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spate irrigation is unique resource management system - using short term floods for irrigation, recharge and rangeland/ forestry, this presentation show the potential and link to extremer climate variability

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  • Ifadpresentationshort (Pp Tminimizer)

    1. 1. SpN and ILEIA Documentation Spate irrigation Pro-poor climate change adaptation and improved food security
    2. 2. SpN and ILEIA Documentation What is spate irrigation Spate irrigation makes use of occassional floods in ephemeral rivers to irrigate farm land, rangeland and forestry, recharge groundwater, fill drinkwater reservoirs Please click picture
    3. 3. SpN and ILEIA Documentation Some basics  Area known around 2,600,000 Million  North Africa – in decline  Horn of Africa – increase for crop, livestock. agroforestry  Elsewhere in Africa – livestock related  Middle East – highly productive conjunctive systems  Iran and Pakistan – largest area, but neglected  Central Asia and Latin America – the great unknown
    4. 4. SpN and ILEIA Documentation
    5. 5. SpN and ILEIA Documentation Poverty profile  People directly dependent on spate irrigation systems: 9-13 Million  Poverty pockets  Family income USD 300- 455/year  Strong fluctuation from year to year  Diversification  Landlessness 30%  Hereditary tenancy
    6. 6. SpN and ILEIA Documentation Potential  Difficult and risky but can contribute substantially to:  Adaptation to climate change  Local food security and  Livelihood improvement
    7. 7. SpN and ILEIA Documentation Spate irrigation is the quintessiential adaptation to climate variability Important characteristics: -Managing short peaked floods -Making sure very large floods dont destroy command area -Managing sediments and sedimentation -Storing soil moisture -Elaborate social organization Please click picture:
    8. 8. SpN and ILEIA Documentation Comparing.. Perennial irrigation (dam based) Spate irrigation Secure supplies – provided dam has reasonable catchment and manageable sedimentation Insecure supplies unless combined with groundwater irrigation In shallow dams high evaporative losses, in deep reservoirs not too much Water storage in soil profile/ shallow aquifer – low evaporation losses Investment costs per m3 stored is high Investment cost per m3 stored is low (if there is a fresh water aquifer) Sedimentation may cause siltation (and prevents recharge) Sedimentation contributes to fertility Can store peak flows Cannot utilize all peak flows, but shallow reservoirs may be added within command area
    9. 9. SpN and ILEIA Documentation Case: Mochiwal Flow Division Darabam Zam Mochiwal Division Point North channel: -500 ha -low lying area West Canal: - 3000 ha
    10. 10. SpN and ILEIA Documentation Climate change will effect spate irrigation More frequent floods Can be positive Increased production Longer droughts Stress on population and livestock Diversified income sources Temperature rise More soil evaporation Crop changes and more soil moisture conservation Larger floods Risk to diversion and command area More use of outwash areas Earlier or later floods Different crops Adjust cropping pattern More pest outbreaks Crop damage Vigilance
    11. 11. SpN and ILEIA Documentation Some system more vulnerable Highly vulnerable Moderately vulnerable Low rainfall (<200 mm/yr) Moderate rainfall Small catchment Larger catchment – higher probability High maintenance (incised rivers) Low maintenance – run-off-the river No conjunctive use Conjunctive use of groundwater Overstretched command area (1 flood/year) Large part of command area 2-3 floods/ year No strong link with livestock keeping Diversified economy Remote Well connected areas
    12. 12. SpN and ILEIA Documentation Improving local food security 0 50 100 150 200 2005 2006 2007 2008 Sorghum Maize Millet Agricultural commodity prices Tihama (YR/kg)
    13. 13. SpN and ILEIA Documentation Irrigation efficiency (consumption/supply) for all irrigated areas in Saudi Arabia averaged for the period 1975 to 2005. The wheat belt with (badly managed) centre pivot irrigation systems have an efficiency of 40%. The highest efficiencies (70%) are obtained at the spate irrigation systems along the Red Sea coast! Source: WaterWatch
    14. 14. SpN and ILEIA Documentation Agricultural production - 1  New crops – biofuels, oil seeds, legumes, cucurbits, medicinal plants/ herbs  New varieties and exchange of varieties  Improved crop husbandry – seed treatment, weed control, target use of agri-inputs, etc  Market chains for main crops – capture changing market  Market chains for minor crops – mushroom, guar  Improved grain storage  Research and documentation
    15. 15. SpN and ILEIA Documentation Crop yields often vary with factor 3-5 Indicating scope for improvement of crop production with agronomic and field water management improvements
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    20. 20. SpN and ILEIA Documentation Improved grain storage Detached from the wall Detached from the floor Opening to take grains
    21. 21. SpN and ILEIA Documentation Agricultural production - 2  Improved soil moisture management  Pre irrigation planting  Promote burrowing rodents, crusteans and insects  Improved field overflow structures  Ploughing, mulching, field bunding  Rules on maintaining field bunds  Water distribution to allow second turns – keeping command area compact
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    26. 26. SpN and ILEIA Documentation Non - agricultural production  Improved livestock production  Restocking  Paravet services  Improved breeds (exchange)  Range land improvement  Improved agroforestry  Spate agroforestry  Uprooting invasive species  Improved marketing of non timber products  Selective tree cutting bans
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    30. 30. SpN and ILEIA Documentation Forest plantation in DI Khan (year 1) Slope towards plants
    31. 31. SpN and ILEIA Documentation Improved livelihoods  Drinking water improvements  Improved drinking water ponds  Sand dams  Wells in dry rivers  Managed artificial recharge through low weirs, subsurface dams and water spreading  Water distribution tailored to groundwater recharge  Protection measures  Village flood protection  River bank protection  Dune stabilization  Eradication of malaria and tryposonamis
    33. 33. SpN and ILEIA Documentation Improved Drinking Water Ponds Filter of graded layers of sand
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    35. 35. SpN and ILEIA Documentation Improved governance - 1 Wadi management at basin or subbasin level  Upstream/ downstream use  Maintain river morphology  Groundwater recharge  Flood management  Catchment management and dune stabilization  Biodiversity and natural vegetation (and control invasive species)
    36. 36. SpN and ILEIA Documentation Improved governance - 2 Secure land tenure and safeguarding of water rules  Land registration  Codification  Strengthen local organization for rules enforcement  ‘Charcoal’ rules
    37. 37. SpN and ILEIA Documentation  Local organization for managing spate irrigation and groundwater • Fee collection system, improvement and maintenance Improved governance - 3
    38. 38. SpN and ILEIA Documentation IFAD and Spate Irrigation  IFAD is/was involved in spate irrigation in Yemen, Eritrea, Tunesia and Sudan  It should continue to be a leading player  Integrated approach to poverty alleviation  Climate change adaptation and poverty alleviation  Substantial potential  It should consider spate irrigation activities in Pakistan (1,400,000 ha) and Ethiopia (140,000 ha)
    39. 39. SpN and ILEIA Documentation IFAD and Spate Irrigation  Development of knowledge and practical approaches:  Document unknown systems (Central Asia/ South America)  Knowledge sharing  Support curricula development  Upscaling to policy and advocacy for spate irrigation
    40. 40. SpN and ILEIA Documentation www.spate-irrigation.org
    41. 41. SpN and ILEIA Documentation