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Approaches in english language learning      1 Approaches in english language learning 1 Document Transcript

  • APPROACHES IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING Community Language Learning: The Principles, Student and Teacher Roles Merve Özdemir Anadolu University 1
  • COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING 2 ABSTRACT This paper investigates Community Language Learning which is one of approaches in English Language Learning.Firstly, the goals of teacher and the roles of teacher in this method were explained one by one. Then the five stages of student roles were examined and the differences among them were pointed out.The role of native language was told in detail.The information about student-teacher and student-student interactions were described and told one by one. The culture and language views of community language learning were explained.Then the reaction of the teacher to the student errors is clarified. The features of syllabus were examined one by one and the characteristics of evaluation in this method were given.Lastly, the important points of community language learning are emphasized one by one and were decribed shortly.Also some comparisons between audio-lingual method and community language learning are made and differences, their contribution to the effective learning were emphasized.
  • COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING 3 Introduction Some stable rules of community language learning, teacher and student roles, interactions and education views, the features of syllable, organization of the class will is explained clearly. The Goals of the Teacher Firsty, the teachers who use community language learning want their students to learn using the language communicatively.Speaking and listening are the most important skills in this method.Because of that, the teachers tries to develop communicative language among the students. They want their students to interact with each other for providing effective learning.The other goal is making the students to learn their own learning.Teachers want their students to find learning styles that are suitable for their own learning and use them.The third one students’taking responsibility of learning.They should be aware of the necessities and deficiencies of themselves.The last one is learning how to learn from each other and sharing knowledge with the other students.It is important to benefit from the interactions for effectiveness. The Role of The Teacher Teachers have roles in class to reflect the method’s features effectively.The teacher’s initial role is being counselor.But this doesn’t mean that the teacher is a therapist or doesnn’t teach anything to the students.It means that the teacher know the situation of how fearsome to learn a new language.So the teacher understands and supports them to master the target language. Another role is provider of a safe environment.It is a necessary condition for effective learning.Necessary conditions like security, attention,silence have to be provided in the classroom. The last one is generator of a non-defensive learning.It can be accomplished by Curren’s six element of learning and by treating each other as a whole person.
  • COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING 4 The role of students The important point is that the learners are treated like whole-persons.It means that teacher considers not only the intellect of the student but also the relationship among the students, feelings,physical reactions,instictives and desire to learn.There are five stages showing the development of the student. ‘Infant’ is the first stage, learner is dependent on teacher not only for learning but also on being supported in learning process. Second step is that the student’ achieves a measure of independence’.The student begins to establish independence by using simple expressions and phrases he/she previously heard. In ‘separate existence’ level, student rejects any uninvited help from teacher.He or she can handle many problem without teacher assistance. In ‘adolescence’ step, because of the student’s greater security in language and readiness to benefit from corrections, the teacher can more focus on accuracy of the lesson.Advanced leval of knowledge can be taught. The last step is ‘independent student’.On this level, students can define their understanding as well as grammatically correct using.Self-confidence is high enough. What is the role of Native Language? By using native language, providing a bridge familiar to unfamiliar and making the meaning clear can be supplied.Also the feelings of students are understood easily.At first, the teacher explains the actions in native language.So the instructions and exercises are understood clearly.Also the teacher gives the translations of the target language words.This allows students to combine the target language words in different ways to create new sentences.As the students express themselves in native language.All of them can be understood easily by everyone.Because of that, more sincere class environment is provided.
  • COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING 5 What is the Nature of Interactions? Student-Teacher Interaction: It is two types.First one is when the students are assertive.Assertive means that they are dominant in the classroom.When students are having conversation, the teacher help them to express themselves in target language.He/she removes himself from the circle and encourage students to interact with each other.The second one is that the teacher is in charge and providing direction.This time, teacher structures the class and organizes what will be done.Which interaction to use can be changed according to the lesson types Student-Student Interaction:There is spirit of cooperation, especially not competition.Building a relationship among the students is very important.With trusting relationship, the anxiety students feel can be reduced, also their desire to learn can be increased.Students learn from each other by interactions in the class. How is the Language and Culture viewed? For language, in community language learning, language is for communication.Speaking, listening and understanding are the most important skills.’’It is a method that is based on Engish based on communication and is extremely learner-focused.’’(British Council Home Page,2004) Language becomes the means for developing creative and critical thinking.At the beginning of the process, the focus is ‘’sharing knowledge and trusting each other’’.But then the focus shift on ‘’individual and shared identity’’ For culture, culture is an integral part of language learningWe can’t separate the culture, language and learning from each other.They are all complete and work at the same time in learning process.Curran writes that ‘learning is persons’ meaning that both teacher and dtudents work at building trust in one another in the learning process. How does the Teacher Respond to the Student Errors? When a student make something wrong in exercises, teacher doesn’t make any immediate correction.The teacher repeats the correct form without calling further attention.It is important that without further attention, the teacher repeats correctly what the student has said incorrectly.
  • COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING 6 Also, the teacher should work in non-threatening way and it is important to make respectful relationship with students, not making fun of them when something wrong happens.Tecniques depend on where the students are in the five-stage learning process, but are consistent with sustaining a respectful, non-defensive learning relationship between teacher and students. How is the Syllabus? ‘’Community language learning (CLL) is an approach in which students work together to develop what aspects of a language they would like to learn.’’(Richards, Jack C.,1986)There is a topic-based program in community language learning.But the topic is chosen by students.It means that the topic of the conversations are directed by students.The teacher doesn’t give the grammar, vocabulary and the other language items in advance.According to the flow of the lesson, teacher can mention about the vocabulary and grammar rules about the topic.But this method is interaction based and most important skills are speaking and listening with reinforcement of reading and writing.Later in the process, more accuracy can be used in lessons. How is the evaluation? In community language learning, there is no particular mode of evaluation.But there are alternative ways.For example, at the end of each course, students can take a test for checking the understanding of the students.Another alternative is the teacher can want students to write a paragraph or an oral interview.The last thing is that the teacher can encourage students to self-evaluate, to look their own learning and be aware of their own progress.In this one, the teacher doesn’t get involved to the evaluating process, this alternative can be applied when formal evaluation grades are not needed in learning process. There is no proof that which alternative is more effective.Each of them can be used according to the choose of the selection of the teacher.But I think that the oral interview is more suitable for general format of community language learning.
  • COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING 7 Some Important Characteristics Emphasized at the End of the Presentation Firstly, responding to the feelings of the students and student security in the classroom are important in community language learning.Teacher’s using native language , telling students precisely what they would be doing during the lesson, respecting established time limits, giving students only as much language at a time as they could handle, and taking responsibility for clearly structuring activities in the most appropriate ways.While security is a basic element of the learning process, the way in which it is provided will change depending upon the stage of the learner. The teacher’s counseling role shouldn’t be forgotten.One regular activity is inviting students to comment on how they feel.The teacher listens and comments to each comment carefully.By showing them he understands how they feel, the teacher can help them overcome negative feelings that might otherwise block their learning.Secondly, the reality that the interactions are the unchangeable rule of community language learning is important.Speaking and listening are the most important skills with reinforcement of writing and reading in this way.And during the lessons some activities such as human computer, tape recording, group working are made for consolidating the knowledge.The most important point is that Curran’s six elements of non-defensive learning are the staple parts of community language learning.These are security, aggression, attention, reflection, retention and discrimination.
  • COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING 8 REFERENCES 1. British Council Home Page.(2004).Retrieved 28 June from: http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/articles/community-language-learning 2. Curran Charles A. 1976.Counselling-Learning in Second Languages.Cliffside Park,NJ:Counselling-Learning Institues. 3. Richards, Jack C. (1986:113) Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching.