Dr Neveen Moussa, Principal at Sinclair Knight Merz, gives her take on the issue of cost and size as it relates to modularization. She also explains the methodology for “right sizing” your modularization decision.
Why modularization should not be based on cost and size alone
2000 Tonnes or more!Why modularisation decisions shouldnot be based on cost and size alone Dr Neveen Moussa Principal – Sinclair Knight Merz Contact: email@example.com
Topics covered About SKM Why modularise and the benefits of modularisation. A methodology for “right sizing” your modularisation decision. Some final thoughts.
About Sinclair Knight Merz Global engineering services & project delivery firm Established 1964 in Sydney, Australia Annual revenue of over A$1B Employs 6500 personnel globally Operates across four market areas (Business Units):• Water & Environment, Mining & Metals, Buildings & Infrastructure, Power & Industry On track to reach goal of becoming a Global Top 10 Firm within 5 years, as measured by the benchmark Engineering News Record
About Sinclair Knight Merz SHANGHAI Working with our clients to “deliver a positive and enduring impact on the world”
SKM Projects in ChinaWHERE HAS SKM WORKED IN CHINA?
Why Modularise?“Modularisation has the potential to enhanceproject outcomes for all stakeholders (owner,project delivery team, fabricators, contractors,suppliers), whist offering the opportunity toreduce consumption of resources and promotesustainability for future generations”.
Modularisation Trends Mass Module Build Shipyard Mass production Overseas Module Build Sea transport Specialist yard Local Module Build Road transport Local yard Site Pre-Assembly Build Minor workshop assemblies Off plot construction facility Modularisation must provide Site Stick Build a benefit (at an acceptable Build in place STD construction practise cost and level of risk) to the project.
The benefits of ModularisationLower material ratesLower labour ratesMore skilled labour availableControlled environment - higher labourproductivity & qualityLess man-hrs on siteSmaller construction camp/ Lower FIFO costsAllows fabrication to start early.Construction safety is improvedReduction in land disturbance/ impact oncommunity/environmentCompressed construction scheduleAll weather related risks minimisedReduced site commissioning timeEarly start up.
Right sizing Stick Build Execution Fully Modularised ExecutionCheap skilled labour optimum Difficult executionLocal fabrication centre environment remoteness,Equipment/bulks sourced locally position weather, etc)Brownfields works No local fabrication capabilityNo port near by Skilled labour shortagesPort structural/spatial/tidal constraints High cost of labourInfrastructure constraints Compressed scheduleLocal content laws Safety driversIR sabotage threats IR delay threatsOther logistical challenges Sustainability driversTransport equipment shortages Arriving at the optimal position is project specific and requires a BUSINESS CASE.
Methodology for Business Case Development Step 0 – Define your modularisation drivers Define your project’s modularisation drivers Step 1 – Location & Transport Considerations 1. Define fabrication location and transport and logistics constraints Step 2 – Supply Chain Considerations 2. Understand supply chain capabilities, capacities and limitations. Step 3 – Select Pre-assembly/Module sizes / Fabrication location 3. Apply technical/construction knowledge to derive multiple module configurations (splits). 4. Economic evaluation of cost, man-hours, schedule impacts & risks for each split & location. 5. Select optimum split and location. Step 4 – Develop Overall Modularisation Strategy & Execution Plan 6.Collate fabrication selections and finalise overall pre-assembly strategy. 7.Develop shop detailing, contracting and commercial strategies. 8.Develop overall execution strategy & further develop PEP, schedule and estimate.
Methodology for Business Case Development Step 0 – Define modularisation drivers & set-up a modularisation team Define your project’s modularisation drivers and set-up a team t manage process• Set up a dedicated multi-disciplinary team with strong modular skill sets.• Define project drivers with client, document, prioritise and communicate them to all team member as they will dictate your decisions & designs.• Understand that modular may come at a premium depending on labour cost at site location and transport distances.• Bring the engineers along on the journey.• Plan the details early.• Don’t make change without understanding their full impact.
