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9. us cattel production current approaches to brd in us feedlots

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  • 1. 1 US cattle production – Current approaches to BRD in US feedlots
  • 2. 2 Why the risk is so high for pneumonia in US cattle Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD)
  • 3. 3 Calves on the farm
  • 4. 4 US Beef cattle production • Beef Cows – 32,434,500 head • Replacement Heifers – 5,646,500 head • Number of operations – 766,350 • Average herd size (cows) – 42.3 USDA. 2008 Beef 2007-08, Part III: Changes in Beef Cow-Calf Industry, 1993-2008
  • 5. 5 US beef cattle production • 54.1 percent of cows from herd size 100 head or more • Calves born from Feb-April – 58.8 % • Calf average age at weaning – 207 days • Calf average weaning weight – Bulls and steers – 559 lbs (254 kg) – Other heifers – 515 lbs (234 kg) – Replacement heifers – 532 lbs (241 kg) USDA. 2008 Beef 2007-08, Part III: Changes in Beef Cow-Calf Industry, 1993-2008
  • 6. 6 US beef cattle production USDA NASS
  • 7. 7 Trailer to the auction
  • 8. 8 Through the auction
  • 9. 9 US beef cattle production • Marketing Methods in the US – Auction – 82.4 % – Direct-video – 1.1 % – Direct-private treaty – 11.6 % – Consignment – 1.1 % – Forward contract – 0.3 % USDA. 2008 Beef 2007-08, Part III: Changes in Beef Cow-Calf Industry, 1993-2008
  • 10. 10 Re-grouped into trucks
  • 11. 11 US beef cattle production • Transported to feedlots in “pots” – Pots are the common term for the type of trailer used – A full trailer is termed a “pot load” – A pot load = 50,000 lbs (22,680 kg) of calves – At 500 lbs a head = approximately 100 head of calves per pot load – On average – calves from at least 2 origins on each pot load
  • 12. 12 Into the feedlot (150K head)
  • 13. 13 US beef cattle production • US Feedlots – in 1995 – 41,365 feedlot operations in the top 13 states marketed 23.4 million cattle – 95.3% of feedlots had less than 1000 head one time capacity – Feedlots with 1000 head or greater one time capacity marketed 90.2% of cattle – Number of 1000 head plus capacity – approximately 1,800 (1999) Managing for Today’s Cattle Market and Beyond, March 2002, CE Ward, TC Schroeder
  • 14. 14 US beef cattle production Managing for Today’s Cattle Market and Beyond, March 2002, CE Ward, TC Schroeder 22
  • 15. 15 US beef cattle production Animal Health Research Reviews 10(2); 101-103, 2009. DG Miles
  • 16. 16 US beef cattle production NASS, USDA, Agriculture Statistics Board, Cattle on Feed, December 2009
  • 17. 17 US beef cattle production NASS, USDA, Agriculture Statistics Board, Cattle on Feed, December 2009
  • 18. 18 Processed at the feedlot
  • 19. 19 US beef cattle production USDA. 2000 Part I: Baseline Reference of Feedlot Management Practices, 1999.
  • 20. 20 US beef cattle production USDA. 2000 Part I: Baseline Reference of Feedlot Management Practices, 1999.
  • 21. 21 2 points of antibiotic use Off the truck Sick in pen
  • 22. 22 US beef cattle production USDA VS Info Sheet, Treatment of Respiratory Disease in US Feedlots, October 2001
  • 23. 23 US beef cattle production USDA VS Info Sheet, Treatment of Respiratory Disease in US Feedlots, October 2001
  • 24. 24 US beef cattle production USDA VS Info Sheet, Treatment of Respiratory Disease in US Feedlots, October 2001
  • 25. 25 US beef cattle production Animal Health Research Reviews 10(2); 101-103, 2009. DG Miles
  • 26. 26 US beef cattle production Animal Health Research Reviews 10(2); 101-103, 2009. DG Miles
  • 27. 27 Terminology Metaphylaxis = control = prevention Treatment = pull & treat
  • 28. 28 US beef cattle production Treatment protocol Arrival processing at feedlot “Low risk” No metaphylaxis 1st pull treatment “Expensive” long acting product Re-pull treatment Cheaper product Possible “moratorium” Risk determination based on origin, source and history
  • 29. 29 US beef cattle production Canadian Veterinary Journal 2008; 49:373-378. MW Sanderson, DA Dargatz, BA Wagner
  • 30. 30 US beef cattle production J Anim Sci 2009.87:314-327. AH Babcock, BJ White, SS Dritz, DU Thomson, DG Renter
  • 31. 31 US beef cattle production J Anim Sci 2009.87:314-327. AH Babcock, BJ White, SS Dritz, DU Thomson, DG Renter
  • 32. 32 US beef cattle production • Data from Midwest feedlot collected from 1 Jan 2001 to 2 Feb 2006 • 31,131 cattle treated for respiratory disease • Diagnosis based on opinion of feedlot personnel – Diagnosis based on – Animal appearance – Animal demeanor – Body temperature J Anim Sci 2009.87:314-327. AH Babcock, BJ White, SS Dritz, DU Thomson, DG Renter
  • 33. 33 US beef cattle production Conclusions • For 5WT and 6WT cattle, the earlier in the feeding period that cattle were diagnosed with BRD and treated the more times they were treated and had a decrease in ADG • Steers were treated an average of 1.6 times J Anim Sci 2009.87:314-327. AH Babcock, BJ White, SS Dritz, DU Thomson, DG Renter
  • 34. 34 Key individual Pen rider
  • 35. 35 US beef cattle production • Pen rider – “Cowboy” • The most important decisions about health • Determines the need for further evaluation and/ or treatment – Diagnosis of “buckets” • BRD, GI, lameness, brainer, other
  • 36. 36 US beef cattle production • Illness determination • Almost uniformly “subjective” • Animal appearance – Lack of rumen fill, nasal discharge, increased respiratory rate and/or effort • Animal demeanor – Lowered head and ears, reluctance to move, decreased response to stimuli • Rectal temperature ? – Must be interpreted in the context of the animals other clinical signs 2007, 79th Western Veterinary Conference, Robert L Larson
  • 37. 37 US beef cattle production Metaphylaxis protocol Arrival processing at feedlot “High risk” Metaphylaxis Treat all animals in the group “Expensive” long acting product Re-pull treatment Cheaper product Possible “moratorium” Risk determination based on origin, source and history
  • 38. 38 US beef cattle production - Metaphylaxis • Definition – the mass treatment of animal populations currently experiencing any level of disease before the onset of blatant illness • Can be considered as a prevention as well as a curative treatment Vet Clin Food Anim 26 (2010) 285-301. JS Nickell, BJ White
  • 39. 39 US beef cattle production - Metaphylaxis • General guidelines for metaphylactic treatment – 1. clinical appearance of cattle on arrival – 2. current (and expected) morbidity/ mortality patterns – 3. feed consumption – 4. elevated body temperature – 5. efficacy of products labeled for the control of BRD Vet Clin Food Anim 26 (2010) 285-301. JS Nickell, BJ White
  • 40. 40 US beef cattle production - Metaphylaxis • Factors to consider in predicting BRD – Lightweight cattle from multiple origins – Previous health history – Distance of travel to feedlot – Time of year – Weather – Transit conditions (weather extremes) It may be helpful to plot BRD cases to predict disease incidence using epidemic curves Vet Clin Food Anim 26 (2010) 285-301. JS Nickell, BJ White
  • 41. 41 US beef cattle production - Metaphylaxis Vet Clin Food Anim 26 (2010) 285-301. JS Nickell, BJ White
  • 42. 42 Questions?