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  1. 1. Ireland is an island to the north-west of continental Europe.  It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentiethlargest island on Earth.  To its east is the island of Great Britain, from which it is separated by the Irish Sea. 
  2. 2. GENERAL FEATURES  The Flag: Location : Western Europe or Northern Europe  Area: 84, 421 km2  Population: 6,399,115  Capital City : Dublin 
  3. 3. POLITICS    Politically, the island is divided between Ireland, a sovereign state also called the Republic of Ireland, and Northern Ireland, a constituent country of the United Kingdom. They share an open border and both are part of the Common Travel Area. Both Ireland and the United Kingdom are members of the European Union, and as a consequence there is free movement of people , goods , services and capital across the border.
  4. 4. REPUBLIC OF IRELAND    The Republic of Ireland is a parliamentary democracy based on the Westminister model with a written constution and a popularly elected president who has mostly ceremonial powers. The Government is headed by a prime minister, who is appointed by the President on the nomination of the lower house of parliament. Ireland today ranks amongst the wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capital and in 2011 was ranked the seventh most developed nation in the world by the United Nations' Human Development Index.
  5. 5. RELIGION    The predominant religion in Ireland is Christianity, with the largest church being the Roman Catholic Church. Ireland's constitution states that the state may not endorse any particular religion and guarantees freedom of religion. Although the majority of the Irish population is Christian, the country is religiously pluralistic. The country's Hindu and Muslim population s have experienced significant growth in recent years, due chiefly to immigration.
  6. 6. ECONOMY  There are two currencies in use on the island of Ireland. In the Republic of Ireland, the official currency is the euro. In Northern Ireland, pound sterling is the local currency. ENERGY  Ireland has an ancient industry based on peat (known locally as "sod" or "turf") as a source of energy for home fires.  Renawable energy such as wind power has increased lately.
  7. 7. FLORA AND FAUNA     As Ireland was isolated from mainland Europe by rising sea levels after the ice age, it has less diverse animal and plant species than either Great Britain or mainland Europe. There are 55 mamal species in Ireland and of them only 26 land mammal species are considered native to Ireland. ome species, such as, the red fox, hedgehog and badger, are very common, whereas others, like the Irish hare, red deer and pine marten are less so. Aquatic wildlife, such as species of sea turtle, shark, seal, whale, and dolphin, are common off the coast. About 400 species of birds have been recorded in Ireland. Many of these are migratory, including the Barn Swallow.
  8. 8. The red deer Irish Fox
  9. 9.       Several different habita types are found in Ireland, including farmland, open woodland, temperate broadleaf and mixed forests, conifer plantations, peat bogs and a variety of coastal habitats. However, agriculture drives current land use patterns in Ireland, limiting natural habitat preserves,particularly for larger wild mammals with greater territorial needs. With no top predator in Ireland, populations of animals, such as semi-wild deer, that cannot be controlled by smaller predators, such as the fox, are controlled by annual culling. The Republic lies in 42nd place (out of 55) in a list of the most forested countries in Europe. Much of the land is now covered with pasture and there are many species of wild-flower. Because of its mild climate, many species, including subtropical species such as palm trees, are grown in Ireland.
  10. 10. ‘’Furze’’ Mixed Forests
  11. 11. DEMOGRAPHY  People have lived in Ireland for over 9,000 years, although only a limited amount is known about the palaeolithic, neolithic and Bronze Age inhabitants of the island.  The population of Ireland rose rapidly from the 16th century until the mid-19th century, but a devastatingfamine in the 1840s caused one million deaths and forced over one million more to emigrate in its immediate wake.  Over the following century the population was reduced by over half, at a time when the general trend in European countries was for populations to rise by an average of three-
  12. 12. DIVISIONS AND SETTLEMENTS    Traditionally, Ireland is subdivided into fourprovinces: Connacht (west), Leinster (east), Munster (south), an d Ulster (north). Ireland has 32 traditional counties. Twenty-six of these counties are in the Republic of Ireland and six are in Northern Ireland. The six counties that constitute Northern Ireland are all in the province of Ulster (which has nine counties in total.) Dublin, with over 1 million residents in the Greater Dublin Area, is the largest city on the island.
  13. 13. LANGUAGE     Two main languages are spoken in Ireland: Irish and English. Both languages have widely contributed to literature. Irish also known as Irish Gaelic or Gaelic,is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family, originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people. Less than 10% of the population of the Republic of Ireland today speak Irish regularly outside of the education system and 38% of those over 15 years are classified as "Irish speakers. Since the 1960s with the increase in immigration, many more languages have been introduced, particularly deriving from Asia and Eastern Europe.
  14. 14. CULTURE  Ireland's culture comprises elements of the culture of ancient peoples, later immigrant and broadcast cultural influences.  Ireland is regarded as one of the Celtic nations of Europe and this combination of cultural influences is visible in the intricate designs termed Irish interlace or Celtic knotwork.  The style is still popular today in jewellery and graphic art,as is the distinctive style of traditional Irish music and dance, and has become indicative of modern "Celtic" culture in general.
  15. 15.  The national holiday in the Republic of Ireland is Saint Patrick's Day, 17 March and is marked by parades and festivals in cities and towns across the island of Ireland, and by the Irish diaspora around the world.  The Leprechaun has been estimated to figure to a large degree in Irish folklore mainly due to popularity overseas, particularly in the United States of America.
  16. 16.  The island's most widely known literary works are undoubtedly in English. Particularly famous examples of such works are those of James Joyce, Bram Stoker,Jonathan Swift, Oscar Wilde and Ireland's four winners of the Nobel Prize for Literature; William Butler Yeats, George Bernard Shaw, Samuel Beckett and Seamus Heaney.
  17. 17.  The Irish tradition of folk music and dance is also widely known. In the middle years of the 20th century, as Irish society was attempting to modernise, traditional Irish music fell out of favour to some extent, especially in urban areas. Irish traditional music sessions are common Irish dancing is popular all over the world
  18. 18. REPRESENTATIVE IRISH FOODS Irish Breakfast Champs (mashed potatoes , onion , butter , milk)
  19. 19. Steak and chips Barmbrack
  20. 20.   Popular Irish beer (Guinnes) Irish coffee a cocktail consisting of hot coffee, Irish whiskey, and sugar
  21. 21. PUB CULTURE  Pub culture pervades Irish society, across all cultural    divides. The term refers to the Irish habit of frequentingpublic houses (pubs) or bars. Traditional pub culture is concerned with more than just drinking, even though Ireland has a recognised problem with over-consumption of alcohol. In 2003, Ireland had the second-highest per capita alcohol consumption in the world. Typically pubs are important meeting places, where people can gather and meet their neighbours and friends in a relaxed atmosphere; similar to the cafe cultures of other countries. Pubs vary widely according to the clientele they serve, and the area they are in. Best known, and loved amongst tourists is the traditional pub, with its traditional Irish music (or "trad music"), tavern-like warmness, and memorabilia filling it. Often such pubs will also serve
  22. 22. SPORTS   Sport on the island of Ireland is popular and widespread. Throughout the island a wide variety of sports are played, the most popular being Gaelic football, hurling, rugby union, soccer and hockey. Gaelic football is the most popular sport in Ireland in terms of match attendance and community involvement.
  23. 23. PLACES