE !
  • 52. Before the Fact
    • You have a plan, even a bad plan is better than no plan at all.
    • You have mentally prepared yourself well in advance.
    • Fear and Anger are physiological responses that derive from the same chemical in your body.
  • 53. Before the Fact
    • When you experience FEAR , you cannot think clearly, you experience “Tunnel Vision” and have a flight instead of fight response.
    • ANGER allows you to think clearly and react to the threat with decisiveness and determination.
  • 54. During the Fight
    • Heads up display;
    • Concentration on the FRONT SIGHT ;
    • Smooth depression of the trigger;
    • Concentration on the FRONT SIGHT .
  • 55. During the Fight
    • If you concentrate on the Front Sight and have a clear, sharp picture of it and concentrate on a smooth steady surprise break of the trigger, you will get your hits.
  • 56. The Pistolero
    • History of the Handgun
      • Began as a military arm, extending the reach of the Cavalryman beyond that of the Infantry Pike, while allowing him to manage his horse with his free hand.
  • 57. The Service Pistol
    • A satisfactory Service Pistol must include the following:
      • Dependability,
      • Power,
      • Controllability
  • 58. Dependability
    • A Service Pistol (Duty Weapon) is a life saving instrument, it must work 999 times out if a 1000.
    • It must never be altered to remove factory specifications or upgraded to a “Race Gun”.
    • The Officer must feel confident that the Pistol will perform when placed into service.
  • 59. Power
    • It must be sufficiently powered to stop a determined threat with acceptable Wound Trauma Incapacitation (WTI).
    • The larger the caliber, the more effective the WTI.
  • 60. Controllability
    • The Officer must be able control the Pistol with minimum effort.
    • The Officer must be able to perform all stoppages, clearances and reloads.
  • 61. The SNS Effect
    • Sympathetic Nervous System
    • Activation of the SNS is automatic and virtually uncontrollable.
    • Occurs anytime one perceives a threat to survival and results in the immediate discharge of stress hormones.
    • Increase in arterial blood flow to large muscle groups, resulting in an enhancement to gross motor skills.
  • 62. The SNS Effect
    • Vasoconstriction of minor blood vessels, pupil dilation, cessation of the digestive process and muscle tremors will occur.
    • Once activated, SNS will dominate all voluntary and involuntary systems until the threat is eliminated.
    • Term “Tunnel Vision” and “Flight or Fight” Syndrome is used.
  • 63. The SNS Effect
    • Motor Skills, Vision and Cognizant Thought Processing are the three most prominent performance inhibitors when under the SNS effect. For these reasons the gunhandling skills taught an individual who is training for combat must rely, to the greatest extent possible, on gross motor skills.
    • “ Remember the Big Things”
    • Basic Marksmanship
  • 65. Grip
    • The Grip on the weapon is the foundation of Good Marksmanship.
    • You want to achieve a firm grip, but not a “white knuckle” grasp.
    • Remove all the “air” from around the stocks with your hands.
  • 66. Trigger Control
    • Control the trigger in both directions.
    • Slapping the trigger produces errors in shot placement.
    • Train to find the “disconnector” to allow for quicker follow-up shots.
  • 67. Depressing the Trigger
    • Term is used instead of squeezing or pulling the trigger.
    • Trigger depressed straight to the rear, a smooth continuous motion.
  • 68. Establishing a Trigger Rhythm
    • Depress trigger according to a rhythm.
    • From forward most position to rear most position.
    • Letting the gun go off instead of making it go off.
  • 69. Sight Alignment
    • Relationship of the front sight to the rear sight without any relationship to the target.
    • Light relief is obtained by extending the pistol at arms length.
    • Pistol Sights are manufactured to work at arms length.
  • 70. Center Mass
    • High Center Mass
      • Most effective with pistols, creates best WTI on threat.
    • Center Mass
      • Best used with shotgun pellets, allows for better dispersion of shot
  • 71. Stance
    • Upper body strength needed when using Modified Weaver or stoppages will occur because the weapon will experience low recoil absorption.
    • Lock out weapon arm firmly.
