The Adventures of Tom Sawyer Research ProjectTHE ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER Research Project By: Lisa Donahoe
Biography Mark Twain was born Samuel Longhorn Clemens in Florida, Missouri on November 30, 1835. He was the sixth child of John and Jane Clemens. When he was four years old, his family moved to Hannibal, Missouri, in which about 1000 people were living there at the time. His father, John, was a very cold and stern person, while his mother, Jane, was a fun-loving, happy and outgoing person. Marks father died unexpectedly when he was 11 or 12 years old, leaving his family with economical troubles and a near destitute state. As a child, Mark witnessed many murders and deaths, such as when a local man killed a the local cattle rancher. Mark had a series of jobs as an adolescent and into adulthood. When he was 15, he worked as a printer, occasional writer, and editor for the Hannibal Western Union, and when he was 17 he moved to work in a print shop inNew York. When Mark was 21, a dream of his was fulfilled when he began learning about piloting a steamboat. By 1859, he was a licensed pilot. However, when the civil war began just shortlyafter starting the job, the steamboat business dropped and he was out of work. Missouri was splitfrom confederate and union, so Mark volunteered as a confederate soldier. By 1862, he needed a job desperately so he ventured to the west in search of work, where he found a job as a reporter for the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise. In 1869, his book The Innocents Abroad was published and was an instant bestseller and made him famous. By age 34, he was one of the most popular and famous writers in America. However, people in the East (who were moneyed and Victorian) disapproved of Twain because he was a westerner. In Februrary of 1870, he married Olivia Langdon and together they had 4 kids. His last 15 years, he was one of the most respected American celebrities and was honored where ever he went
Biography (Pg. 2)– however he fell in a depression and his life was hell. His daughter Suzy died at age 24 due to spinal meningitis and his son Langdon died due to diphtheria. His daughter Jean had severe epilepsy, and during attacks she tried to murder her housekeeper, but later she died due to aheart attack. Mark was usually traveling when his wife was sick, and later she died of an illness.Mark Twain died peacefully on April 21, 1910 in his home in Redding, Connecticut due to angina pectoris.
Hannibal, Missouri In 1830, Hannibal only had about 30 citizens. Rivers, fertile farmland, abundant timber attractedsettlers and created a thriving economy and in 1845, it was chartered as a city and the first mayor elected was James Brady. Jobs available in Hannibal were pork packing, soap and candle making, coopering, milling of lumber, milling of grain, rope making, and tanning (not the kind we do at beaches today). In the daily life, flat boats with grain and hemp were tied up to the waterfront, livestock fattened in the back country, logs were sent down from Wisconsin and Minnesota and converted into boards as sawmills flourished. In 1830, the first school was built and in 1866, the first high school was opened at Sixth and North Street. In 1837, the first newspaper, the Commercial Advertiser, was released. The first railroad to cross the state of Missouri, the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad, was completed in 1859.
Events (America)In March 16, 1830 the Book of Mormon was published by Joseph Smith and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints was established. The Book of Mormon is a collection of ancient writings telling about Gods dealings with the three groups of people he led to the New World. Only two of the three groups kept records – the Nephites and Jaredites.In 1830, the Indian Removal Act was passed with support from then-president Andrew Jackson, which allows the federal government to trade and negotiate with eastern tribes for land. Financial aid was provided by the government for resettlement.In 1833, Samuel Colt invents the revolver (gun). The revolver is a six shooter repeating firearm that contains multiple chambers and at least one barrel for shooting. The gun later became known as the Colt Paterson. Revolvers have been replaced by semi automatic pistols in themilitary and law enforcement, but still remains popular in the role of back up and off duty guns among law enforcement.
Events (World) In the 1840s, a potato blight and other agricultural issues across Europe cause a major foodshortage and famine conditions. The potato blight mysteriously began when a fog wafted across the fields of Ireland carrying an airborne fungus. Winds from the south carried the fungus to countryside Dublin, where the fungal spores settled on healthy leaves of the potato plants. The damp conditions made it ideal for the fungus to spread from potato to potato. The universal Catholic Apostolic Church forms in the UK, on July 14, 1835. The term Catholic Apostolic Church belongs to the entire community of Christians who follow the Nicene Creed. The Nicene Creed is part of the profession of faith required of those undertaking important functions within the church. On September 20, Farroupilhas Revolution begins in Rio Grande, Brazil, a republican uprising caused by the belief that Rio Grandes economy differed from the rest of the country.
Mississippi RiverThe Mississippi river is approximately 3,779 km long and is the second longest river in the United States, and the third largest river in the world. The river covers about 40%of the countryincluding all or part of 31 states. The name means “father of waters” in the Algonquian language. The river rises in Minnesota and flows south, crossing through states such as Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Wisconsin, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Mississippi. Theannual temperatures range from 40 to 50 F at the Mississippis source in Minnesota and about 70 to 80 F at its “mouth”. Precipitation along the rivers source varies widely, from 20 to 40 in the north and 60 to 70 in its New Orleans delta. Due to the massive amount of precipitation, the lower section of the Mississippi is subjected to flooding. After the flood in 1927, efforts atcontaining the river were high when 26,000 mi of land were inundated and the river rose 57 ft at Cairo, and in the summer of 1993, heavy and prolonged rain raised to the upper section of theMississippi which became the worst flood ever experienced in the USA. The flood zone stretched over the nine northern states. The lower river is used for oceangoing ships upstream to BatonRouge. From there to Cairo, a 12 ft channel is maintained, and from Cairo to Minneapolis a 9 feetchannel is maintained. The first Europeans to see the river inland were Hernando de Soto and his party in 1541, and in the late 17 th century, Frenchmen Jacques Marquette, Louis Jolliet, and Robert Cavalier de La Salle explored the river from the north. When they reached the mouth of the Mississippi in 1682, they claimed the whole valley for France, however later the basin was purchased by the United States in 1803. The original indian tribes of the area were Ojibwa, Winnebago, Fox, Sauk, Chicksaw, Natchez, and Alabama.
Mississippi River (Pg. 2) The river system formed pathways for much of the settlement of the central United States. The advent of the steamboat in 1812 brought dependable transportation and the river trafficincreased, and in the civil war the control of the river was a major strategic objective. Eventually though, the steamboats were replaced by diesel, screw driven towboats.
Womens Rights In 1800s Womens rights in the 1800s are very different from today. Rights depended on where they lived, their social class, and what part of the 1800s they lived in. Lower class women left schoolearly (if they even went to school at all) to work, while upper and middle class women tended to stay in school longer. Educational opportunities improved in these years, and schools for both genders were arising, however they were still unequal. Women of the underclass wore rags and had messy hair, while upper class women wore veils, lace, corsets, and gloves so their bodywould be covered to show modesty. Middle class women were offered jobs as domestic service,agricultural labor, seamstress, washer woman, and serving the wealthy. Underclass women were deprived of education and respected jobs, and out of desperation resorted to prostitution and relied on relief organizations. Upper class women were not allowed to attend university orcollege yet, but did have some basic knowledge of reading, writing, and arithmetic skills. In these times, women who wished to remain single were often disrespected and pitied upon by thecommunity. However, women who were married technically had no rights – all their inheritance and their body were given to the husband. Womens rights have changed dramatically over the years, giving women more freedom and basic rights.
Q&A Q: When and where was Mark Twain born? A: Born in Florida, Missouri on November 30, 1835 Q: Where did he grow up? A: Hannibal, Missouri Q: Who were his parents? What jobs did they have? Did he have siblings?A: The sixth child of John and Jane Clemens; John worked as a store keeper, lawyer, judge, and a land speculator, Jane worked as a home maker. Q: What significant events took place in his childhood? A: Father died when he was 11 or 12, witnessed many deaths as a child Q: Did he go to school? College? A: Never went to school past elementary, however did go to college Q: What jobs did he have as a child or young adult? A: Age 15, worked for Hannibal Western Union, age 17 worked in a print shop in NY, age 21 steamboat pilot Q: Did he get married? If so, when and to whom? Did they have kids? A: Married to Olivia Langdon in February 1870 and had 4 kids Q: What jobs did he have as an adult? A: Reporter for Virginia City Territorial Enterprise and an author and writer
Q&A (Pg. 2) Q: What books did he publish? A: Adventures of Huckeberry Finn, Adventures of Tom Sawyer, 1601, A Connecticut Yankee inKing Arthurs Court, A Dogs Tale, A Double Barrelled Detective Story, A Horses Tale, Alonzo Fitz and Other Stories, Captain Stormfields Visit to Heaven, Chapters From My Autobiography, Christian Science, Complete letters of mark Twain, Curious Republic of Gondour, Editorial WildOats, Essays on Pauk Burget, Eves Diary, Extracts From Adams Diary, Fenimor Coopers LiteraryOffenses, Following the Equator, Golsmiths Friend Abroad Again, How to Tell a Story, In Defenceof Harriet Shelley, Is Shakespeare Dead, Life on the Mississippi, On the Decay of the Art of Lying.Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc, Roughing It, Sketches New and Old, Some Rambling Noteson an Idle Excursion, The 30,000 Dollar Bequest and Other Stories, The American Claimant, The Facts Concerning the Recent Carnival of Crime in Connecticut, The Gilded Age, The InnocentsAbroad, Letters from Earth, The Man Who Corrupted Hailleyburg, The Mysterious Stranger, The Prince and the Pauper, The Stolen White Elephant, The Tragedy of Puddinhead Wilson, Those Extraordinary Twins, Tom Sawyer Abroad, Tom Sawyer Detective, What is Man Q: For what is he most well known? A: Author of Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Adventures of Huckeberry Finn Q: When and how did he die? A: Died on April 21, 1910 due to angina pectoris Q: What other important or interesting information did you find about him?A: 1) Ran away from home often. 2) Named his dogs I Know, You Know, and Dont Know. 3) Born on the day Halleys Comet came 4) He loved cats.
Reflection I believe that Marks life experiences influenced the plot of Adventures of Tom Sawyer. Some ofthe things Tom does might be based on what Mark did. As a child, Mark witnessed many murders and in Tom Sawyer, he witnesses the murder of Doctor Robinson. Mark also hated school, and in the novel Tom is constantly skipping school and it seems as if Tom dislikes school as well. Hannibals description and St. Petersburgs description sound similar to each other, so Mark might have been just giving Hannibal a fake alias. I believe that Mark was telling his childhood in another characters perspective.