1. APPROACHES IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING
Community Language Learning:
The Principles, Student and Teacher Roles
2. COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING
This paper investigates Community Language Learning which is one of approaches in
English Language Learning.Firstly, the goals of teacher and the roles of teacher in this
method were explained one by one. Then the five stages of student roles were examined and
the differences among them were pointed out.The role of native language was told in
detail.The information about student-teacher and student-student interactions were described
and told one by one. The culture and language views of community language learning were
explained.Then the reaction of the teacher to the student errors is clarified. The features of
syllabus were examined one by one and the characteristics of evaluation in this method were
given.Lastly, the important points of community language learning are emphasized one by
one and were decribed shortly.Also some comparisons between audio-lingual method and
community language learning are made and differences, their contribution to the effective
learning were emphasized.
3. COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING
Some stable rules of community language learning, teacher and student roles, interactions
and education views, the features of syllable, organization of the class will is explained
The Goals of the Teacher
Firsty, the teachers who use community language learning want their students to learn using
the language communicatively.Speaking and listening are the most important skills in this
method.Because of that, the teachers tries to develop communicative language among the
students. They want their students to interact with each other for providing effective
learning.The other goal is making the students to learn their own learning.Teachers want their
students to find learning styles that are suitable for their own learning and use them.The third
one students’taking responsibility of learning.They should be aware of the necessities and
deficiencies of themselves.The last one is learning how to learn from each other and sharing
knowledge with the other students.It is important to benefit from the interactions for
The Role of The Teacher
Teachers have roles in class to reflect the method’s features effectively.The teacher’s initial
role is being counselor.But this doesn’t mean that the teacher is a therapist or doesnn’t teach
anything to the students.It means that the teacher know the situation of how fearsome to learn
a new language.So the teacher understands and supports them to master the target language.
Another role is provider of a safe environment.It is a necessary condition for effective
learning.Necessary conditions like security, attention,silence have to be provided in the
The last one is generator of a non-defensive learning.It can be accomplished by Curren’s six
element of learning and by treating each other as a whole person.
4. COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING
The role of students
The important point is that the learners are treated like whole-persons.It means that teacher
considers not only the intellect of the student but also the relationship among the students,
feelings,physical reactions,instictives and desire to learn.There are five stages showing the
development of the student.
‘Infant’ is the first stage, learner is dependent on teacher not only for learning but also on
being supported in learning process.
Second step is that the student’ achieves a measure of independence’.The student begins to
establish independence by using simple expressions and phrases he/she previously heard.
In ‘separate existence’ level, student rejects any uninvited help from teacher.He or she can
handle many problem without teacher assistance.
In ‘adolescence’ step, because of the student’s greater security in language and readiness to
benefit from corrections, the teacher can more focus on accuracy of the lesson.Advanced leval
of knowledge can be taught.
The last step is ‘independent student’.On this level, students can define their understanding
as well as grammatically correct using.Self-confidence is high enough.
What is the role of Native Language?
By using native language, providing a bridge familiar to unfamiliar and making the meaning
clear can be supplied.Also the feelings of students are understood easily.At first, the teacher
explains the actions in native language.So the instructions and exercises are understood
clearly.Also the teacher gives the translations of the target language words.This allows
students to combine the target language words in different ways to create new sentences.As
the students express themselves in native language.All of them can be understood easily by
everyone.Because of that, more sincere class environment is provided.
5. COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING
What is the Nature of Interactions?
Student-Teacher Interaction: It is two types.First one is when the students are
assertive.Assertive means that they are dominant in the classroom.When students are having
conversation, the teacher help them to express themselves in target language.He/she removes
himself from the circle and encourage students to interact with each other.The second one is
that the teacher is in charge and providing direction.This time, teacher structures the class and
organizes what will be done.Which interaction to use can be changed according to the lesson
Student-Student Interaction:There is spirit of cooperation, especially not
competition.Building a relationship among the students is very important.With trusting
relationship, the anxiety students feel can be reduced, also their desire to learn can be
increased.Students learn from each other by interactions in the class.
How is the Language and Culture viewed?
For language, in community language learning, language is for communication.Speaking,
listening and understanding are the most important skills.’’It is a method that is based on
Engish based on communication and is extremely learner-focused.’’(British Council Home
Page,2004) Language becomes the means for developing creative and critical thinking.At the
beginning of the process, the focus is ‘’sharing knowledge and trusting each other’’.But then
the focus shift on ‘’individual and shared identity’’
For culture, culture is an integral part of language learningWe can’t separate the culture,
language and learning from each other.They are all complete and work at the same time in
learning process.Curran writes that ‘learning is persons’ meaning that both teacher and
dtudents work at building trust in one another in the learning process.
How does the Teacher Respond to the Student Errors?
When a student make something wrong in exercises, teacher doesn’t make any immediate
correction.The teacher repeats the correct form without calling further attention.It is important
that without further attention, the teacher repeats correctly what the student has said
6. COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING
Also, the teacher should work in non-threatening way and it is important to make respectful
relationship with students, not making fun of them when something wrong happens.Tecniques
depend on where the students are in the five-stage learning process, but are consistent with
sustaining a respectful, non-defensive learning relationship between teacher and students.
How is the Syllabus?
‘’Community language learning (CLL) is an approach in which students work together to
develop what aspects of a language they would like to learn.’’(Richards, Jack C.,1986)There
is a topic-based program in community language learning.But the topic is chosen by
students.It means that the topic of the conversations are directed by students.The teacher
doesn’t give the grammar, vocabulary and the other language items in advance.According to
the flow of the lesson, teacher can mention about the vocabulary and grammar rules about the
topic.But this method is interaction based and most important skills are speaking and listening
with reinforcement of reading and writing.Later in the process, more accuracy can be used in
How is the evaluation?
In community language learning, there is no particular mode of evaluation.But there are
alternative ways.For example, at the end of each course, students can take a test for checking
the understanding of the students.Another alternative is the teacher can want students to write
a paragraph or an oral interview.The last thing is that the teacher can encourage students to
self-evaluate, to look their own learning and be aware of their own progress.In this one, the
teacher doesn’t get involved to the evaluating process, this alternative can be applied when
formal evaluation grades are not needed in learning process.
There is no proof that which alternative is more effective.Each of them can be used
according to the choose of the selection of the teacher.But I think that the oral interview is
more suitable for general format of community language learning.
7. COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING
Some Important Characteristics Emphasized at the End of the Presentation
Firstly, responding to the feelings of the students and student security in the classroom are
important in community language learning.Teacher’s using native language , telling students
precisely what they would be doing during the lesson, respecting established time limits,
giving students only as much language at a time as they could handle, and taking
responsibility for clearly structuring activities in the most appropriate ways.While security is a
basic element of the learning process, the way in which it is provided will change depending
upon the stage of the learner. The teacher’s counseling role shouldn’t be forgotten.One regular
activity is inviting students to comment on how they feel.The teacher listens and comments to
each comment carefully.By showing them he understands how they feel, the teacher can help
them overcome negative feelings that might otherwise block their learning.Secondly, the
reality that the interactions are the unchangeable rule of community language learning is
important.Speaking and listening are the most important skills with reinforcement of writing
and reading in this way.And during the lessons some activities such as human computer, tape
recording, group working are made for consolidating the knowledge.The most important point
is that Curran’s six elements of non-defensive learning are the staple parts of community
language learning.These are security, aggression, attention, reflection, retention and
8. COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING
British Council Home Page.(2004).Retrieved 28 June from:
2. Curran Charles A. 1976.Counselling-Learning in Second Languages.Cliffside
3. Richards, Jack C. (1986:113) Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching.