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9. us cattel production current approaches to brd in us feedlots

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    9. us cattel production current approaches to brd in us feedlots 9. us cattel production current approaches to brd in us feedlots Presentation Transcript

    • US cattle production – Current approaches to BRD in US feedlots 1
    • Why the risk is so high for pneumonia in US cattle Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) 2
    • Calves on the farm 3
    • US Beef cattle production • Beef Cows – 32,434,500 head • Replacement Heifers – 5,646,500 head • Number of operations – 766,350 • Average herd size (cows) – 42.3 USDA. 2008 Beef 2007-08, Part III: Changes in Beef Cow-Calf Industry, 1993-2008 4
    • US beef cattle production • 54.1 percent of cows from herd size 100 head or more • Calves born from Feb-April – 58.8 % • Calf average age at weaning – 207 days • Calf average weaning weight – Bulls and steers – 559 lbs (254 kg) – Other heifers – 515 lbs (234 kg) – Replacement heifers – 532 lbs (241 kg) USDA. 2008 Beef 2007-08, Part III: Changes in Beef Cow-Calf Industry, 1993-2008 5
    • US beef cattle production USDA NASS 6
    • Trailer to the auction 7
    • Through the auction 8
    • US beef cattle production • Marketing Methods in the US – Auction – 82.4 % – Direct-video – 1.1 % – Direct-private treaty – 11.6 % – Consignment – 1.1 % – Forward contract – 0.3 % USDA. 2008 Beef 2007-08, Part III: Changes in Beef Cow-Calf Industry, 1993-2008 9
    • Re-grouped into trucks 10
    • US beef cattle production • Transported to feedlots in “pots” – Pots are the common term for the type of trailer used – A full trailer is termed a “pot load” – A pot load = 50,000 lbs (22,680 kg) of calves – At 500 lbs a head = approximately 100 head of calves per pot load – On average – calves from at least 2 origins on each pot load 11
    • Into the feedlot (150K head) 12
    • US beef cattle production • US Feedlots – in 1995 – 41,365 feedlot operations in the top 13 states marketed 23.4 million cattle – 95.3% of feedlots had less than 1000 head one time capacity – Feedlots with 1000 head or greater one time capacity marketed 90.2% of cattle – Number of 1000 head plus capacity – approximately 1,800 (1999) Managing for Today’s Cattle Market and Beyond, March 2002, CE Ward, TC Schroeder 13
    • US beef cattle production 22 Managing for Today’s Cattle Market and Beyond, March 2002, CE Ward, TC Schroeder 14
    • US beef cattle production Animal Health Research Reviews 10(2); 101-103, 2009. DG Miles 15
    • US beef cattle production NASS, USDA, Agriculture Statistics Board, Cattle on Feed, December 2009 16
    • US beef cattle production NASS, USDA, Agriculture Statistics Board, Cattle on Feed, December 2009 17
    • Processed at the feedlot 18
    • US beef cattle production USDA. 2000 Part I: Baseline Reference of Feedlot Management Practices, 1999. 19
    • US beef cattle production USDA. 2000 Part I: Baseline Reference of Feedlot Management Practices, 1999. 20
    • 2 points of antibiotic use Off the truck Sick in pen 21
    • US beef cattle production USDA VS Info Sheet, Treatment of Respiratory Disease in US Feedlots, October 2001 22
    • US beef cattle production USDA VS Info Sheet, Treatment of Respiratory Disease in US Feedlots, October 2001 23
    • US beef cattle production USDA VS Info Sheet, Treatment of Respiratory Disease in US Feedlots, October 2001 24
    • US beef cattle production Animal Health Research Reviews 10(2); 101-103, 2009. DG Miles 25
    • US beef cattle production Animal Health Research Reviews 10(2); 101-103, 2009. DG Miles 26
    • Terminology Metaphylaxis = control Treatment = prevention = pull & treat 27
    • US beef cattle production Treatment protocol Arrival 1st pull treatment “Low risk” processing “Expensive” long at feedlot No metaphylaxis acting product Re-pull treatment Possible Cheaper product “moratorium” Risk determination based on origin, source and history 28
    • US beef cattle production Canadian Veterinary Journal 2008; 49:373-378. MW Sanderson, DA Dargatz, BA Wagner 29
    • US beef cattle production J Anim Sci 2009.87:314-327. AH Babcock, BJ White, SS Dritz, DU Thomson, DG Renter 30
    • US beef cattle production J Anim Sci 2009.87:314-327. AH Babcock, BJ White, SS Dritz, DU Thomson, DG Renter 31
    • US beef cattle production • Data from Midwest feedlot collected from 1 Jan 2001 to 2 Feb 2006 • 31,131 cattle treated for respiratory disease • Diagnosis based on opinion of feedlot personnel – Diagnosis based on – Animal appearance – Animal demeanor – Body temperature J Anim Sci 2009.87:314-327. AH Babcock, BJ White, SS Dritz, DU Thomson, DG Renter 32
    • US beef cattle production Conclusions • For 5WT and 6WT cattle, the earlier in the feeding period that cattle were diagnosed with BRD and treated the more times they were treated and had a decrease in ADG • Steers were treated an average of 1.6 times J Anim Sci 2009.87:314-327. AH Babcock, BJ White, SS Dritz, DU Thomson, DG Renter 33
    • Key individual Pen rider 34
    • US beef cattle production • Pen rider – “Cowboy” • The most important decisions about health • Determines the need for further evaluation and/ or treatment – Diagnosis of “buckets” • BRD, GI, lameness, brainer, other 35
    • US beef cattle production • Illness determination • Almost uniformly “subjective” • Animal appearance – Lack of rumen fill, nasal discharge, increased respiratory rate and/or effort • Animal demeanor – Lowered head and ears, reluctance to move, decreased response to stimuli • Rectal temperature ? – Must be interpreted in the context of the animals other clinical signs 2007, 79th Western Veterinary Conference, Robert L Larson 36
    • US beef cattle production Metaphylaxis protocol Arrival Treat all animals in the “High risk” group processing at feedlot Metaphylaxis “Expensive” long acting product Re-pull treatment Possible Cheaper product “moratorium” Risk determination based on origin, source and history 37
    • US beef cattle production - Metaphylaxis • Definition – the mass treatment of animal populations currently experiencing any level of disease before the onset of blatant illness • Can be considered as a prevention as well as a curative treatment Vet Clin Food Anim 26 (2010) 285-301. JS Nickell, BJ White 38
    • US beef cattle production - Metaphylaxis • General guidelines for metaphylactic treatment – 1. clinical appearance of cattle on arrival – 2. current (and expected) morbidity/ mortality patterns – 3. feed consumption – 4. elevated body temperature – 5. efficacy of products labeled for the control of BRD Vet Clin Food Anim 26 (2010) 285-301. JS Nickell, BJ White 39
    • US beef cattle production - Metaphylaxis • Factors to consider in predicting BRD – Lightweight cattle from multiple origins – Previous health history – Distance of travel to feedlot – Time of year – Weather – Transit conditions (weather extremes) It may be helpful to plot BRD cases to predict disease incidence using epidemic curves Vet Clin Food Anim 26 (2010) 285-301. JS Nickell, BJ White 40
    • US beef cattle production - Metaphylaxis Vet Clin Food Anim 26 (2010) 285-301. JS Nickell, BJ White 41
    • Questions? 42