Implementing NICE guidelines: The IAPT experience 319Table I. Summary of NICE’s recommendations for the psychological treatment of depression and anxiety disorders.Place in stepped-care service Disorder Recommended interventionStep 3: High-intensity service Depression: CBT or IPTa, each with medication (Primarily weekly, face-to-face, one-to-one moderate sessions with a suitably trained therapist. In some to severe disorders, such as depression, CBT can also be delivered effectively to small groups of patients. Behavioural couples therapy naturally involves the therapist, the depressed client and his/her partner) Depression: mild CBT or IPTa to moderate Behavioural activation (BA)a,b Behavioural couples therapy (if the patient has a partner, the relationship is considered to be contributing to the maintenance of the depression, and both parties wish to work together in therapy) Counsellinga or short-term psychodynamic therapya (consider if patient has declined CBT, IPT, BA, or behavioural couples therapy) Panic disorder CBT Generalized anxiety CBT disorder (GAD) Post-traumatic CBT, EMDR stress disorder (PTSD) Social phobia CBT Obsessive - CBT compulsive disorder (OCD)Step 2: Low-intensity service Depression Guided self-help based on CBT, cCBT, behavioural (Less intensive clinician input than the high activation, structured physical activity intensity service. Patients are typically encouraged to work through some form of self-help programme with frequent, brief guidance and encouragement from a PWP who acts as a coach) Panic disorder Self-help based on CBT, cCBT GAD Self-help based on CBT, psycho-educational groups, computerized CBT PTSD n/ac Social phobia n/a OCD Guided self-help based on CBTStep 1: Primary care Moderate to severe Collaborative care (consider if depression has not depression with a responded to initial course of high intensity chronic physical intervention and/or medication) health problemPWP, Psychological wellbeing practitioner; CBT, cognitive behavioural therapy; cCBT, computerized cognitive behavioural therapy; IPT,interpersonal therapy; EMDR, eye movement desensitization reprocessing therapy (considered by many to be a form of CBT); Behaviouralactivation is a variant of CBT; Active monitoring includes careful monitoring of symptoms, psycho-education about the disorder and sleephygiene advice.NICE has not yet issued guidance on the treatment of social phobia. However, there is a substantial body of evidence supporting theeffectiveness of high-intensity CBT. Low intensity versions of CBT are being developed by several groups around the world and it seemslikely that they will play a useful role in the future.aNICE’s recent (NICE, 2009a, 2009b) updates on the treatment of depression come in two parts: recommendations for the treatment of‘depression’ and recommendations for the treatment of ‘depression in adults with a chronic physical health problem’. The two guidelinesare very similar. However, it should be noted that the ‘depression with a physical health problem’ guideline does not recommend IPT,behavioural activation, counselling or brief dynamic therapy as high-intensity interventions.bAlthough the recent update of the NICE guideline for depression (NICE, 2009a) recommends behavioural activation for the treatmentof mild to moderate depression, it notes that the evidence base is not as strong as for CBT or IPT.cNICE does not recommend any low-intensity interventions for PTSD and recommends that you do NOT offer psychological debrieﬁng. In the second development, economists and clin- enues (taxes from return to work, increasedical researchers combined resources to argue that productivity, etc.). This argument was advanced inan increase in access to psychological therapies academic articles (e.g. Layard et al., 2007), but alsowould largely pay for itself by reducing other in the more populist pamphlets such as The Depres-depression- and anxiety-related public costs (wel- sion Report (Layard et al., 2006) and We need to Talkfare beneﬁts and medical costs) and increasing rev- (Mind, 2010) (a report sponsored by numerous
320 D. M. Clarkmental health and other charities). The latter were psychological treatments in depression and anxiety dis-widely distributed to the public and to policy mak- orders, both demonstration sites agreed to adopt aers. For example, The Depression Report was included session-by-session outcome monitoring system thatin every copy of a national newspaper (the Observer had demonstrated its worth in achieving high levels ofnewspaper) on Sunday 18 June 2006. pre/post-treatment data completeness in community The UK Government was receptive to the recom- samples (Gillespie et al., 2002). At every clinical contactmendations of NICE and to the broader arguments patients were asked to complete simple measures ofadvanced in The Depression Report and elsewhere. A depression (PHQ-9: Kroenke et al., 2001) and anxiousgeneral political commitment to increase the avail- affect (GAD-7: Spitzer et al., 2006). If speciﬁc anxietyability of evidence-based psychological treatments disorders (for example, agoraphobia, social phobia,was secured in 2005. However, before any decisions OCD, PTSD) were being treated, patients were alsoabout the scale and form of the increase could be encouraged to complete a validated measure of thatestablished, the government wisely decided to fund disorder (for example, the Revised Impact of Eventstwo pilot projects that would test whether the out- Scale in PTSD:Weiss & Marmar, 1997).This is becausecomes that one would expect from implementing the GAD-7 does not cover key features of speciﬁc anx-NICE guidelines could be achieved in practice if a iety disorders such as phobic avoidance, compulsivelocal area was given increased funding to recruit behaviour and intrusive thoughts, images or impulses.and deploy additional psychological therapists. Since the creation of the NHS in 1948, most patients who received specialist psychological ther- apy had to be referred by their general practitionerDoncaster and Newham demonstration sites (GP), partly to help constrain NHS costs. However, there was some concern that requiring patients to beIn 2006 the National Health Service (NHS) in Eng- referred by a GP might be seen as an impediment toland comprised 154 primary care trusts (PCTs), access for some members of the community. For thiseach of which had responsibility for the health care reason, the demonstration sites were allowed to alsoof its local population. Two PCTs (Doncaster and accept self-referrals as an experiment to see whetherNewham) were chosen as pilot sites (termed ‘dem- it identiﬁed people with mental health problems whoonstration sites’ by the Department of Health). Full would not otherwise have access to services.details of the clinical services that were developed in The main ﬁndings from the ﬁrst year of operationthe two demonstrations sites and the outcomes they of the two demonstration sites were as follows:obtained in their ﬁrst year can be found in Clarket al. (2009) and Richards & Suckling (2009). Brieﬂy, each demonstration site received substan- Clinical problemstial funds to recruit and deploy an expanded work-force of CBT-focused psychological therapists. The two sites saw somewhat different populations.Doncaster had been pioneering the use of low-inten- Although Doncaster did not use formal diagnoses, GPsity therapies (especially guided self-help) and chose referral letters mentioned depression as the mainto particularly expand the work force that delivered problem in 95% of cases. In the remaining 5% anxietythese treatments, although some additional capacity was mentioned as the main problem, mainly GADto deliver high-intensity interventions (face-to-face (3.9%). Newham established International ClassiﬁcationCBT) was also developed. Many of the guided self- of Diseases (ICD-10) diagnoses. Main problems were:help sessions were delivered over the telephone. As depression (46% of patients), anxiety disorders (43%)low-intensity interventions and stepped care are not and other problems (11%).recommended by NICE for PTSD, the Doncastersite excluded this anxiety disorder but encouraged Numbers seenreferrals for other anxiety disorders, as well as depres-sion. Newham initially placed greater emphasis on Taken together, the two sites saw an impressively largehigh-intensity CBT, although it also operated a number of people (over 3,500) in the ﬁrst year, withstepped-care model when appropriate, using a newly the use of low-intensity therapies and stepped carerecruited workforce of low-intensity therapists (sub- being the key ingredients for managing large numbers.sequently called psychological wellbeing practitio- For this reason, as the year progressed the Newhamners or PWPs). The low intensity therapies included site increased the size of its PWP workforce.computerized CBT (cCBT), guided self-help andpsycho-educational groups. Data completeness In order to determine whether the demonstrationsites were able to achieve the outcomes one might The session-by-session outcome monitoring systemexpect from the randomized controlled trials that ensured that almost all (over 99% for Doncaster andled to NICE’s recommendations for the use of 88% for Newham) patients who received at least two
