Benelli Shotgun
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Benelli Shotgun

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Benelli Shotgun Benelli Shotgun Presentation Transcript

  • Benelli Shotgun Basic M1 Super 90 LETAC ™ Law Enforcement Tactical Concepts
  • Basic Shotgun
    • Time allotted: 24 hours
    • Target group: Basic and In Service Officers
    • Instructors: LETAC Staff
    • Method of instruction: Lecture, demonstration, Discussion & Practical exercises
  • Instructional Objectives
    • Instructional Goal:
    • To provide sufficient information and instruction so that the student will be knowledgeable in the safe and effective application of the Benelli shotgun.
  • Instructional Objectives
    • Instructional objectives:
    • At the conclusion of this block of instruction the student will:
    •   1. Identify the components of shotgun - Benelli specifically.
    • 2. List the 4 firearms safety rules
    •   3. Demonstrate the disassembly / reassembly and function check
    •   4. Identify the 6 shotgun firing positions
    •   5. Identify the difference between cover and concealment
    •   6. List the 3 main causes of shotgun malfunctions
    •   7. Identify the model firearm policy and use of force, as it applies to the shotgun
  • Instructional Objectives
    • Practical Objectives:
    • At the conclusion of this block of instruction the student will demonstrate proficiency in:
    • 1. 6 shotgun-shooting positions
    • 2. Loading and unloading the shotgun
    • 3. Use of cover and concealment
    • 4. Shotgun malfunction clearance
    • 5. Alternative weapon use
    • 6. Engagement of multiple targets
    • 7. Low light shooting
    • 8. Decision shooting
    • 9. Weapon retention
    • 10. Moving Targets
    • 11. Shoot score of 80% or above on the shotgun proficiency course of fire / shot & slug
  • General Information
    • The shotgun in its usual forms comes in (3) types of actions.
    • 1. Slide action / pump
    • 2. Self loader / semi-automatic
    • 3. Hinge action / single or double barrels
    • This course is the Benelli Auto-Loading Shotgun specifically
    • The police shotgun is considered a "triple threat" weapon.
    • As a shotgun using shot-shells
    • As a rifle when using slugs and
    • As a gas launcher in riot control or in tactical situations against barricaded criminals.
    •   When used as an anti-personnel weapon, the 12-gauge shotgun with buckshot is a sure hitter and an effective man-stopper as compared with the pistol.
    • At close range no other arm matches its shocking power.
    • In police situations, such as a rapidly moving target, or when there is little time to sight, nor sufficient lighting to sight properly, the shotgun with its high potential shows its superiority.
  • Buck Shot
    • At close range (25') the shot charge of buckshot may smash through the side of a vehicle door.
    • It will penetrate a wooden apartment house door.
    • It will also penetrate the trunk of a vehicle.
    • At six feet the shot charge can tear a lock off of a heavy door, and two more well placed shots at the same distance carry away the hinges and the door itself.
    • The maximum effective range of the riot type shotgun is forty yards.
  • Slugs & Sabots
    • Also utilized by many departments is the rifled or sabot slug.
    • This cartridge contains one projectile weighing 1 oz. And is 70 (slug) caliber.
    • Due to its large size, it has great shocking power. At close range it will penetrate vehicle doors.
    • It is very effective in passing through light barricades.
    • This projectile, due to its lands and groves (or sabot) is very accurate up to 100 yards.
  • Psychological Advantage
    • The shotgun, like the sub-machine gun, has a distinct psychological effect on persons who believe it may be used against them.
    • The muzzle of the shotgun when viewed from the business end resembles the entrance to the Holland tunnel.
  • Operation
    • The Benelli model M1 Super90 auto-loading shotgun features fixed barrel inertia operation using kinetic energy from gun recoil .
    • This system requires no gas outlet or barrel recoil, but operates by means of by means of a free moving spring between bolt head and bolt. 
    • As the gun is fired and recoils, the breech block’s inertia makes it move forward in proportion to the cartridge power, (approximately 0.16”).
    • This action compresses the spring. Once the spring is fully compressed it forces the breach block back and the cartridge case to be expelled and another round chambered as in any other auto-loading shotgun.
