Nanotecnologie per il miglioramento degli impianti dentaliDocument Transcript
NIH Public Access Author Manuscript Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 May 5. Published in final edited form as:NIH-PA Author Manuscript Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2011 ; 26(Suppl): 25–49. Nanotechnology Approaches for Better Dental Implants Antoni P. Tomsia1, Maximilien E. Launey1, Janice S. Lee2, Mahesh H. Mankani3, Ulrike G.K. Wegst4, and Eduardo Saiz5 1 Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 2Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143 3Department of Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, 1001 Potrero Avenue, Box 0807, San Francisco, CA 94143 4Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 5Centre for Advanced Structural Ceramics, Department of Materials, Imperial College London,NIH-PA Author Manuscript Exhibition Road, London, UK Abstract The combined requirements imposed by the enormous scale and overall complexity of designing new implants or complete organ regeneration are well beyond the reach of present technology in many dimensions, including nanoscale, as we do not yet have the basic knowledge required to achieve these goals. The need for a synthetic implant to address multiple physical and biological factors imposes tremendous constraints on the choice of suitable materials. There is a strong belief that nanoscale materials will produce a new generation of implant materials with high efficiency, low cost, and high volume. The nanoscale in materials processing is truly a new frontier. Metallic dental implants have been successfully used for decades but they have serious shortcomings related to their osseointegration and the fact that their mechanical properties do not match those of bone. This paper reviews recent advances in the fabrication of novel coatings and nanopatterning of dental implants. It also provides a general summary of the state of the art in dental implant science and describes possible advantages of nanotechnology for further improvements. The ultimate goal is to produce materials and therapies that will bring state-of-the-art technology to the bedside and improve quality of life and current standards of care.NIH-PA Author Manuscript 1. Introduction Replacement of tooth and bone with metal implants and plates is one of the most frequently used and successful surgical procedures. The introduction of modern implants started with the work of Branemark, who in 1969 observed that a piece of titanium embedded in rabbit bone became firmly attached and difficult to remove . This led to Branemark’s careful characterization of interfacial bone formation at titanium implant surfaces, and demonstration of excellent osseointegration [2, 3]. Dental implants based on the Branemark work were introduced in 1971 . Thetotal hip replacement was first developed by Charnley in 1962, with stainless steel used for the stem and the attached ball [5, 6]. Charnley’s main contribution was to adapt PMMA cement from dentistry to fix the femoral stem and acetabular cup . After decades of subsequent research in industry and academia, implants Corresponding author: Antoni P. Tomsia, PhD, Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, One Cyclotron Road, MSD Building 62R0203, Berkeley, CA 94720, Phone: 510-486-4918, email@example.com.
Tomsia et al. Page 2 have evolved, with a high percentage of survival rate and longevity. The research resulted in better design, better materials, and more extensive clinical experience compared with the early years of implant development. One can argue, however, that the progress has beenNIH-PA Author Manuscript slow and incremental. We are still using almost the same alloys described in the works of Branemark and Charnley, many of which were originally developed by the aerospace industry. Scientific evidence to determine the success (or failure) of dental implants in the United States is almost nonexistent, as we lack a national registry describing the rate and causes of failures. There are, of course, other avenues to alert clinicians about implant failures: the peer review literature, other national registries (the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) is sponsoring one in the United States for hip and knee implants), Food and Drug Administration alerts, manufacturing recalls, implant-retrieval labs across the country and world, implant-retrieval studies in collaboration with clinical follow-up investigations, class-action lawsuits, and society presentations. The development of retrievable information relevant to medical devices is necessary to understand the overall performance of a particular implant and to improve the next generation of medical implants. For implant-design improvements, implant-retrieval programs should be coordinated with clinical-outcome studies that include a patient’s history and medical records. Implant-failure analysis not only helps manufacturers design better products but also provides better understanding for clinicians on how the implant interacts with the body and which ones are best for a patient’s particular situation. In 2003, more than 700,000 dental-implant procedures were performed in the United States and more than 1.3 million procedures inNIH-PA Author Manuscript Europe . Approximately1 million artificial hips and knees are implanted each year in the United States, as reported in 2006 . Hip and knee replacements have a success rate of more than 90%, and dental implants fare better, at 90–95% . Dental implants have a long and successful history. The percentage of failure is very low, approximately 5%, mostly likely due to infection, rejection, accelerated bone loss, and poor osseointegration with loosening of the implant . The most frequent cause for failure is insufficient bone formation around the biomaterial immediately after implantation . Therefore, this is an area where improvements are needed. This is becoming even more important as clinicians are pushing for faster healing times. Consequently most modifications in the implant design are geared toward reducing the time needed to wait before loading. It is here that the implant surface and tissue interface are critical . Current surface chemistries and morphologies are controlled, at best, at the micron level, but tissue response is mainly dictated by processes controlled at the nanoscale. Understanding and controlling interfacial reactions at the nano level is the key to developing new implant surfaces that will eliminate rejection and promote adhesion and integration to the surrounding tissue.NIH-PA Author Manuscript Here, the first promising avenue is through surface engineering that would include nanoscale topography and/or coatings for better and faster osseointegration of implants designed to function for the lifetime of the individual. However, the literature describing and comparing the different approaches is often confusing. Worldwide, there are 80 companies producing 220 various dental implants, so the comparison is often difficult . Likewise, there are few controlled studies simultaneously comparing different implants, especially in the clinical setting. Manufacturers often don’t find it in their best interest to participate in head- to-head competitions with their rivals, and clinicians often don’t have sufficient patient numbers or motivation to initiate these studies on their own. Additionally, there are variations in the patient population that may influence the success of the implant. There are no commonly accepted guidelines for the design of surface topographies or the deposition of coatings, and the clinical evidence is often conflicting. As described later, this may be due to the poor control of factors associated with fabrication techniques and not necessarily with the design itself. One critical problem is how to translate the results of in vitro cell-culture Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 May 5.