Methodology for Business Case Development Step 1 – Location & Transport Considerations 1. Define fabrication location and transport and logistics constraints • Identify alternative fabrication centres both local and overseas. • Survey site constraints in terms of labour availability/skills, rates, productivity, IR, local content laws, weather, environmental issues, permits, safety issues. • Site access, elevations, laydown areas, heavy lift footprint. • Survey all transport routes for physical constraints: powerlines, bridges, roads, turning circles, etc. • Look at available public Wharfs (structural strength) or alternative Material loading/off -loading facilities. • Identify tidal movements/depth and dredging potential at offloading port. • Identify vessel/barge/tug limitations: speed, draft, deck capacity, ability to discharge and acceleration characteristics. • Identify land transport axle limitations. • Define transport envelopes maximum & optimum) – these dictate maximum module sizes for each route.
Methodology for Business Case Development Step 2 – Supply Chain Considerations 2. Understand supply chain capabilities, capacities and limitations. • Survey alternative fabrication centres both local and overseas. • Survey market for available lifting/transport equipment • Survey market for available ships • Understand quarantine & customs requirements • Ambient road laws, vehicle size constraints & local police availability, if escorts required. • Province requirements/lead time for permits. • Other community/environmental risks.
Methodology for Business Case Development Step 3 – Select Pre-assembly/Module sizes / Fabrication location 3. Apply technical/construction knowledge to derive multiple module configurations (splits). 4. Economic evaluation of cost, man-hours, schedule impacts & risks for each split & location. 5. Select optimum split and location. Technical Considerations:• Design to eliminate unproductive hours and address safety by examining ways to minimise: – workforce congestion. – manual handling. – working at heights. – scaffolding.• Modularise around equipment not around structural steel and considering installation sequence.• Modularise only where economic, i.e. do not ship air. – Where modularisation is not possible assemble at ground level and utilise flat packs/panels.• Optimise shipping by ensuring that modules fit standard vessels.• Optimise cranage usage - consider lifts (single vs. dual) by conventional (vs. specialised) cranes and four point lifts.
Methodology for Business Case DevelopmentTechnical Considerations (continued) : • Assemble modules including grid mesh, handrail & plate work c/w liners. • Assemble modules with cable tray, brackets, light and accessories. • Product bins to be shipped c/w liners. • Loose steel to be shipped as large nested flat-pack panels including grid mesh and pre-fabricated handrail panels . • Maximise personnel access by including flooring, handrail, electrical access for cable installation, and complete access towers. • Sub-stations & control rooms and transformer kiosks (c/w distribution panels) to be fitted out as transportable units. • Consider alignment issues • Consider construction sequencing and module placement • Consider crane movement and laydown areas. • Temporary steel should be part of the structure as much as possible. • Make allowances for grillage, sea fastening, temp steel, double columns/module connections Expect to see more steel quantities. • Adopt standard connection details, lifting points/lugs.
Economic EvaluationCost comparisons: based on data sourced by procurement
Schedule EvaluationUndertake schedulecomparisons with a baselinestick build timeline for alloptions considered based onreduced man-hours.Quantify schedule benefits.
Risk Evaluation• If you think modularisation is business as usual THINK AGAIN!• Plan, plan, and then plan. Stuff ups are too messy and too costly!• Do it during FEL2 or earlier otherwise you risk schedule, budget and rework.• The following risks should be assessed: • Technical • Multiple locations/languages/currencies • Transport & logistics • Material management • Lifting • Laws, regulations, permits • Skills in modularisation • Interfaces
Methodology for Business Case DevelopmentStep 4 – Develop Overall Modularisation Strategy & Execution Plan 6.Collate fabrication selections and finalise overall pre-assembly strategy. 7.Develop shop detailing, contracting and commercial strategies. 8.Develop overall execution strategy & further develop PEP, schedule and estimate. • Modularisation team to use a structured approach to assess each option looking at iterations of: • Cost models • Schedules • Risks •May assign weights to each attribute •May use simulation to arrive at optimal decision per facility •Collate all selections and rationalise to align strategy with market conditions. •Develop strategy and execution plan accordingly.
Final thoughtsThe inland nature of most mining projects will limit modularisationopportunities to pre-assembliesA structured approach to arrive at an optimal modular decision alignedwith market conditions will be required.Focus will have to be on “right-sizing” of modules to suit project driversand constraints.Pre-assembly density will be a key factor and will be largelydetermined by the location of equipment fabricationProcurement of bulk and special materials and equipment should notbe fixed until modular decision is madeAreas that do not justify full assemblies/modules will be done asprefabricated panels/flat packs, e.g. conveyors.Anticipated benefits may not be fully realised if not executedeffectively.