    • Spring load is calibrated so that the opening of the action is delayed until the shot or slug has left the barrel and so that the different pressures produced by cartridges of varying power can be regulated automatically and without breakage.
    • The inertia system is complemented by a simple and robust revolving bolt head, which provides a positive lock for the breech with only two locking lugs.
    • The loading system features a special cartridge drop lever, the outer portion of which protrudes below the receiver and is thus easily reached by the trigger finger. The end of the cartridge drop lever is marked with a red dot. When the dot is visible the hammer is cocked and the gun is ready to fire.
    • Note: the gases produced by cartridge combustion carry residues which can foul the magazine tube, particularly when the firearm is subjected to: cold or damp conditions, over-lubrication, or use of sub-standard ammunition (cheap, non clean-burning).
  • Shotgun Components
    • Assemblies:
    • 1. Trigger Group Assembly
    • 2. Breech Bolt Assembly
    • 3. Barrel & Receiver Assembly
  • Loading
    • The magazine will hold 6 or 7 cartridges, depending on the cartridge length.
    • Total firing capacity is 7 or 8 rounds, including the one in the chamber.
    • To load, proceed as follows:
    • Point the firearm in a safe direction.
    • Engage the safety, red band will not show.
    • Pull the operating handle fully rearward to check and clear the chamber. Close the bolt.
    • Insert a cartridge under the carrier and into the magazine tube and push it forward with the weak hand thumb until it is retained by the carrier latch.
    • Continue this operation until the magazine is full.
  • Unloading
    • Point the firearm in a safe direction.
    • Engage the safety, red band will not show.
    • Pull the operating handle fully rearward, removing any round from the chamber. Dump any round from the carrier through the port.
    • Return the bolt to the closed position.
    • Overturn the gun and, pushing the carrier down, press the front of the carrier latch with the index finger of your right hand.
    • The cartridges will be released one by one into your hand. The carrier latch must be pressed for each released cartridge.
    • Do not work the cartridges through the gun chamber; this has the potential for an accidental discharge.
  • Safety
    • Firearms safety rules:
    • 1. All guns are always loaded
    • 2. Never point the muzzle at anything that you are not willing to destroy
    • 3. Keep your finger off the trigger until your sight is on the target
    • 4. Be sure of your target and what's beyond
  • Weapon Retention
    • As the attempt to disarm an officer, in and of itself, is not accepted by most courts as sufficient cause for the officer to resort to the use of deadly force, it is necessary for the officer to train in weapon retention.
    • Weapon retention tactics are not guaranteed success in keeping your firearms out of the hands of your opponent; however, a good portion of these tactics will succeed and save you the need to justify your actions to a court.
    • It is just as important to know, you do not have to continue to struggle with your opponent should the tactic fail to effect release (there are individuals with sufficient strength to defeat any tactic).
    • Once you have performed the tactic and release is not successful, you have established sufficient cause to believe your life is in imminent danger and you may engage the opponent with deadly force.
      • The Inverted "J"
      • Lower center by bending at the knees and keeping head over hips.
      • Raise the barrel of the weapon sharply.
      • Force the barrel of the weapon toward the ground (away for the direction of the attack) in the shape of an inverted “J".
      • Pull the weapon toward you.
      • Use loud repetitive verbal commands throughout.
      • Repeat technique one or two times if needed.
      • Create distance between you and the attacker.
      • If the attempt fails to effect release, step to the rear while pulling the weapon toward you and turn into the attacker, aligning the muzzle on the attackers center mass and fire several rounds to neutralize the suspect.
      • The Sternum Strike
      • Align the weapon with the subject's chest - step to the rear while pulling the weapon toward you and turn into the attacker.
      • Lower center by bending at the knees and keeping head over hips.
      • Strike the attacker in the sternum "sharply" with the muzzle of the weapon by extending the weapon straight into the attacker.
      • Use loud repetitive verbal commands throughout.
      • Repeat technique one or two times, if needed.
      • Create distance between you and the attacker.
      • If the attempt fails to effect release, your muzzle should be aligned center mass, fire several rounds to neutralize the suspect.
  • Care and Maintenance
    • After each use, your shotguns must be cleaned and have an inspection performed by the user to determine if any parts are worn, broken or in need of repair.
    • The department armorer or the manufacturer should perform all repairs .