Tomsia et al. Page 3 studies performed on model surfaces in pristine conditions to the design and fabrication of three dimensional (3D) implant materials with complex shapes that will work in the harsh human oral environment.NIH-PA Author Manuscript The second scientific challenge is to develop a new generation of implant materials that will combine the advantages of ceramics, in particular their inertness, with a mechanical response comparable to those of dental implant alloys. The unique properties of ceramic materials, including their outstanding corrosion resistance and excellent aesthetics, make them appealing candidates for many dental applications. However, their inferior mechanical properties, particularly fracture toughness, until now have hampered their commercial use, especially in load-bearing situations. This is a particular problem when designing porous implants or implants with rough and porous surfaces for better osseointegration. While the porosity will improve osseointegration, increased porosity can easily result in diminished strength and fracture at relatively low loads. Through new fabrication technologies, these limitations may be overcome. Their potential has not yet been realized. Solutions to these scientific challenges have a benefit that extends beyond the construction of implants. They can offer us a path toward the resolution of a much more challenging goal: the construction of a true biologic tooth. The technical foundation for a neo-tooth will likely include implant surfaces that bind quickly to bone, and occlusive surfaces that offer toughness during mastication. In the meantime, we need strategies to improve the currentNIH-PA Author Manuscript metallic dental implants, through surface modifications of the implant either by applying novel ceramic coatings or by patterning the implant’s surfaces. These approaches are described below. 2. Surface modifications of dental implants 2.1 Ceramic coatings Various coatings have been developed to improve an implant’s ability to bond to living tissues, particularly bone. The idea is to apply a thin ceramic layer that will bond both to the implant and to the surrounding tissue while promoting bone apposition. Candidate coating materials are bioactive compounds able to promote cell attachment, differentiation, and bone formation. The most prevalent bioactive materials are calcium phosphates (CP), such as hydroxyapatite (HA) or tricalcium phosphate (TCP), and bioactive glasses. When implanted, these bioactive ceramics form a carbonated apatite (HCA) layer on their surfaces through dissolution and precipitation. This phase is equivalent in composition and structure to the mineral phase of osseous tissue. At the same time, collagen fibrils can be incorporated into the apatite agglomerates. The sequence of events is poorly understood but appears to be: adsorption of biological moieties and action of macrophages, attachment of stem cells andNIH-PA Author Manuscript differentiation, formation of matrix, and, finally, complete mineralization [13–17]. Animal studies have shown that, compared with uncoated implants, implants with a thin layer of CP have markedly enhanced interfacial attachment of bone tissue over a period of several months [19–26]. Also, numerous histological studies provide evidence that coated implants yield a more reliable interface with bone than mechanical osseointegration of Ti [27–36]. Coating implant alloys with CPs, therefore, is advantageous; it facilitates joining between a prosthesis and osseous tissue and consequently increases long-term integrity. Benefits arise during healing and subsequent bone-remodeling processes [30, 37], including faster healing time , enhanced bone formation [39, 40], firmer implant-bone attachment [39, 41], and a reduction of metallic ion release [42, 43]. However, coating dental implants is not without controversy. Recent clinical orthopedic studies [44–46] indicate that there is no clear advantage to using HA coatings for the femoral component of hip implants. The situation with dental implants is no different; there are contradicting reports on the Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 May 5.
Tomsia et al. Page 4 effectiveness of the HA coatings, as it is difficult to compare coatings applied using different methods . Thus, the issue of coating usefulness is not fully resolved.NIH-PA Author Manuscript Ideally, the coatings should be tailored to exhibit prescribed biological attributes for each specific application. They should have strong adhesion to the implant and good fixation to bone. Their microstructure and dissolution rates must be programmed to match the in vivo healing process, and they could serve as templates for the in situ delivery of drugs and growth factors at the required times. Essential requirements of the new family of coatings include: (1) good adherence to the implant, (2) fixation to the bone, (3) fine gradient and thickness control with programmed dissolution rate in body fluids, and (4) therapeutic capabilities. These are discussed below. Coating/implant adherence—Most reports indicate that currently available coating techniques provide inadequate adherence of CP coatings to Ti alloys. Quoted bond strengths, 15–30 MPa, are very low [48–51]. Systematic studies of the chemical and microstructural factors that control the interfacial strength and toughness are needed to optimize the mechanical stability of the coatings. Key principles for bonding ceramics to metals, elucidated over the past decade [52–63], can guide such an investigation but we still need to develop standard procedures to test adhesion, and a clear understanding of the mechanisms of interfacial failure in the body environment.NIH-PA Author Manuscript Fixation to bone—Knowledge of biological processes occurring at the biomaterial-tissue interface is of utmost importance in predicting implant integration and host response . Two primary modes of attachment are: (1) mechanical, in which the implant has a rough, porous surface into which bone grows (often supplemented by use of a bone cement); and (2) chemical, in which bone “bonds” to the implant material. Here it is difficult to decouple the effect of coating chemistry and topography. It has been observed that differences in the nature of the implant/bone contact depend upon the specific coating. However, there is little guidance as to which is the ideal coating chemistry. Dissolution of calcium and phosphorus from the coating may promote mineralization and bone formation but it is not clear how much coating solubility contributes to the best fixation, and excessive resorption can limit implant lifetimes [65, 66]. Programmed dissolution rates—A critical goal in the design of novel coatings is the programming of their dissolution (bioresorption) rates. The role of solubility of coatings in the body is poorly understood . The presence of highly soluble phases markedly decreases the mechanical stability of the coating in vivo, but some solubility of coating material expedites fixation [68, 69]. These results suggest that graded coatings designed with a soluble surface to facilitate bonding to bone and an insoluble layer in contact with theNIH-PA Author Manuscript metal to provide adhesion, corrosion resistance, and long-term mechanical stability could offer a significant improvement over current materials. Both the composition and thickness of the graded coating layers can be controlled to manipulate the resorption rates. Their resorption can be programmed to match healing rates and to expose different micro- architectures, chemical patterns, and porosities at different times to optimize the biomaterial coating surface for different periods of the healing-in phase. Possible designs of graded coatings are depicted in Figure 2. Drug delivery—Inflammatory responses to implants are a significant problem in the health care industry. Typically, medications are given to a patient following surgery to suppress inflammation and to enable the intended performance of the implanted medical device. Although generally helpful, in many cases this approach is insufficient or entirely ineffective [70–72]. A different approach is to provide a local dose of anti-inflammation agents gradually released from a coating on the surface of the implanted device [73, 74]. The main Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 May 5.
Tomsia et al. Page 5 advantage of this approach over traditional means of administering the drug is that the drug can be directly released at the implant site without having to go through the bloodstream. This lowers the amount of drug needed, reducing the overall toxicity and side effects. InNIH-PA Author Manuscript addition, growth factors that are known to encourage tissue-implant integration, such as TGF-β [75, 76], may be delivered locally using this platform. These chemicals could be incorporated into the porosity of micro- and nanoporous coatings or could be dispersed in biodegradable polymers, and combined with the bioactive glass/CP coatings. Developing the right platform to control the release rate is the key, and closely related to the control of the degradation rates. Perhaps the most popular coating method is plasma spraying of HA [77–82]. However, plasma spraying of HA offers only rudimentary control of the coating thickness and composition. The thickness of plasma-sprayed coatings typically exceeds 50 μm. The high process temperatures cause partial thermal decomposition of HA, leading to the formation of other CPs, including 22–62% of highly soluble amorphous calcium phosphate [83–87], α- TCP, β-TCP, tetracalcium phosphate, and calcium oxide [49, 88–90]. The result is coatings with unacceptable heterogeneous properties. Long-term in vivo studies demonstrate that some of the major causes of failure of HA-coated metal orthopedic and dental implants reside in the coating [47, 91]. Severe problems include: (1) unreliable adhesion—they can detach, yielding floating fragments [92–99]; (2) continued dissolution of the coating, leading to catastrophic failure of the implant at the coating-substrate interface —attempts toNIH-PA Author Manuscript increase crystallinity and reduce solubility by post-coating thermal annealing markedly degrades the coating adherence [88, 91, 101–104]; (3) variability during processing in terms of resulting phases, stresses, and cracking [37, 84, 105–108]; (4) partial crystallization of the deposited coating, leading to the presence of more soluble CP compounds [48, 109–111]; (5) significant degradation in the fatigue resistance and endurance strength of the implant alloy ; (6) very irregular morphology of the coatings; (7) poor control of the coating thickness, with greater risk of fracture, the thicker the coating; and (8) poor control of physicochemical properties, and hence the biological stability of the coating [113, 114]. Several other techniques have been used to apply CP coatings on metallic alloys, from sol- gel to RF magnetron sputtering and others [106, 114–132]. These techniques may offer a more accurate compositional control and the possibility of fabricating much thinner layers (of the order of 1 micron or less). This could be advantageous for coating stability, as the driving force for cracking and delamination decreases with the decreasing thickness. The nature of the coating and the process might be tuned in order to modify the interfacial strength. However, these approaches have yet to be translated into commercial designs. Some are line-of-sight techniques not suitable to coat implants with complex shapes, resulting in incomplete coverage of the implant; cost is a key variable that must be takenNIH-PA Author Manuscript into account and highly dense coatings produced by sputtering are probably the most desirable, but are very expensive to fabricate. There is increasing interest in the use of bioactive glasses in the fabrication of coatings. The potential of bioactive glass coatings has been recognized since the discovery of the original Bioglass ® composition by Hench . Bioglass® has excellent bioactivity and could be used to enhance the adhesion of the implant to the bone. Furthermore, the glass properties can be easily adjusted from bioactive to bioresorbable or bioinert by controlling the composition . This creates the possibility of fabricating layers with finely tuned properties. However, initial attempts to coat metallic implants with the original Bioglass® were marred by the generation of large thermal expansion stresses and high reactivity between the metal and the glass . Subsequently, several techniques have been investigated for the preparation of glass coatings, such as enameling, plasma spray, RF sputtering, sol-gel, pulsed-laser deposition (PLD, Figure 3), and others [47, 133–141]. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 May 5.
Tomsia et al. Page 6 Although it has been possible to deposit glass layers that retain bioactivity, a recurrent problem is the control of the glass-metal reactions to achieve good coating adhesion, and the generation of large thermal stresses during processing that can cause cracking and/orNIH-PA Author Manuscript delamination of the coating. The solution to the problem requires the development of coating procedures and novel bioactive glasses, and glass-ceramics, with adequate thermal expansion coefficients and softening points. In our laboratory, we have demonstrated that a new family of bioactive glasses, in the system Si-Ca-Mg-Na-K-P-O, exhibits thermal-expansion coefficients close to those of the metallic alloys used in dental and orthopedic implants . This is achieved through the partial substitution of Ca by Mg, and of Na by K. These glasses have adequate softening points to be used in the fabrication of coatings by a simple enameling technique. Strong glass/metal adhesion is achieved through the formation of thin interfacial layers. The procedure can be extended to the fabrication of graded coatings through the sequential deposition of different glass and glass-ceramic layers. For example, we have fabricated graded coatings on Ti and Co-Cr alloys consisting of a high-silica glass in contact with the metal, and a composite surface layer that consists of a mixture of a low-silica glass with synthetic HA particles. The high-silica layer is very resistant to corrosion in body fluids; it provides good coating adhesion and long-term stability, while the surface layer is designed to enhance coating attachment to the tissue (Figure 4).NIH-PA Author Manuscript The interaction of glass coatings with tissue can be further manipulated by designing appropriate surface textures. Furthermore, in vitro analysis in cell cultures has shown that bioactive glasses and coatings can indirectly affect osteoblast gene expression through their dissolution products [143–147]. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that the silicate glass coating extract induced a twofold expression of Runx-2, a key marker of osteoblast differentiation, compared with Ti-6Al-4V and tissue-culture polystyrenes . Future research should address the identification of specific chemical cues behind the induction of gene expression, and the tailoring of layer compositions to control such effects. Another technique worth further exploration is anodic oxidation, which has been used as a means to engineer the surface of Ti-based implants [149, 150]. This technique can be used to create an adherent oxide coating on the implant surface. By selecting different electrolytes and manipulating the conditions, it is possible to create oxide layers with a wide range of stoichiometries as well as micro- and nanoporosities. It is also possible to incorporate Ca and P ions into the layers. This is a relatively simple and economical technique that can be easily adapted to fabrication, and anodized implants are commercially available. Several in vivo and clinical studies have shown that anodization enhances integration at early stagesNIH-PA Author Manuscript and due to their characteristic micro to nano pore distribution, anodized surfaces have been considered as platforms for drug delivery. As in many other treatments, it is difficult here to separate the effect of surface chemistry and morphology. In addition, as in other implant technologies, we still lack systematic studies of the factors that control adhesion of the oxide layer to the alloy. Most likely an ideal coating will not be fabricated using a single procedure or material, but by combining several of them to fabricate layers that blend organic and inorganic phases, with thicknesses ranging from hundreds of microns to the nanometer level, and chemically and topographically textured surfaces. Each technique has specific advantages and limitations, yet no single procedure can fabricate layers combining organic and inorganic materials and generate textured surfaces. New coating techniques should be flexible enough to use glasses and CP phases with a wide range of compositions and should generate chemically and topographically textured surfaces while integrating organic and inorganic Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 May 5.
Tomsia et al. Page 7 components. To accomplish this, colloidal techniques (dip-coating, electrophoretic deposition, EPD, or robocasting) able to prepare thick layers (>10 μm) can be combined with thin-film formation using techniques such as pulsed laser deposition (PLD) (Figure 3)NIH-PA Author Manuscript [151, 152]. The translation of rapid prototyping techniques to the fabrication of coatings could prove very useful. For example, robocasting, a 3D technique that can print different materials at the same time and produce porous surfaces for infiltration of organic materials, can also be employed. These techniques can also be used to integrate organic materials into coatings to serve as templates for the delivery of drugs and growth factors. 2.2 Surface functionalization An alternative or complementary strategy to the use of coatings for dental implants is the molecular grafting or chemical treatment of implant or coating surfaces to enhance cell adhesion and promote mineralization, and the production of matrix and marker proteins. Different treatments have been used to create hydrophilic implant surfaces (e.g., through chemical etching) to promote protein adhesion and subsequent cell attachment (Figure 5). However, the native oxide layer usually present on the surface of metallic implants exhibits relatively low contact angles with water without any particular treatment. Overall, several in vivo studies suggest that implants with increased hydrophilicity exhibit faster integration with larger bone-to-implant contact, but key questions remain: Is hydrophilicity the key variable, and if so what degree of hydrophilicity is needed to make a difference? Are there additional benefits derived from the surface treatment?NIH-PA Author Manuscript The logical candidates for molecular grafting are proteins present in the extracellular matrix, and implant surfaces that have been functionalized with fibronectin (FN), vitronectin (VN), or laminin (LN), to name a few . Lately, the focus has shifted to the use of signaling domains, composed of several amino acids. These domains are present along the chain of the extracellular matrix proteins and are the ones that interact with cell-membrane receptors. Perhaps the best-known example is Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), the signaling domain derived from FN and LN. However, other sequences such as Tyr-Ile-Gly-Ser-Arg (YIGSR) or Arg-Glu- Asp-Val (REDV) have also been used [154–156]. The use of a short peptide is more convenient because the long molecules can be folded, and as a result the binding domains may not be available. Two important aspects are the development of techniques to bind the molecules to the surface and the control of their spatial distribution. Several approaches have been used to functionalize Ti surface with different molecules, from adsorption (physical or chemical) to the use of covalent bonding or self-organized layers [157–159]. The simplest procedures involve immersion of the material in a solution containing the desired molecules in order to promote adsorption on the surface. This approach has disadvantages because it can result in relatively poor adhesion. CovalentNIH-PA Author Manuscript bonding using, for example, linker molecules can promote stronger adhesion to the implant and it has been used to attach proteins, signalling domains [157–159], antibiotics , and growth factors such as human epidermal growth factor or recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 to Ti and TiO2 surfaces [161, 162]. However, it may impose a spatial orientation on the grafted domains or proteins, limiting their effectiveness . Diverse molecules can also be incorporated into CP coatings or on Ti surfaces prepared by anodic polarization [157–159]. The surface density is also important. It has been shown that a way to enhance the function of the osteoblastic cell lines is to match the surface density of the selected molecules to the distribution of the corresponding receptor in the cell membrane. This can be achieved, for example, using functionalized gold nanoparticles whose density on the surface can be manipulated [163, 164]. Although most of the papers support the idea that functionalization can enhance and accelerate osseointegration, the key is to adapt the functionalization techniques to the surfaces of specific dental alloys, each one with different surface chemistries, and to be able to create surfaces that will display different Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 May 5.
Tomsia et al. Page 8 molecules with controlled spatial distribution and the required degree of adhesion. Furthermore, we probably still lack the in vivo data needed to select optimum attachment methods and surface densities.NIH-PA Author Manuscript 2.3 Surface topography of dental implants It has long been recognized that the chemical and morphological characteristics of implant surfaces affect the behavior of the surrounding tissues. Numerous studies have shown marked differences in the in vitroand in vivoresponse of textured implant surfaces, demonstrating that the ability of the implants to support bone formation can be enhanced by modifying surface topography [165–168]. This is critically important in the case of dental implants that are built using bioinert materials and where optimum and fast osseointegration is needed to achieve long-term functionality. It is generally accepted that rough surfaces will favor mechanical interlocking with the surrounding tissue, which will help implant stability. At a more fundamental level, surface topography may affect cell differentiation (perhaps by influencing cell shapes or by inducing specific signals) [169–171] and consequently promote the formation of extracellular matrix and bone apposition. Although there are hundreds of papers dealing with surface engineering, decoupling and understanding these different effects is still an open scientific challenge. However, the answer could prove extremely useful in order to rationally design implant surfaces. The topography of the implant surfaces can now be manipulated at a wide range of lengthNIH-PA Author Manuscript scales, down to the nano level. Several implant designs use surfaces with large pores to promote bone ingrowth and favorable anchoring. Previous analysis indicated that these pores have to be of the order of 100 μm and larger to allow for bone ingrowth. These can be fabricated using partial sintering of metal particles or spheres on the surface. However, there is still some controversy regarding the benefit of this approach with respect to screw geometries. A recent study supports the idea that screw implants perform better in long lengths and denser bone while the porous surfaces are more adequate at short lengths and in cancellous bone . In addition, excessive roughness can have the disadvantage of making the implant harder to remove if necessary, and may be detrimental for implant strength . Texturing of the implant surface at the micro level has been proposed as a feasible alternative to promote bone apposition. This work is based on the abundance of in vitro studies indicating that some degree of roughening at the microscopic scale favors cell attachment and differentiation [173, 174]. There are several papers and patents describing different techniques to increase the surface roughness, including sandblasting, grinding, Ti plasma spraying, or laser texturing [28, 149, 175]. The in vivo results are mixed. While many reports indicate an improvement in bone apposition using rougher surfaces, othersNIH-PA Author Manuscript suggest either no significant benefit or that the result will depend on the implant design. For example, Jansen compared the tissue reaction to smooth and microgrooved implants (width 2 or 10 μm, depth 1 μm), at different implantation sites . They were unable to prove the existence of an effect of implant-surface topography on in vivo soft-tissue response. Other recent studies reached similar conclusions . It could be argued that the main advantage of microtextured surfaces is the contribution to mechanical interlocking and tissue attachment of the implant. It should also be noted that implants with surfaces too rough have a high possibility of peri-implantitis and that the roughness will affect the degree of hydrophilicity. This effect could be described using Wentzel equation cosθr = r cosθ (where θr is the macroscopic contact angle on the rough surface, θ is the true contact angle, and r is a ratio between actual and apparent area, r ≥ 1) . Notice that according to this equation, for θ < 90° as can be expected for Ti-alloy surfaces, roughness tends to decrease the contact angle (increase hydrophilicity). This simple model shows how roughness can be playing an effect at multiple levels . Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 May 5.
Tomsia et al. Page 9 Unfortunately, there are not many studies systematically comparing the performance of implants with surfaces treated using various methods. In particular, similar roughness (average peak-to-valley distances) can be obtained using diverse technologies but theNIH-PA Author Manuscript characteristic of the surface (random vs. oriented features, sharp vs. smooth) can greatly vary from one to the other and there is no standard approach to fully quantify the implant topography and compare with in vitro and in vivo results. Furthermore, the surface chemistry can also be altered in different ways by the roughening treatments. Ti-alloys are covered by a native oxide layer whose characteristics can change with the treatment. For example, some studies suggest that sandblasting with TiO2 particles elicits more beneficial results than using other ceramics [149, 180]. This is perhaps due to the presence of ceramic particles left embedded in the metal after the sandblasting process. Finally, different treatments often result in a hierarchical surface structure where nanoscale features are also present. These features are often ill characterized but, as we will see below, can have a large impact on the biological response. The arrival of nanotechnology has opened new opportunities for the manipulation of implant surfaces. It is believed that implant surfaces could be improved by mimicking the surface topography formed by the extracellular matrix (ECM) components of natural tissue. These ECM components are of nanometer scale with typical dimensions of 10–100 nm. Many in vitro studies have shown how cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation are responsive to nano-scale features such as pillars or grooves prepared, for example, usingNIH-PA Author Manuscript nanolithography. In this respect, not only the size of the feature but also its distribution (ordered vs. random) can play a role. Nanopatterned surfaces may also provide better adhesion of the fibrin clot that forms right after implantation, facilitating the migration of osteogenic cells to the material surface . At a more basic level, it is still not completely clear that nanopatterning will be substantially better than patterning at the micron scale or what the interplay between surface topography and chemistry is. It is well known that a high density of nanopillars will create a superhydrophobic surface that can be detrimental  and many of the basic studies have only been performed on flat surfaces and using model materials (e.g., silicon or PMMA) [183, 184]. How to extrapolate these techniques to the fabrication of dental implants, how to ensure that these features will be robust enough to survive implantation, or how to reliably test in vivo effects of nanoscale manipulation are still open technological challenges. 3. Nanocomposites for bone regeneration Due to their strength and toughness, metal implants have been used in orthopedic and dental surgeries for many years. Ti and its alloys have had considerable advantages over other metals because of their inertness, which yields excellent biocompatibility andNIH-PA Author Manuscript nonsensitization of tissues. However, issues concerning the release of Ti and alloying elements from implants and the formation of Ti debris due to wear during implantation still remain. Metal and metal alloys (i.e. Ti, Al, V, Ni) in implants and dental bridges have the potential for allergic reactions and vague constitutional symptoms [185, 186]. Ceramic materials are known to have excellent aesthetics, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility; several ceramic implants have been already commercialized. The continuing interest in the use of modern ceramics for the fabrication of dental implants is underscored by several presentations during recent meetings of the International Association of Dental Research, and by recent research efforts by several European and Japanese companies (Kyocera, Dentsply, Metoxit, et al.). Unfortunately, in contrast to metallic materials, most ceramics suffer from almost a complete lack of plastic deformation; this is due to the absence of mobile dislocation activity, although other modes of inelastic deformation, such as microcracking and in situ phase transformation, can provide limited alternative deformation mechanisms. The implications from this are that ceramics are inherently brittle, with an Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 May 5.
Tomsia et al. Page 10 extreme sensitivity to flaws. As a result, fracture almost invariably occurs catastrophically (with crack initiation concomitant with instability) by cohesive bond breaking at the crack tip with a resulting very low (intrinsic) toughness of roughly 1 to 3 MPa√m. This problem isNIH-PA Author Manuscript aggravated when designing porous implants or implants with rough and porous surfaces for better osseointegration. In this case, the porosity can easily result in diminished fracture strength at relatively low loads. This dependence of strength on pre-existing flaw distributions has several important implications for brittle materials. In particular, large specimens tend to have lower strengths than smaller ones, and specimens tested in tension tend to have lower strengths than identically sized specimens tested in bending because the volume (and surface area) of material subjected to peak stresses is much larger; in both cases, the lower fracture strength is associated with a higher probability of finding a larger flaw. Toughening ceramics, as with virtually all brittle materials, must be achieved extrinsically, i.e., through the use of microstructures that can promote crack-tip shielding mechanisms such as crack deflection, in situ phase transformations, constrained microcracking (although this mechanism is generally not too potent), and, most importantly, crack bridging. Extrinsic mechanisms result in resistance-curve (R-curve) behavior (where the crack-driving force to sustain cracking increases with crack extension) as they operate primarily behind the crack tip to lessen the effective crack-driving force; they are therefore mechanisms of crack-growth toughening. The incorporation of reinforcements in the form of fibers, whiskers, or particlesNIH-PA Author Manuscript can also toughen ceramics, although the motivation may be rather to increase strength and/or stiffness. For toughening, crack bridging is the most prominent mechanism, particularly in ceramic-matrix composites; by utilizing fibers with weak fiber/matrix bonding, when the matrix fails, the fibers are left intact, spanning the crack wake and acting as bridges to inhibit crack opening . The key question is: Can we create a new family of ceramic-based materials that will match or improve the mechanical performance, in particular the combination of strength and toughness, of metallic alloys? In ductile materials such as metals and polymers, strength is a measure of the resistance to permanent (plastic) deformation. It is defined, invariably in uniaxial tension, compression, or bending, either at first yield (yield strength) or at maximum load (ultimate strength). The general rule with metals and alloys is that the toughness is inversely proportional to the strength. In brittle materials such as ceramics, where at low homologous temperatures macroscopic plastic deformation is essentially absent, the strength measured in uniaxial tension or bending is governed by when the sample fractures. Strength, however, does not necessarily provide a sound assessment of toughness, as it cannot define the relative contribution of flaws and defects from which fracture invariably ensues. For this reason, strength and toughness can also be inversely related inNIH-PA Author Manuscript ceramics. By way of example, refining the grain size can limit the size of pre-existing microcracks, which is beneficial for strength, yet for fracture-mechanics-based toughness measurements, where the test samples already contain a worst-case crack, the smaller grain size provides less resistance to crack extension, generally by reducing the potency of any grain bridging, which lowers the toughness. In recent years, the development of nanostructured ceramic materials as a path to achieve enhanced strength and toughness has attracted a great deal of interest in the ceramics community. However, a controversial question in composite toughening is whether the use of nanoscale reinforcements favors the strength to the detriment of the fracture toughness. Although strength and toughness may seem to many to be similar, changes in material microstructure often affect the strength and toughness in very different ways and they tend to be mutually exclusive . It has been claimed that composites made with such nanoscale reinforcing materials as nanotubes, platelets, and nanofibers would have Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 May 5.