Implementing NICE guidelines: The IAPT experience 321sessions had pre- and post-treatment PHQ-9 and Importantly, self-referrals more accurately trackedGAD-7 scores. For patients who discontinued therapy the ethic mix of the community (minorities wereearlier than expected, the scores from the last available under-represented among GP referrals) and hadsession were used as post-treatment scores. As well as higher rates of PTSD and social phobia, both condi-the new session-by-session outcome monitoring tions that traditionally tend to be under-recognized.scheme, the sites also obtained outcome data on the These ﬁndings led the government to include self-Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome referral in the subsequent national roll-out.Measure (Barkham et al., 2001) using a more conven-tional pre and post-treatment only data collection pro- Outcomestocol. As is usual in community samples, this protocolproduced a much lower data completeness rate (6% in The high level of data completeness on the PHQ-9Doncaster, 54% in Newham), mainly due to missing and GAD-7 made it possible to accurately assess anypost-treatment scores. Figure 1 shows the mean improve- clinical improvements that patients achieved whilements in depression (assessed by the PHQ-9) and being treated in the demonstration sites. All patientsanxiety (assessed by the GAD-7) in patients treated who received at least two sessions (including assess-in Newham who did, and did not, provide post- ment) were included in the analysis, irrespective oftreatment data on the conventional (CORE-OM-based) whether they were coded as completers or drop-outsoutcome monitoring protocol. Patients who failed to by their therapist. As a group, patients treated in bothprovide post-treatment data in the conventional system sites showed meaningful improvements (pre/post-showed less than half of the improvement of those who treatment uncontrolled effect sizes of 0.98–1.26).provided post-treatment data (Clark et al., 2009). This Individuals were considered clinically recovered ifleads to the conclusion that services that have substan- they scored above the clinical cut-off on the PHQtial missing data rates are likely to overestimate their and/or the GAD at pre-treatment and below theeffectiveness. For this reason, session-by-session out- clinical cut-off on both at post-treatment. Using thiscome monitoring was adopted in the subsequent criterion, 55% (Newham) and 56% (Doncaster) ofnational roll-out of IAPT (see below). patients recovered. Self-referrers and patients from ethnic minorities were no less likely to recover than (respectively) GP referrals and Caucasians.Self-referral versus GP referral The economic argument for IAPT (Layard et al.,Newham, which has a mixed ethnic community, 2007) was based on the assumption that clinicalmade extensive use of self-referral. Comparisons improvement would be sustained and that treatmentof self-referred and GP-referred patients indicated would improve peoples’ employment status as wellthat the self-referrers had similarly high PHQ-9 and as symptoms. To assess whether clinical improve-GAD-7 scores as the GPs’, referrals but tended (non- ments were sustained, patients in both sites weresigniﬁcantly) to have had their problem longer. asked to re-complete the outcome measures 9 months (on average) after discharge. Unfortunately, data completeness at follow-up (36% in Newham and Pre-post complete 51% in Doncaster) was much lower than at post- Post missing treatment (88% and 99% respectively). However, among those people who did provide data, the gains 10 that were achieved in therapy were largely main- tained. To assess employment changes, pre-treatment 8 and post-treatment employment status was com- pared. It had been assumed that IAPT services would Improvement 6 achieve an overall improvement in employment sta- tus in 4% of the total treated cohort (Layard et al., 4 2007). The observed rate was 5%. Although the outcomes observed in the demon- 2 stration sites were broadly in line with expectation, it is important to realize that the sites were not set 0 PHQ GAD up as randomized controlled trials and it is likely that some of the observed improvement would haveFigure 1. Improvement in PHQ-9 and GAD-7 scores between happened anyway (for example, natural recovery).initial assessment (pre-) and last available session (post-) in people Various studies suggest that natural recovery rateswho either completed both the pre- and post-treatment CORE-OM or who failed to complete the CORE-OM at post. Data from over a period of time that is similar to the durationthe Newham Demonstration site. Figure derived from Clark et al. of IAPT treatment are high among recent onset (Ͻ 6(2009). months) cases of depression and anxiety disorders