  • Cleaning
    • Dissemble the Benelli shotgun for cleaning as follows:
    • Slacken the barrel / magazine screw and remove the barrel – magazine tube retaining ring from its seat on the magazine tube.
    • Unscrew the fore end cap and remove and remove from the tube together with the strap swivel.
    • Take the gun in your left hand and pull back the cocking lever with the right hand until the bolt engages in the open position. Should the bolt fail to engage, move the cartridge drop lever upward and repeat the operation.
    • Holding the gun in your left hand, grip the barrel–fore end unit in your right and slide forward along the magazine tube to separate it from the receiver.
    • Slide the fore end off the barrel guide ring and separate the fore end from the barrel – breach unit.
    • Hold the cocking lever with your right hand. Press the carrier button with the left index finger and move the bolt slowly forward until it stops.
    • Pull the cocking lever from the bolt.
    • Slide the bolt forward with the right hand and remove from the receiver.
    • Remove the firing pin stud (located on the rear- side of the bolt) from the bolt assembly. Take care to hold the firing pin so it is not expelled by the spring.
    • Remove the firing pin and the firing pin spring from the bolt.
    • Remove the locking head pin from its seat.
    • Remove the bolt locking head from the bolt.
    • Remove the recoil spring from its seat.
    • Push the trigger guard pin out of the receiver unit using the tip of the firing pin as a punch. This may be done from either side of the receiver.
    • Press the carrier button with the left index finger. Using the right hand, pull the trigger guard assembly forward and out.
    • The shotgun is now stripped for cleaning. Reassembly is in reverse order.
    • Lubrication:
    • All shotgun parts should be lightly lubricated.
    • Note: do not get oil or solvent on ammunition, as it may penetrate and render the ammunition inert.
  • Function Check
    • Perform the following check after disassembling shotguns to any degree .
    • Clear the shotgun, double check.
    • Cock shotgun place on safe. Pull trigger.
    • Hammer should not fall.
    • Place safety on fire position, pull trigger and hold back.
    • Hammer should fall.
    • Still holding trigger back, re-cock.
    • Hammer should not fall.
    • Release trigger, listen for click but hammer should not fall.
  • 12 Ga. Shotgun Ammunition
    • 00 buckshot is.33 cal. Or 8.3mm‘ (number of pellets for the 2 3/4” is 9 or 12 for the 2 3/4" magnum. Maximum effective range - 40 yards pattern 30“ Maximum range approx. 600 yards. 
    • Rifled slug .70 cal. Or 18.mm 1oz.-415 grains. Maximum effective range - 150 yds. 900 fps. With 850 FP. Energy maximum range - 1800 yards. (Sabot slugs come in various calibers & weights with a somewhat extended range.)
    • Fin - stabilized gas rounds. Maximum effective range - 50 yards.  
  • Ballistics Definitions
    • Ballistics: The science of the movement of projectiles
    • Internal ballistics: All events that occur within the firearm when cartridge is fired. 
    • External ballistics: All events which occur from the instant the projectile leaves the muzzle until it impacts the target. 
    • Terminal ballistics: All events which occur from the instant of projectile impact until the projectile comes to rest. 
    • Bullet placement: is effected by internal and external ballistics. 
    • Bullet penetration: is effected by all 3 ballistics
  • Marksmanship Fundamentals
    • Sighting / aiming:
    • Sight alignment: Is the relationship of the front sight with the rear sight when properly aligned for the shot.  
    • Sight picture: Is proper sight alignment with the addition of the target. 
    • When you have proper sight alignment and sight picture, the front sight should be centered in the rear sight, the sights being in sharp focus and the target slightly blurred. 
    • Remember if the front sight is on the target when you fire you will hit the target.
      • Breath control: Breath control is best described as timing your shot to occur during the natural pause between the inhale and exhale of the breathing process. (Breath control is not the primary concern when firing shots-shells the main concern is to assure that the normal breath cycle is maintained.)
      • Trigger control: When firing rifled slugs proper trigger control is extremely important to achieve accuracy. When the shooter exerts pressure on the trigger, he must do so in a manner that does not alter the sight or the position of the weapon. The trigger must be pressed with a smooth even pressure.