Tomsia et al. Page 11 exceptional properties; however, results to date have been disappointing [189–191]. A good example here is the excitement generated by the discovery of carbon nanotubes, which have exceptionally high strengths better than E/10 (E is Young’s modulus) . However, it isNIH-PA Author Manuscript still uncertain whether such nanotubes can be harnessed into bulk structural materials that can utilize their high strength (and stiffness) without compromising toughness. If the composite material is to be used for a small-volume structure with high strength, clearly the reinforcements must also be small; moreover, as there is a lessened probability of finding defects, small-volume reinforcements tend to be much stronger, as has been known since the early days of research on whiskers . However, from the perspective of toughening, we could strongly argue that prime (extrinsic) toughening mechanisms such as crack deflection and particularly crack bridging are promoted by increasing, not decreasing, reinforcement dimensions . Recently, it has been shown that a possible path to combining high strength and toughness in a ceramic material is to take advantage of the transformation toughening mechanisms in nanozirconia-alumina materials [194, 195]. These materials consist of a dispersion of a small amount of tetragonal ZrO2 particles (typically around 200 nm in size) in an Al2O3 matrix. The stress-induced phase transformation of metastable tetragonal grains toward monoclinic symmetry ahead of a propagating crack leads to a significant increase of the work of fracture. For the same pre-existing defects, these composites can work at loads two times higher than the pure materials without delayed failure. Hardness and stability are ofNIH-PA Author Manuscript prime interest in the dental field. Alumina-zirconia nanocomposites with relatively low zirconia content (below the percolation limit, ~16 vol%) exhibit similar hardness values to alumina and are not susceptible to the hydrothermal instability observed in the case of zirconia bioceramics that caused the in vivo degradation of zirconia femoral heads and has resulted in the almost complete abandonment of ZrO2 as an orthopedic biomaterial [194– 196]. The stabilization of the tetragonal zirconia phase in the nanocomposites is thought to arise from a combination of surface energy effects, constraints of the rigid matrix, and stabilizing oxide additions, e.g., yttria, such that transformation can occur locally once the constraints are removed, in this case when the crack propagates [197–200]. It is then necessary to develop processing methods that will allow the fabrication of materials in which the zirconia grains have controlled submicronic size and are homogeneously dispersed in the ceramic matrix. Colloidal procedures in which a liquid precursor of the zirconia phase is mixed with the powders of the matrix ceramic phase present great potential. The use of a liquid precursor allows a more intimate mixing and a more homogeneous distribution of nanoparticles, avoiding the formation of aggregates after the heat treatment .NIH-PA Author Manuscript Alumina/zirconia nanocomposites offer an example of how nanotechnology offers an attractive path to the development of new implant materials but ceramics, even nanocomposite ceramics, will not replicate the unique combinations of mechanical properties of tooth tissues as they are, for example, much stiffer and wear-resistant. A possibility is to develop new hybrid organic/inorganic materials whose properties will closely match those of the tissue for which they substitute. However, the use of synthetic composite materials as permanent replacements for bone, which generated much excitement 30–40 years ago , remains largely unmet due to significant challenges related to fabrication, performance, and cost. Current hybrid organic/inorganic composites have significant problems related mostly to their mechanical performance and their degradation in vivo [203, 204]. As a result, the use of synthetic composite materials as permanent replacements for bone is nearly nonexistent . To achieve dramatic improvements in in vivo performance of composites for dental implants and skeletal tissue repair, new ways of approaching composite design and fabrication are needed. Ideally, these materials would be Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 May 5.