322 D. M. Clarkbut are substantially lower among more chronic CBT, as (1) it is recommended by NICE for bothcases. Building on this observation, Clark et al. (2009) depression and anxiety disorders, and (2) it is theseparately computed the recovery rates for recent therapy where the manpower shortage was consid-onset and chronic cases. Most cases (83% in ered to be greatest.Newham, 66% in Doncaster) had been depressed or Targets were set for the number of patients thatanxious for over 6 months and it seemed safe to con- would be seen by the services in the ﬁrst three yearsclude that treatment had provided added beneﬁt to and there was an expectation that 50% would ‘movethis group as the recovery rates (52% at each site) to recovery’ in terms of their symptomatology. Incomfortably exceeded the 5–20% one might expect addition, it was expected that 25,000 fewer peoplefrom natural recovery or minimal intervention. How- would be on sick pay or receiving state beneﬁts.ever, among the minority of cases with a recent onset, At least 20 of England’s 154 PCTs were expectedit was not possible to exclude the possibility that to establish new ‘IAPT’ services during the ﬁrst yearmuch of the improvement may have been due to (2008/09), with further PCTs joining in futurenatural recovery (see Clark et al., 2009). years. In order to realize these goals, the Department of Health established a series of expert groups thatDescription of the national programme helped devise the necessary training programme and speciﬁed key features of the IAPT clinical services.Initial funding, goals and targets A large number of documents providing guidance toFollowing the success of the Newham and Doncaster courses and PCTs were produced, most of which candemonstration sites and the submission of a detailed be viewed on the IAPT website (http://www.iapt.nhs.business case, which included reviews of controlled uk). Table II lists the key documents, including theevaluations of CBT in depression and anxiety disor- national IAPT Implementation Plan (Department ofders, the UK Government announced that it intended Health, 2008).to greatly increase the availability of evidence-based During the ﬁrst two years, all funds were held cen-psychological therapies for depression and anxiety trally by the Department of Health and distributeddisorders throughout England through a phased roll- through England’s ten strategic health authoritiesout that would last several years. Funding for the ﬁrst (SHAs), who commissioned appropriate regionalthree years was announced: year 1 £33 million, year training courses and selected the PCTs that would2 an additional £70 million on top of the year 1 sum receive the new trainees and other resources needed(which had become recurrent), year 3 an additional to set up a new IAPT service. Rather than place a£70 million on top of the year 1 and 2 sums. Total few trainees to each PCT, it was decided to initiallyover 3 years: £309 million. allocate a substantial number of trainees to a few The funding was allocated to train up to 3,600 PCTs (early adopters) who would then have thenew psychological therapists (60% high-intensity resources to create a service with sufﬁcient capacityCBT therapists, 40% PWPs) and to deploy them, ensure patients are seen promptly. During the thirdalong with existing experienced clinicians, in new year, the principle for distributing funds changed andpsychological treatment services for depression and much of the money for IAPT went into the generalanxiety disorders that operate on stepped-care prin- bundle of funds that PCTs receive to ﬁnance all ofciples. The training programme initially focused on their healthcare work.Table II. Key IAPT reference documents (available at http://www.iapt.nhs.uk) with publication dates in parentheses, when relevant. TrainingIAPT Implementation Plan: National Guidelines for Regional In order to guide the training of the new workforce, Delivery (February 2008) the Department of Health commissioned and dis-IAPT Implementation Plan: Curriculum for High-Intensity WorkersIAPT Implementation Plan: Curriculum for Low-Intensity Workers tributed separate national curricula for the trainingIAPT Impact Assessment (February 2008) of high-intensity CBT therapists and PWPs. As theIAPT Equality Impact Assessment (February 2008) main aim of the IAPT programme is to increase theIAPT Supervision Guidance availability of treatments recommended by NICE,IAPT Commissioning Toolkit (April 2008) the high-intensity CBT curriculum is closely alignedRealising the Beneﬁts: IAPT at Full Roll-Out (February 2010)The Operating Framework for the NHS in England 2011/12 to the particular CBT programmes that had beenNo Health Without Mental Health (February 2011) shown to be effective in the RCTs that contributedTalking Therapies: A Four Year Plan (February 2011) to NICE’s recommendations. A wide range of gen-Which Talking Therapy for Depression? (March 2011) eral CBT assessment and intervention strategies areCommissioning Talking Therapies for 2011/12 (March 2011) included in the curriculum. In addition, trainees areIAPT Data Handbook 2 (June 2011) required to be taught at least two evidence-based