      • The trigger finger is placed on the trigger preferably just the first pad of the finger and pressure is applied smoothly and straight back in one continuous motion. The hammer should fall at an instant that we cannot predict. (Surprise break)
      • For shot loads the proper trigger control is best described as a "slap" rather than a slow steady pressure on the trigger .
      • Follow through: The art of keeping the sights aligned with the target until the projectile has left the barrel.
  • Firing Positions
    • Prone: The prone position is essentially used as a stable position for long range precision shooting and/or to present a low target profile to possible incoming rounds.
    • The prone position is not recommended for urban combat due to the possibility of bouncing bullets. However, the prone position may be your only choice in a given situation.
    • To assume the prone position: Drop down on both knees then fall forward, stopping your fall with your support arm and lowering yourself to the ground.
    • The elbows of both arms then support the weapon and upper body. If you must use the prone position, try to use it in conjunction with good cover.
    • Kneeling positions:
    • The kneeling position is used when a solid platform is needed for a long-range shot, or when a low wall or auto fender is used for cover, or when one is running hard and breathing is difficult.
  • One Knee Braced
    • The braced kneeling position has been used for many years very successfully.
    • To assume the braced kneeling position, the shooting side knee is on the surface, the support foot is flat on the surface.
    • The body rests back on the heel of the shooting foot.
    • The support arm is bent and is placed on the support leg behind the kneecap .
  • One Knee Speed:
    • The one knee speed kneeling position is used mainly for speed.
    • With this position the back is straight, and use the support arm without the support leg.
    • This position gives the shooter more mobility.
  • Two Knee Speed
    • By dropping down on both knees the shooter can vary his height for low cover.
    • This position is fast and gives the shooter good support.
    • It is also good for rolling out from cover and then back.
    • Raising or lowering the upper torso can vary height.
  • Combat Shoulder
    • Weapon shouldered with the muzzle slightly depressed.
    • Weak foot forward and bent slightly at the knee.
    • Strong foot back leg straight with the torso leaning forward.
  • High Assault
    • Weapon butt stock tucked in the armpit with shooting arm locked down on the butt stock.
    • Eyes looking over the weapon.
    • Stance is the same as combat shoulder with the exception of leaning into the target.
    • Raising or lowering the support arm or turning at the waist makes shot corrections.
    • This position is quite accurate to 15 yards and is excellent for use with a gas mask.
  • Moving Targets
    • Moving targets:
    • There may be times when an officer may be called upon to engage a moving target (actually this may be more the norm).
    • There are two primary techniques of engaging moving targets.
  • Moving Targets
    • Tracking:
    • Tracking is a more accurate technique of engaging targets.
    • It involves the establishment and maintaining of the aiming point in relationship to the target and maintaining that sight picture (moving with the target) while pressing the trigger.
    • As the target moves, this technique puts the shooter in position for a second shot if the first one misses.
  • Moving Targets
    • Trapping:
    • Trapping is the setting up of an aiming point forward of the target and along its path.
    • The trigger is then pressed as the target comes into the sights.
    • This technique works fine on slow lateral moving targets, however on faster targets, the rounds will normally strike in front or behind the target.
    • Note: For law enforcement, the tracking technique will work best with both long and side arms. In this class we will train with the single-lead rule.
  • Moving Targets
    • Single-lead rule:
    • To hit a target moving laterally, the shooter will place the trailing edge of the front sight at target center and track the target while pressing the trigger.
    • The single-lead rule automatically increases the lead as the range to the target increases and is effective from 15m to 150m.
  • Moving Targets
    • The Single Lead Rule
  • Limited Light Conditions
    • Many things that appear to be ideal during daylight often turn out to be booby traps at night.
    • A man can run with ease over varied terrain in daylight, but at night this could be foolhardy.
    • During the hours of darkness, your survival may depend upon your ability to see and not be seen.
    • You can see much more in the dark than you realize. Using your eyes effectively at night requires the application of the principles of night vision.
  • Limited Light Conditions
    • Dark adaptation:  
    • Dark adaptation means allowing your eyes to become accustomed to low levels of light.
    • It takes approximately 30 minutes for the rod cells to produce enough visual purple to activate them and enable you to distinguish in dim light.
  • Limited Light Conditions
    • Off-center vision:
    • Off center vision is the technique of keeping your attention focused on an object, without looking directly at it.
    • The most sensitive area varies in individuals, but usually is found by looking 6-10 degrees away from an object.
    • When you look slightly to the right, left, above or below an object, the image is formed on the area of the retina containing rod cells, which are sensitive in darkness. In effect, you look out of the corner of your eye.
  • Limited Light Conditions
    • Scanning:  
    • Scanning is using off center vision to observe an area or object.
    • Move your eyes in short, abrupt irregular movements over and around your target.
    • Concentrate your attention on the target, but do not look directly at it.
    • Pause a few seconds at each point of observation because your eyes cannot see while in motion.
  • Low – Level Light Conditions
    • The majority of our armed confrontations occur in light conditions too dim to use our weapons sights.
    • Remember 2 out of 3 work shifts as police officers are in adverse light conditions. 
    • In operations involving dim light conditions where we can still see things but not able to refine sight alignment, we still might want to try.
    • The best technique is to bring the weapon to eye level or just a little below eye level and look over the top of the weapon. We can see the weapon centered in the target mass.
  • Zero Light Conditions
    • Zero light conditions are probably the most dangerous of situations you can encounter. At best, we are at a disadvantage. 
    • Whenever possible the wise officer will try and get some type of illumination.
    • Outside maybe: auto headlights, spotlights, flares, etc.
    • Inside a building find the light switch and turn it on--at least you will be able to see the area to be searched.
    • Some problems that occur in zero light: claustrophobia, disorientation, and sounds carry more in the dark.
  • Cover and Concealment
    • In a gunfight " the absence of body is superior to the presence of mind ."
    • With this in mind, we should make ourselves the most difficult target possible.
    • We should, whenever possible, use some type of cover for protection.
    • There are two types of protection: Protective Cover & Concealment
      • Protective Cover
      • Protective cover is what keeps you from getting shot.
      • Protective cover consists of physical objects through which a bullet could not pass or would have difficulty penetrating.
      • A. Natural cover: Ravines, hollows and thick trees.
      • B. Man made cover: Ditches, trenches, walls, lampposts, motor vehicles, fire hydrants and mailboxes.
      • Get into a habit of watching for areas of cover when responding to a call. It is important that you be aware of your environment at the scene of an incident.
      • Any cover is better then none, but certain cover is better than others. Where you have the choice, the secret is to know the difference.
      • Too often in shooting situations, officers tend to look only to size, choosing the largest objects as cover, regardless of its ability to stop bullets.
  • Adequate Cover
    • Adequate protection from a .30 cal. Armor piercing round would amount to at least:
    • 1. 40" of solid oak
    • 2. 7" of reinforced concrete
    • 3. 20" of broken stone
    • 4. 36" of wet sand
    • 5. 24" of dry sand
    • 6. 7" of steel
    • 7. 48" of earth, packed
    • 8. 52" of undisturbed earth
    • 9. 56" of freshly turned earth
    • 10. 65" of clay
      • Concealment:
      • Concealment is protection from observation by the suspect.
      • Concealment alone does not protect you from the suspect's fire; however, some people have the belief that when you are firing a weapon you must have something to aim at.
      • Most cover functions as concealment too. Other types of concealment include:
      • 1. Brush
      • 2. Small trees
      • 3. Fences
      • 4. Grass
      • 5. Heavy shadows
      • 6. Anything that will conceal your presence or movement from the suspect
      • Remember, avoid unnecessary movement. Movement attracts attention. Any movement may catch the eye of the suspect and turn you into a target.
  • Objectives – Use of Cover
    • There are three main objectives:  
    • 1. To gain the advantage of a protected position to return safe and accurate fire.
    • 2. To evaluate the situation you are facing. Buys time to make decisions.
    • 3. Buys time to identify others at the incident scene. @ Suspects, civilians or fellow officers. 
    • Anytime we use cover or concealment, - do not - look from the same position more than once. To look or fire from the same position each time will give the adversary a target to zero in on. 
    • Whenever possible, shoot around cover instead of over the cover.
  • Bouncing Bullets
    • Bullets do bounce, and with this in mind we must select our cover wisely.
    • Ricochet shooting works against any hard surface.