Tomsia et al. Page 12 capable of self-healing, as is the case in many biological materials. In addition, teeth have a complex structure in which several tissues (enamel, dentin, cementum, and pulp) with very different properties and structure are arranged. An ideal artificial tooth requires theNIH-PA Author Manuscript combination of several synthetic materials with prescribed properties. Will nanotechnology alone be enough to achieve this goal? The tissues in teeth have very specific and sophisticated hierarchical architectures, with strength and toughening mechanisms built in at almost every dimension. Nanodimension is only one of them but we need to develop new technologies for the fabrication of materials with architectures designed at multiple length scales that, from the mechanical point of view, will exhibit extrinsic toughening mechanisms similar to those observed in natural composites. Recent advances in the processing of bioinspired materials may open new possibilities. In our laboratory we have pioneered a new technique, freeze casting, that can be used to fabricate ceramic-based composites with complex architectures to assemble novel, bioinspired hierarchical structures modeled after natural composites such as bone or nacre, striking a balance between mechanical and functional responses [205–209] (Figure 6). This technique uses the controlled freezing of ceramic suspensions to generate porous ceramic scaffolds whose architecture is templated by the ice crystals. By controlling the composition of the suspension and the freezing conditions, it is possible to generate materials with complex hierarchical architectures that mimic those of the inorganic component of nacre at multiple length scales, from the nano to the macro levels. TheseNIH-PA Author Manuscript scaffolds can subsequently be infiltrated with a second “soft” phase (e.g., polymer) to prepare composites that exhibit unique combinations of strength and toughness. In particular, it is possible to reach fracture resistance up to 300 times larger (in terms of energy) than that of their main ceramic constituents. As with natural materials, these values are much larger than what could be expected using the simple mixture of their components. One of the problems for the dental application of modern technical ceramics is the difficulty associated with the fabrication of ceramic pieces with complex shapes while maintaining accurate dimensional control of features from the macro to the micro levels and good material properties. For example, when fabricating porous alumina dental implants to favor bone ingrowth, it has been observed that the residual unwanted surface microporosity adjacent to the gingival cuff results in an inflammatory reaction that prevents formation of an effective biological seal and results in clinical failure . The advent of the so-called solid-free-form fabrication technologies or rapid prototyping technologies has opened the opportunity to produce custom-designed ceramic parts directly from a computer model with determined shapes and porosities (Figure 7) [211–213]. These techniques produce 3D objects guided by a CAD file, as well as digital data produced by an imaging source such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), opening the door for theNIH-PA Author Manuscript fabrication of custom-designed implants or crowns. Other novel processing techniques such as injection molding or gel-casting could produce similar degrees of control. 4. Assessing implant osseointegration A critical feature of implants intended for dental applications is their ability to promote bone formation along their surfaces. By definition, these implants need to be embedded in bone in order to function. That function includes support for either neo-teeth or prostheses. The bone-implant interface then becomes critical in various ways—it must secure the implant while distributing loads on the implant in such a way as to minimize osteolysis and implant loosening. Additionally, the interface should secure the implant quickly. In vitro tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) are often used to assess the bioactivity of coatings and materials . Simulated body fluid is a solution with an ionic content similar Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 May 5.
Tomsia et al. Page 13 to human plasma. Materials able to precipitate apatite crystals on their surface during immersion in SBF are often considered bioactive and expected to bond to bone in vivo. However, later works have criticized the significance of the test and the procedures used asNIH-PA Author Manuscript they seem to give false positive and negative results . In any case, in vitro tests in SBF seem to provide useful information on the chemical reactions that can be expected at the biomaterials surface in vivo and can be used in combination with mechanical testing to understand the mechanisms of failure. Tests in cell cultures are also routinely used to assess cytotoxicity and biocompatibility as well as the effect of the materials of cell differentiation, which will be determined by examining the expression of important osteoblastic markers. However, the total lack of guidelines to link in vitro results with in vivo performance makes the use of animal models a requirement to truly assess implant performance . Two in vivo models are commonly available for assessing osseointegration via osteoconduction, and each offers both advantages and disadvantages. The easiest model to use is the calvarial onlay [228–230]. It minimally traumatizes the animal; can be set up quickly; can be used in a wide size-range of animals, from mice to dogs; and offers standardized data on osteoconductive bone growth into the implant. The model typically involves operatively exposing the skull, removing or elevating the periosteum, and laying the implant directly on the bone surface. The implant can be secured to the bone, but this is usually unnecessary, since the pressure of the overlying skin helps prevent implant migration. The implant-bone interface can be analyzed fairly easily using histology. TheNIH-PA Author Manuscript procedure and the implant do not weaken the skull. Mechanical testing of the implant can be challenging, however, since it focuses on shear of inconveniently shaped structures. The main disadvantage of this model relates to cost the limited size of the calvarium limits the number of implants that can be simultaneously tested. The second model involves embedding implants into bone, in plug-shaped implants embedded into same-sized holes created in either the mandible or the long bones . Each plug is gently press-fitted into the newly created hole. As new bone grows at the interface with the implant, it binds the implant. The implant-bone interface can then be examined via histology and mechanical testing. Multiple implants can be placed in the same animal, although too many implants will weaken the bone and permit fractures. This model more closely reproduces the typical clinical situation of placing implants directly into bone. However, the procedure is more invasive than the onlay, and requires greater technical skill to place the implants properly. 5. Future trends for dental implants Despite conflicting reports regarding the effect of ceramic coatings and micro- and/or nano-NIH-PA Author Manuscript topography on the osseointegration of dental implants, the prevailing philosophy is that they may significantly influence the bone growth and attachment to implant surfaces and ultimately improve the success of dental implants and the rapid return to function (i.e. mastication). There is an urgent need for more fundamental research in this area that would combine both in vitro and in vivo studies and ultimately lead to appropriate clinical application. In our desire to create the perfect implant designed with nanomaterials and bioinspired approaches, we must close key gaps in our basic knowledge and create a series of prototype dental implants with increasing functionality. We should start by recognizing the specific gaps in our present knowledge and then look broadly for advances that will enable us to bridge them. Specifically, we should seek to uncover the relationships linking composition and materials architecture at multiple length scales with macroscopic mechanical behavior and the capability for osteogenesis. Eventually, these relationships must be tested and evaluated systematically in vivo and finally in clinical studies that maintain the same stringent analyses and outcome measures. Though fundamental Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 May 5.