Implementing NICE guidelines: The IAPT experience 323treatments for depression (cognitive therapy and principles for the operation of the services while leav-behavioural activation) and at least one speciﬁc, evi- ing considerable scope for local determination. Thedence-based treatment for each anxiety disorder. In key principles include:panic disorder, examples include Barlow and col- • Access to the service through self-referral as wellleagues’ CBT programme (Barlow and Craske, 2007) as referral by general practitioner.and Clark and colleagues’ cognitive therapy pro- • A person-centred assessment that identiﬁes thegramme (Clark and Salkovskis, in press). In PTSD, key problems that require treatment and theirexamples include Foa’s imaginal reliving (Foa & social and personal context. Goals for therapy areRothbaum, 1998), Ehlers and Clark’s cognitive therapy identiﬁed and a treatment plan is jointly agreed.(Ehlers & Clark, 2000; Clark & Ehlers, 2004), and • Stepped care in which many people with mild toResick’s cognitive processing therapy (Resick et al., moderate depression or anxiety disorders are2007). Roth and Pilling (2008) developed a compe- offered treatment with a PWP initially. Many peo-tency framework for many of the leading empirically ple recover with such treatment. Individuals whosupported CBT treatments for depression and anxi- do not should be offered a further course of highety disorders, and the high-intensity curriculum aims intensity treatment. For people with more severeto ensure that these are covered in IAPT training depression or anxiety and for everyone with PTSD,programmes. In addition to specifying the skills that immediate high-intensity treatment is recom-trainees should acquire, the curriculum also speciﬁes mended. All treatments that are offered should behow these skills should be assessed (through a mix- in line with NICE recommendations.ture of ratings of actual therapy sessions using the • Access to an employment adviser if employmentrevised version of the Cognitive Therapy Rating Scale (lack of, or danger of losing) is an issue. Services(CTS-R) (Blackburn et al., 2001) and written assign- are encouraged to involve employment advisers inments in the form of case reports and essays). treatment plans from the very beginning as making A separate curriculum was issued for PWP train- progress with employment issues can greatly facil-ing. The four sections of the curriculum cover: (1) itate psychological recovery and visa versa.engagement and assessment, (2) evidence-based low • Use of the IAPT minimum dataset (see IAPT Dataintensity treatments, (3) values, policy, culture and Handbook 2 for full details: Department of Healthdiversity, (4) working within an employment, social 2011c). This includes giving the PHQ-9 andand healthcare context. As low-intensity working is GAD-7 every session along with some other patientrelatively new, there are few published therapist man- self-report measures that focus on speciﬁc anxietyuals. To redress this shortfall, a substantial set of disorders, when these are relevant. All data isteaching aids developed by David Richards (one of entered into an electronic database that enablesthe pioneers of low-intensity work) and his colleagues therapists and their supervisors to monitor patients’were produced to supplement the curriculum. As progress and adjust treatment plans, if required.with the high-intensity curriculum, assessment pro- • All therapists should receive weekly outcome-cedures are also speciﬁed, with particular emphasis informed supervision which ensures that all casesbeing placed on structured role-plays covering a wide are discussed at regular intervals and decisionsrange of different skills. about step-up/step-down are made in a timely Both the high-intensity CBT and the PWP train- fashion (see IAPT Supervision Guidance).ing programmes are conceived as joint university and • Because of the importance of obtaining outcomein-service training. Over a period of approximately 1 data on almost all patients who receive treatment,year high-intensity trainees attend a university-based the services are asked to ensure that at least 90% ofcourse for lectures, workshops and case supervision patients who are seen at least twice in a service havetwo days a week, while PWPs attend university for a pre-treatment and post-treatment (or last avail-one day per week. For the rest of their time, both sets able session) score on the main outcome measures.of trainees work in an IAPT service where they For patients who exceed the clinical cut-off forreceive further regular supervision. The services are depression and/or anxiety at pre-treatment, ‘recov-also encouraged to provide the trainees with the ery’ is operationalized as moving to below theopportunity of directly observing therapy sessions clinical cut-off for both depression and anxiety atconducted by experienced staff who work in the post-treatment.service.IAPT service model Progress to dateA general framework for IAPT services was outlined At the time of writing (Spring 2011), the IAPT pro-in the national Implementation Plan (Department of gramme is midway through its third year. ProgressHealth, 2008). The framework speciﬁes several key to date includes:
324 D. M. Clark• IAPT services have been established in 95% of conditions, it was difﬁcult to assess equity of access PCTs. However, there is wide variation in the accurately as for 39% of patients an ICD diagnosis number of therapists employed in the services and, was not recorded. However, among the 61% for as a consequence, they vary substantially in the whom diagnoses were recorded, there was an over- number of patients that they are able to see. It is representation of patients with depression or mixed therefore calculated that only around 60% of the anxiety and depressive disorder (MADD), compared population has access to an IAPT service. For this to prevalence rates found in epidemiological studies. reason, there is a need to further expand the ser- There was also under-representation of patients with vices in coming years (see later section on future persistent anxiety disorders, such as PTSD, OCD, developments). panic disorder, social phobia and agoraphobia, as less• Over 3,660 new high-intensity therapists and than 10% of patients had these diagnoses, whereas PWPs have been appointed and will have com- around a third of patients should have these disor- pleted their training by the end of the year. ders if access was equitable (see McManus et al.,• The IAPT services are currently seeing around 2009). 310,000 patients per annum and aim to see around The ﬁrst report also found that the majority of 900,000 per annum by 2015 when the roll-out of patients received NICE-compliant treatment. The the programme should be complete. NICE-recommended low-intensity interventions that• National data collected at the end of the second were provided included guided self-help, psycho- year of the programme showed that it is on target education groups, behavioural activation, cCBT and in terms of the number of people seen (399,460 structured exercise. NICE-recommends CBT as a compared to a target of 400,000), the number of high-intensity psychological therapy for depression people who have moved off sick pay and/or state and for all the anxiety disorders that are currently beneﬁts (13,962 compared to a target of 11,100) covered by guidelines. In line with this recommenda- and has recovery rates which are approaching tion, almost everyone with a recorded diagnosis of expectation (an average of 40% compared to a tar- social phobia, speciﬁc phobia, agoraphobia, or OCD get of 50%). received CBT. For patients with a recorded diagnosis of GAD or PTSD, CBT was also the most commonly provided treatment. However, a signiﬁcant number of patients received counselling, which is not recom-Lessons from the ﬁrst phase of the mended by NICE for these conditions. For patientsimplementation with a recorded diagnosis of depression, CBT andIn addition to the broad performance ﬁgures given counselling were equally likely to be offered and bothabove, the Department of Health has released two are recommended by NICE, although counsellingreports that provide more detailed analysis of the has a more restricted recommendation in terms ofnational IAPT programme during its ﬁrst year of the range of cases for which it is considered relevantoperation (1 October 2008 to 30 September 2009). (see Table I). Turning to clinical outcomes, a recov-During this period 35 PCTs established an IAPT ery rate of 42% was observed among suitable patientsservice, 32 of whom provided data for analysis. who were likely to have received at least some treat- The ﬁrst report (Glover et al., 2010) particularly ment (deﬁned as having at least two sessions on thefocused on issues to do with equity of access, descrip- assumption that the ﬁrst session was always assess-tions of the treatments offered, and overall outcome. ment). However, there was considerable variability inWith respect to equity of access, both genders were recovery rates between sites.fairly represented in the year one IAPT services. The The second report (Gyani et al., 2011) exploredmost recent Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey the observed variability in recovery rates in further(McManus et al., 2007) shows that 61% of people in detail in order to identify site and other characteris-the community with a common mental disorder are tics that were associated with higher recovery rates.female, which was very similar to the rate in IAPT The analyses focused on patients who were clinicalservices (66% female). However, people over 65 cases on entry into the service, had received at leastyears old and people from black and minority ethnic two sessions and had completed their involvement(BME) groups were somewhat underrepresented. with the services. Pre- to post-treatment data com-Part of the reason for the latter ﬁnding may have pleteness for these patients was good (Ͼ 90%). Thebeen the slow development of a self-referral route ﬁndings, which are brieﬂy summarized below, gener-into the services. Clark et al. (2009) found that self- ally support the IAPT clinical model and highlightreferral produces a more equitable pattern of access the value of following NICE guidelines.for different ethnic groups but only 10% of patients Patients had a higher chance of meeting recoverycame through self-referral (compared to 21% in the criteria if they were treated at sites that had the fol-Newham demonstration site). Looking at clinical lowing characteristics:
Implementing NICE guidelines: The IAPT experience 325• Higher step-up rates from low-intensity to high- No Health Without Mental Health (Department of intensity therapy among those who had failed to Health, 2011a) and in the accompanying document respond adequately to the former (i.e. the services entitled Talking Therapies: Four Year Plan of Action were making good use of stepped care). (Department of Health, 2011b).• Higher average numbers of therapy sessions at low Brieﬂy, a major component of the next phase is intensity and at high-intensity (highlighting the completion of the roll-out of IAPT services for adults. importance of providing an adequate dose of This will require the training of a further 2,400 new treatment). high-intensity and PWP therapists. At the same time, continuing professional development (CPD) short Although most patients received NICE recom- courses will be used to further enhance and updatemended treatments, for some clinical conditions a sig- existing clinicians’ skills in non-CBT therapies thatniﬁcant minority of patients received a treatment not are recommended by NICE for the treatment of mildrecommended by NICE. This created a natural to moderate depression, in order to widen patientexperiment in which it was possible to assess whether choice for evidence-based treatments within IAPTdeviation from NICE recommendations was associated services. The CPD courses are aligned to nationalwith a reduction in recovery rates. One of the natural curricula and published competencies (available atexperiments concerned the contrast between CBT and www.iapt.nhs.uk) and cover interpersonal psycho-counselling. For depression NICE recommends both therapy, couples therapy, a form of brief psychody-treatments for mild to moderate cases. Consistent with namic therapy (dynamic interpersonal therapy) andthis recommendation, there was no difference in the counselling.recovery rates associated with CBT and counselling A challenge for the completion of the programmeamong patients with a diagnosis of depression. In con- is a change in the way in which the funding for thetrast to the recommendations for depression, NICE training and new posts will be managed. In the ﬁrstdoes not recommend counselling for the treatment of two years of the programme, all funds were centrallyGAD. Consistent with this position, CBT was held and ring-fenced. It was therefore possible toassociated with a higher recovery rate than counselling ensure that they were exclusively spent on the IAPTamong patients with a diagnosis of GAD. A further workforce. In year three (2010/11) a signiﬁcant pro-natural experiment concerned the contrast between portion of the funds were allocated within generalguided self-help and pure (non-guided) self-help. NHS budgets (technically termed ‘PCT baselineNICE only recommends guided self-help in depression. funding’) as are the funds for most mainstream NHSConsistent with this position, guided self-help was activities. Unfortunately, there is evidence that someassociated with a higher recovery rate than pure of this money was not spent on IAPT, although theself-help among patients with a diagnosis of depression. numbers of new trainees in that year remained onTaken together, these ﬁndings would appear to support target. In the next phase, almost all funds will bethe value of aligning clinical interventions with NICE allocated within general NHS training and PCTguidance. However, this conclusion needs to be treated budgets and there is a risk that some geographicalwith caution as these ‘natural experiments’ are not areas will invest less in IAPT than expected. To mit-randomized clinical trials. igate this risk, the Department of Health has spe- A ﬁnal variable considered in the second report ciﬁcally highlighted the importance of IAPT bywas initial severity. Patients with higher initial depres- including it for the ﬁrst time in The Operating Frame-sion or anxiety scores were less likely to meet recov- work for the NHS (Department of Health, 2010). Toery criteria (dropping below the clinical/non-clinical assist local commissioners in their decision making,threshold) at the end of treatment, but their overall a guidance document that highlights the value ofamount of symptomatic improvement was at least as extending IAPT has been issued. Commissioning Talk-large as that observed in milder cases. This suggests ing