    • If the impact is less than a 45-degree angle the bullet will flatten out and travel between 1" and 8" off the surface. The angle of deflection does not equal the angle of impact. That is because lead deflects off of a hard surface differently than does a rubber ball.
    • A rubber ball bounces off at the same angle at which it impacts.
    • Bullets or buckshot tend to flatten out from the force of hitting and then fly in a slightly erratic manner at a very low angle above the surface, the harder the surface the less the deflection.
    • The effective range is usually up to 25 yards and is typical of all rounds of less then 2000 ft. Per. Second. 
    • (This is why we stay away from walls at least 12" and sitting and prone positions are not recommended.)
      • Tactical considerations - use of cover:
      • 1. Use cover whenever possible
      • 2. Select your cover wisely. Choose your cover because of its stopping capabilities not just because of its size.
      • 3. Choose cover that will give you the most options.
      • 4. Never change your cover just for the sake of changing.
      • 5. Select your next position before you move.
      • 6. Never move from cover with a partially loaded weapon.
      • 7. When shooting from cover, you must understand the relationship between yourself, your cover, your weapon and the suspect's location.
      • 8. Don't use cover for support.
      • 9. If your weapon malfunctions, seek cover and clear it from a protected position
      • 10. Fire around cover, rather than over the cover.
      • 11. Don't expose yourself any more than necessary.
      • 12. Remember; if you can be seen, you can be hit, and if you can be hit, you can be killed.
  • Shotgun Malfunctions
    • Remember **** if your shotgun malfunctions - immediately employ your sidearm, seek cover , then clear your weapon from a safe position. 
    • Shotgun malfunctions are most often caused by:
    • The shooter, warn parts or the ammunition. Most shotgun malfunctions can be cleared by the following procedure. "From a covered position"!
    • Shotgun does not fire: ( employ side arm-seek cover )
    • Release / press cartridge drop
    • Tip / tip the weapon over with the ejection port down.
    • Rack / pull back on the operating handle and let go
    • Ready / weapon should fire when trigger is pulled.
    • Shotgun still does not fire : Discard shotgun and reemploy side arm, unless shotgun is your only weapon, then repeat the drill above.
  • Liability and Ethical Use of Firearms :
    • A peace officer's firearms are perhaps the most commonly perceived symbol of his authority and role.
    • In the interest of public safety and law enforcement professionalism, your department must set high standards of performance for its personnel who use weapons.
    • The department's policy must ensure that members are properly trained not only in the use of appropriate firearms, but also in their maintenance.
    • A model policy is included in your manual for your convenience , however, it will not be discussed in its entirety.
  • Deadly / Lethal Force
    • Peace officers are authorized to fire their weapons in order to:
    • Protect the peace officer or others from what is reasonably believed to be an immediate threat of death or serious bodily harm; or,
    • Prevent the escape of escape of a fleeing felon whom the officer has probable cause to believe will pose a significant threat to human life should escape occur.
    • Before using a firearm, peace officers themselves and state their intent to shoot, where feasible.
  • Definitions
    • Deadly Force: any use of force that is likely to cause death or serious bodily injury.
    • Lethal Force: any use of force that is expected to cause death.
    • Serious bodily injury: Bodily injury which creates a substantial risk of death or which causes miscarriage, severe disfigurement or protracted loss or impairment of function of any bodily member or organ.
  • Deadly/Lethal Force Elements
    • The four elements of deadly force that an officer must consider and must be present to justify the use of force are;  
    • Ability or apparent ability:  
    • Does the violator possess the ability or the apparent ability to kill you or a third party, or cause you or a third party serious bodily injury?  
    • Opportunity:
    • Does the violator have the opportunity to kill you or a third party or to cause you or a third party serious bodily injury?
    • Imminent jeopardy:  
    • Has the violator placed you or a third party in imminent danger of death or serious bodily injury?
    • Preclusion:  
    • Have you reasonably exhausted all of your avenues of retreat (options) at that time and place?
  • Conclusion
    • This course is intended to be a basic shotgun course for entry level and in-service officers that intend to continue in training with the shotgun in its tactical applications.
    • I stress again that this course is basic in nature, instructing the student in the safe and effective use of the shotgun and recommend intensive practical training before it is used in a tactical environment.