Tomsia et al. Page 14 interactions between biomaterials and surrounding tissues may be determined, a systematic approach must be established to confirm the relevance and consequence of these biologic responses. Once basic strategies are defined, the knowledge could be used to design newNIH-PA Author Manuscript implant systems capable of manipulating chemistry and cellular responses down to the molecular level. With this powerful capability, implant design can be made patient-specific and customized to the biology of the patient. To reach this goal, we need to answer several scientific questions: • What is the optimum coating composition and thickness? Does it depend on specific location and can it be manipulated based on the patient’s needs? • What are the biodegradation rates of different coating materials? Are they appropriate for their respective applications based on load-bearing? • Is it possible to design coatings with hierarchical architectures combining good mechanical behavior with optimum biological response? • How do surface topography and chemistry of dental implants control cell response, in particular the differentiation of stem cells toward osteoblastic lineages? Is there an ideal number or type of the topographical features of dental implants that would provide the optimum osseointegration? • What are the best routes for the design, fabrication, and assembly of new syntheticNIH-PA Author Manuscript materials that will mimic the properties of tooth tissue? • Can we develop a reliable protocol to test the osseointegration and in vitro performance of artificial teeth? How can we correlate the results from the in vitro and in vivo analyses of materials? The answers to these questions will provide the information needed to design and engineer a library of dental implants for treating a diverse population of patients. This will require the integration of interdisciplinary principles drawn from materials science, biology, computational and quantitative science, and tissue engineering, coupled with surgical insight and implant-product data gathering through comprehensive data registries. This review has summarized some of the aspects in which nanotechnology can intervene in the design and fabrication of new scaffolds. Nanotechnology opens a new spectrum of possibilities by providing new tools for the manipulation and characterization of matter at very small dimensions. The goal is to build “active” implants and structures that will interact with their surroundings, respond to environmental changes, deliver appropriate molecules or drugs, and actively direct cellular events. The vision for the future is to move beyond the replacement of diseased tissues to in vivo repair and regeneration. The strategies thus developed should be amenable to translation into clinical therapies and treatments. To thisNIH-PA Author Manuscript end, our goal is to produce materials and therapies that will bring state-of-the-art technology to the bedside and improve the quality of life and adapt to a patient’s specific needs. Acknowledgments This work was supported by the National Institutesof Health (NIH/NIDCR) under grant No. 5R01 DE015633 References 1. Worthington, P. Introduction: history of implants. In: WPLBR; RJE, editors. Osseointegration in dentistry: an overview. Quintessence Publishing; Illinois: 2003. p. 2 2. Branemark PI, Adell R, Breine U, Hansson BO, Lindstrom J, Ohlsson A. Intraosseous anchorage of dental prostheses. I. Experimental studies. Scand J PlastReconstr Surg. 1969; 3:81–100. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 May 5.
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Tomsia et al. Page 27NIH-PA Author Manuscript Figure 1. Successive events following the implantation of a Ti-based material. Upon exposure to oxygen in air or water, Ti and its alloys spontaneously form a stable and strongly adherent oxide film (ns timescale). After adsorption of water molecules on Ti oxide surface, the next sequence of events is not very well understood. Immediately after implantation, implants are coated with a fibrous connective tissue, which degrades and is replaced ideally by bone. The thickness of fibrous connective tissue depends on the success of osseointegration. Once the cells reach the surface, their interaction takes place through the protein coatings. Adapted from [13, 14, 18].NIH-PA Author ManuscriptNIH-PA Author Manuscript Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 May 5.
Tomsia et al. Page 28NIH-PA Author ManuscriptNIH-PA Author Manuscript Figure 2. Possible designs for graded coatings. The layer in contact with the substrate could be formulated to provide good adhesion and long-term stability. The top layer can vary in thickness and porosity, and can be a mixture of an inorganic and an organic component, and, if needed, be encapsulated in a bioresorbable material as either a glass (fabricated by PLD) or a polymer (by robocasting or dip-coating).NIH-PA Author Manuscript Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 May 5.
Tomsia et al. Page 29NIH-PA Author Manuscript Figure 3. Pulsed laser deposition can be used to prepare thin coatings of highly bioactive glasses that cannot be fabricated by other methods. (a) Schematic of the PLD process. A laser beam is used to evaporate the glass into the substrate and form a film. Afterward, thermal treatment is needed to promote adhesion. The coatings are bioactive and retain the complex glass stoichiometry. The substrate can be moved and rotated during deposition to coat 3D piecesNIH-PA Author Manuscript with complex shapes. (b) Surface of a thin glass coating deposited on Ti-6Al-4V by PLD. Thin coatings are more resistant to cracking and delamination. Because the coating has submicron thickness, the substrate peaks are visible in the EDS analysis.(c) Quantitative analysis indicates that the stoichiometry of the layer is in ±5 wt% of the original glass target.NIH-PA Author Manuscript Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 May 5.
Tomsia et al. Page 30NIH-PA Author Manuscript Figure 4. (a) Environmental scanning electron microscope image showing a cross section of a graded glass coating after a six-month in vivo test in a pig model: the coating survived, maintaining excellent adhesion to the implant. A corroded layer can be observed on the coating surface,NIH-PA Author Manuscript providing adhesion to the bone, but the high-silica layer in contact with the alloy remains intact, maintaining good adhesion to the metal. Preliminary tests indicate that after six months, the bone matrix in the vicinity of the bone-implant interface of coated implants had changed to lamellar-type bone while the uncoated implants remained with woven-type bone. It is reasonable to assume that the coated device had less micromovement so that the biomechanical integration of the device to the surrounding bone tissues was achieved earlier during the experimental period, facilitating the transformation of woven bone matrix to lamellar type over a two- to six-month time period. (b) During indentation tests, the cracks do not propagate at the glass/metal interface, indicating good coating adhesion achieved through the formation of a thin (100–150 nm) Ti5Si3 layer that can be observed using high- resolution TEM.NIH-PA Author Manuscript Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 May 5.
Tomsia et al. Page 31NIH-PA Author Manuscript Figure 5. By coating dental implants with thin films of CP glass-ceramics, and then using controlled crystallization, nano and micro features can be obtained on the scaffold surfaces after etching.NIH-PA Author ManuscriptNIH-PA Author Manuscript Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 May 5.
Tomsia et al. Page 32NIH-PA Author Manuscript Figure 6. Freeze casting, a technique that uses the microstructure of ice to template the architecture of ceramic scaffolds, can be used to produce porous lamellar materials that replicate theNIH-PA Author Manuscript structure of the inorganic component of nacre at multiple length scales [205, 207, 208, 214]. These materials can be much stronger than others with similar porosity described in the literature.NIH-PA Author Manuscript Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 May 5.
Tomsia et al. Page 33NIH-PA Author Manuscript Figure 7. Solid freeform fabrication techniques that are precise and reproducible, such as direct ink-jet printing, robotic-assisted deposition or robocasting (in the figure), and hot-melt printing— which usually involve “building” structures layerbylayer followinga computer design, orNIH-PA Author Manuscript image sources such as MRI—can be used to fabricate custom-designed scaffolds with complex architectures [212, 215–224].NIH-PA Author Manuscript Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 May 5.