Therapies for 2011/12 (Department of Health,that the IAPT services are beneﬁcial for individuals 2011d) outlines the major savings in other costs towith a wide range of symptom severity. the NHS and to society that can be realized by increasing the availability of evidence-based psycho- logical treatments for depression and anxiety disor- ders. One of the NHS savings relates to the medicalFuture development of the programme treatment of chronic physical health problems, suchFollowing the success of the ﬁrst three years of the as coronary heart disease, obstructive pulmonaryIAPT programme, the government announced in disease and diabetes, all of which are more costly toFebruary 2011 a further NHS investment of £400 medically manage when a person is also depressed.million to complete and extend the programme over A further challenge concerns the relationshipthe period 2011–2015. Full details of the next phase between IAPT and other NHS mental health ser-can be found in the mental health policy entitled vices. The decision to deploy the IAPT workforce in
326 D. M. Clarknew services was important in order to ensure con- controlled trials that generated the NICE recom-sistency of the training experience and clinical super- mendations. As expected, gains in terms of employ-vision, compliance to NICE guidance, and high ment and reductions in state beneﬁts have also beenlevels of data completeness. However, it is also impor- observed. Lessons from the early phases of the pro-tant that the new services are well integrated with gramme suggest ways in which less well performingother NHS provision for mental health problems. services may evolve to achieve the outcomes shownFor this to happen, local areas need to develop coher- by the best services (which are in line with, orent care pathways that provide clarity about who exceed expectation). In the meantime, the extremelyshould be seen, by which service, at which point in high levels of data completeness achieved by IAPTtheir care. Transition between services should be has brought greater transparency to mental healthfacilitated, whenever it is appropriate. It is essential services and helped clinicians and commissioners tothat commissioners understand what their local identify both areas of excellence and areas thatIAPT service can, and cannot, offer when consider- require further attention as the NHS strives toing any reorganization of other services so they do further improve the care it offers people withnot inadvertently reduce provision for individuals depression and anxiety disorders.with some conditions or complexities whose care isbest provided elsewhere. Reporting on the performance of IAPT services Declaration of interest: The views expressed bywill also be enhanced in the next phase in order to the author are personal and are not necessarily theprovide clinicians with valuable information that they same those of the Department of Health. D.M.C.can use to further develop the accessibility and effec- acknowledges the support of the Wellcome Trusttiveness of their IAPT services, as well as increasing (Grant 069777) and the NIHR Biomedical Researchtransparency for commissioners and the public. Centre at the South London & Maudsley NHS A new feature of the next phase will be the creation Foundation Trust and Kings College London, UK.of a version of the IAPT programme for children and The author alone is responsible for the content andyoung people. Many of the anxiety disorders that are writing of the paper.seen in adult services start in adolescence or earlier andcan severely interfere with social and educationaldevelopment. For this reason it is important to make Referenceseffective psychological treatments for these conditions, Barkham, M., Margison, F., Leach, C., Lucock, M., Mellor-Clark,as well as other mental health problems, available in J., Evans, C., …McGrath, G. (2001). Service proﬁling andchildhood and adolescence. The under-representation outcomes benchmarking using the CORE-OM: Towards prac-of people over 65 and people from BME communities tice-based evidence in the psychological therapies. Journal ofthat was evident in some IAPT services in the Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 184–196. Barlow, D.H. & Craske, M.G. (2007). Mastery of your Anxiety andﬁrst phase of the programme will also be addressed by Panic: Therapist Guide for Anxiety, Panic, and Agoraphobia (4thinitiatives that focus on these individuals. ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Blackburn, I.-M., James, I.A., Milne, D.L., Baker, C., Standart, S., Garland, A. & Reichelt., F.K. (2001). The revised cognitiveConclusions therapy scale (CTS-R): Psychometric properties. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 29, 431–446.England is midway through the development of a Clark, D.M. & Ehlers, A. (2004). 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