    • Most any stance that closely to the Modified Weaver that is comfortable and produces good shoot placement is acceptable.
  • 72. Stance
    • Three dominate stances used in pistol shooting;
      • Weaver (classic)
      • Modified Weaver
      • Isosceles
    • Turnipseed Stance
      • Enhanced Weaver
  • 73. “ Classic” Weaver Stance In the “Classic” Weaver two-handed stance, your strong arm is slightly flexed and pushes the gun out. The supporting arm, which is more flexed, counters this by pulling the gun in to create a strong braced hold. Sometimes referred as “Isometric” tension.
  • 74. Modified Weaver Stance In the “Modified” or “Chapman” Weaver, the position of your feet is the same and your supporting arm is still flexed. Your strong arm is kept as straight as possible.
  • 75. Weaver Stance An important characteristic of both Weaver Stances are that your feet are apart with your weak side foot slightly forward. This is also called the “Bladed Stance” or “Interview Stance”
  • 76. Weaver (all) Stance
    • Can stress the body if maintained for long period of time. Skeletal alignment is unnatural.
    • Has some balance control issues
    • Requires discipline via training to perform this presentation under stress. Average shooter is not willing to commit.
    • Experts claim SNS will force shooter into Isosceles during gunfight anyway.
  • 77. Weaver (all) Stance
    • Good stance (oblique) for police work.
    • Very fast and can deliver accurate hits.
    • Blends in with “Use of Force Continuum” options.
    • Allows for use of “Harries” Flashlight Technique.
  • 78. Isosceles Stance
    • The Isosceles Stance is nothing more than another variation of the Weaver.
    • The weak hand is placed over the weapon side foot.
    • The body is 180 degrees to the target.
    • Feet placement varies from wide “Horse Stance” to leaning back to support the weapon.
  • 79. Isosceles Stance
    • Can cause stress to the body which leads to pain, fatigue and imbalance.
    • Causes “overswing” of weapon to target resulting in misplaced shots or imbalance.
    • Does not work with Shoulder Weapons.
    • Does not blend with other aspects of “Use of Force” techniques.
    • Designed for Competitive shooters to kill steel and paper.
  • 80. Turnipseed Stance
    • Maintains balance.
    • Skeletal alignment.
    • Works on all weapons.
    • Reduces fatigue
    • Hybrid of the enhanced Weaver platform.
    • Enhanced Weaver is more applicable for LE.
    • Body remains loose and flexible.
  • 81. Vision
    • 30% of your balance is related to vision.
    • During a gunfight, autonomic senses kick in and the shooter uses both eyes to pull in all the information needed to respond to threat.
    • Your dominate eye will take over when shooting with both eyes open.
    • You only have the ability to actively focus at arms length the size of a quarter.
  • 82. Vision
    • Keep sights in natural position to eye to reduce eye fatigue.
    • Tilting the head causes extra work on the eye muscle groups to maintain sights in the fovea of the eyes macula (the center of the retina in the back of the eye).
    • Keeping head up in a natural position reduces the strain on the eye muscles maintaining aiming precision over longer periods of time.
  • 83. Vision
    • During SNS you will experience:
    • A reduction of blood flow to the rods and cones of the eyeball.
    • Up to70% loss of peripheral vision.
    • A significant reduction in your ability to focus on close small objects (such as the front sight).
    • Poor night vision and color recognition.
    • Binocular effect of the eye “Tunnel Vision”.
  • 84. Sight Alignment Techniques Using Sight Alignment to achieve a Sight Picture Target is Hazy Front sight is sharp, clear and equally placed between rear blade aperture Rear sight blade is hazy
  • 85. Sight Alignment Techniques Using Flash Sight to achieve a Sight Picture Target is Hazy Front sight is sharp, clear and quickly acquired thru the window Rear sight blade is used as a “window”
  • 86. Sight Picture
    • Sight Picture is what one sees when using Sight Alignment, incorporating both front and rear sight blades.
    • Flash Sight Picture is obtained by using only the front sight on the target and referencing the back sight as a window.
  • 87. Sight Picture
    • A correct firing stroke, from leather to sight picture, aligns the pistol reflexively, once it is neurologically programmed. The sights are not used to align the pistol, but rather they are used to verify an alignment already achieved by means of a trained presentation. Your mind does not command “up, down, left, right, that’s close, squeeze”. It simply says “ Go ”
  • 88. Sight Picture
    • The single most important issue with your sight alignment is the total concentration upon the FRONT SIGHT .
    • As your pistol lines up reflexively from your presentation, you tell yourself;
  • 89. Sight Picture
    • Keeping the sights aligned with each other (maintaining the sight picture) is more important than keeping the sights precisely pointed at the target (maintaining point of aim).
  • 90. Pistol Silhouette Sight Technique
    • Grip the Gun properly so it is a natural extension of the body.
    • Focus on the threat.
    • Raise the gun to eye level and point it at the threat.
    • Smooth depression of the trigger straight back.
  • 91. Missing the Target
    • Poor grip and trigger control is usually the reason you will miss at any distance.
    • Most shootings will occur in light to dim to utilize your sights.
    • Night sights, flashlights are the essentials for these situations.
  • 92. Most Common Problems
    • Flinching
      • Recoil
      • Noise
      • Shots string vertically downward
        • Attempting to counteract the recoil
      • Shots scattered
        • Anticipation or closing your eyes
    • The Fix - Concentrate on Front Sight
  • 93. Most Common Problems
    • Jerking
      • Shots strung out to one side
      • Pulling trigger too fast
      • Muscles which pull your index finger also tend to curl your whole hand inwards.
      • Usually shows up when speed is added to shot string.
    • The Fix - Gradually build speed while maintaining accuracy.
  • 94. Most Common Problems
    • Fatigue
      • You use muscles which normally don’t see much action, they tire out fast and performance degrades rapidly.
    • The Fix - Shoot or Dry Fire regulary so your muscles will get stronger and build endurance. Fatigue will still occur, but will take longer to set in.
  • 95. The Facts of Life
    • When suspects fire at LE, they hit 9 out of ten times on their target. 50% are head shots. KEEP MOVING!!!
    • When LE fire on a suspect, they hit less than 4 out of 10 times.
    • 92% of the time, we miss at 21 feet or less.
    • Average shots fired by LE has more than tripled in the last ten years, with a reduced hit ratio.
    • Ballistics
  • 97. Shot Placement
    • Shot placement is absolutely critical. If you cannot hit the target, you cannot create WTI.
    • The Term “Stopping Power” is an illusion, there is no such thing as 100% one-shot stopping power, there are no magic bullets and no substitute for Good Marksmanship.
  • 98. Shot Placement
    • Many shootings that involve Police will have intermediate, energy absorbing barriers between the Officer and the suspect.
      • Wood
      • Metal
      • Wallboard
      • Glass
  • 99. Shot Placement
    • According to the Institute of Forensic Sciences in Dallas, up to 70% of Officer involved shootings are non-frontal.
    • This means that you threat will appear from left, right or rear response areas the majority of the time.
  • 100. Duty Ammunition Criteria
    • There are two important issues when selecting Duty Ammunition:
      • Does it offer the best possible performance in a deadly confrontation?
      • Will you be able to defend your decision in a Court of Law, if needed?
  • 101. Duty Ammunition Criteria
    • There is no handgun ammunition which is guaranteed to stop a person with one shot, regardless of caliber, velocity or bullet type.
  • 102. Ballistic Categories Internal External Terminal
  • 103. Internal Ballistics
    • The dynamic forces at work within the firearm before the bullet leaves the barrel.
    • Issues associated with forces;
      • Propellant
      • Bullet size and design
      • Bore size (caliber)
      • Rate of twist (barrel)
  • 104. Internal Ballistics
    • Muzzle Energy (Kinetic Energy)
    • . 22 short = 83 ft/lbs.
    • .22 LR = 140 ft/lbs.
    • Baseball = 140 ft/lbs.
    • 9mm 147gr. = 326 ft/lbs.
    • 40 S&W 180gr. = 475 ft/lbs.
    • 45 ACP 230gr. = 352 ft/lbs.
  • 105. Internal Ballistics
    • Muzzle Energy is sometimes referred to as KNOCKDOWN POWER , in reality, knockdown power is a Sante Fe Train.
  • 106. External Ballistics
    • Usually expressed in terms of bullet speed and trajectory range.
    • Forces of gravity and wind are the primary external forces at work against External Ballistics.
  • 107. External Ballistics
    • Terms used in External Ballistics:
      • Gravity
      • Point of Aim / Point of Impact
      • Flight Integrity
      • Wind Drift
      • Maximum Range
      • Yaw
  • 108. External Ballistics Line of Sight Midrange Trajectory Point of Impact
  • 109. Terminal Ballistics
    • Refers to Wound Trauma Incapacitation (WTI)
    • What the bullet does when it enters the body and the effectiveness of the bullet to incapacitate a live human being.
  • 110. Terminal Ballistics
    • Myths associated with WTI:
      • Shocking Power
      • Stopping Power
      • Knockdown Power
    • True instant incapacitation is a relatively rare occurrence.
  • 111. Terms of Terminal Ballistics
    • Permanent Cavity (Crush Cavity)
      • The amount of tissue actually touched, crushed or pulped by the bullet itself and is the critical part of the wound predicting analysis at most handgun velocities.
      • Big bore and expanding bullets produce the largest crush cavities.
  • 112. Terms of Terminal Ballistics
    • Temporary (Stretch) Cavity
      • This temporary cavity is produced because the bullet passage at high speed forces the tissue laterally with enough velocity to temporarily create a path much larger than the bullet.
      • The kinetic energy of this moving tissue is momentarily transformed into strain energy in the elastic tissue. The bullet’s energy is transferred to the tissue losing it’s velocity.
  • 113. Terms of Terminal Ballistics
    • Temporary (Stretch) Cavity
      • When the strain limit of some tissue is exceeded, the tissue is stretched and actually torn open by the formation of the temporary stretch cavity.
      • The brain, liver, spleen and kidneys are especially sensitive to stretch.
  • 114. Terms of Terminal Ballistics
    • Zone of Maximum Disruption
      • The largest portion of the Temporary Stretch Cavity.
    • Penetration
      • The distance the bullet travels in the body
      • Penetration is a function of bullet weight and design, not velocity.
  • 115. Terms of Terminal Ballistics
    • Upset
      • The change of bullet shape by force or impact.
    • Controlled Expansion
      • The designed mushrooming effect of a bullet upon impact.
      • Expansion is important in that it increases the size of the wound inflicted.
  • 116. Terms of Terminal Ballistics
    • Energy Transfer
      • Energy is defined as the ability to do work.
      • The transfer of bullet energy to the target causes it to penetrate, causes the bullet to expand and causes the permanent and temporary wound cavity.
      • The greater the resistance, the greater the energy transferred.
  • 117. Terms of Terminal Ballistics
    • Vital Zone
      • Areas on the human body containing organs or tissue necessary to sustain life, that when struck by a bullet will likely result in physical incapacitation.
  • 118. Terminal Ballistics
    • There are some things known with certainty
      • If the brain stem is destroyed, all ability to initiate voluntary action is ended. If there are involuntary contractions which do not originate in the brain, movement is possible.
      • If the central nervous system is damaged, movement below the point of destruction stops.
      • If the vital blood supply is lost, movement will cease in a given time period.
  • 119. Terminal Ballistics
    • The single most critical factor is penetration
      • 18 inches preferable, a bullet must penetrate at least 12 inches, whether or not the bullet expands.
      • Increased bullet mass will increase penetration.
  • 120. Rapid WTI and the Human Body
    • Hitting the critical area (shot placement)
      • Reliable accurate weapon
      • High degree of shooting skill
    • Effective WTI requires:
      • Deep penetration
      • Large permanent crush cavity
      • Loss of 40% blood or 2 quarts, strike in brain stem or central nervous system.