Dierengezondheidszorg Vlaanderen vzw
1
Dealing with BRD in Flemish
veal calf production
Dr. Koen De Bleecker
Dierengezondh...
2
1. Introduction
2. Situating the problem
3. Evaluating the BRD-
complex
4. Strategic approach
Content
3
Veal industry
4
• Small market: +/- 290.000 slaughtered calves
on 1100 herds
• 95% in Flanders
• 70% in the northern part (province of A...
5
• 14 days on arrival – from different farms
• 3 breeds: dairy calves( 60%), Belgian Blue-
calves(20%)and mixed breeds(20...
6
• Grown within ‘VEEPEILER’
‐ Veepeiler= Monitoring program for cattle diseases
• Financed by Belgian Sanitary Fund= farm...
7
 1/. Situate the problem: mortality/morbidity figures
 2/. Evaluate the BRD complex in the veal calf
industry
identif...
8
• Gather figures on mortality/morbidity:
‐ 15 herds (5837 calves)
• 5 HF – herds (2743 calves)
• 5 Belgian Blue – herds ...
Pneumonia border line the most important cause of mortality  
Peritonitis/polyserositis and acute ruminitis important 
Ave...
Global mortality
2 peaks of mortality caused by pneumonia: 
week 4‐8 (acute disease) and week 17‐23 (mainly loss due to ch...
1 large peritonitis peak: week 8‐11
Polyserositis/peritonitis peak immediatly after a pneumonia peak
11
Global mortality
Peritonitis/polyserositis in veal calves
Exsudative fibrinous peritonitis
often with pneumonia, sometimes pleuritis
Severa...
• Belgian Blue (7.43%)>> crossbreeds (4.76%) > dairy breed (4.38%)
• Pneumonia of greater importance in the Belgian Blue a...
Global morbidity
19.44% individually treated (478/2458 calves at risk) 
Pneumonia most important reason for individual tre...
Pneumonia peak: week 2‐5 (climax week 5) (age: 24‐49 days)
Diarrhea: week 1‐3
Peritonitis/polyserositis: week 7‐11
2e half...
Dairy 17.12  % 
Mixed 
breed 21.73   %
Belgian 
Blue 21.62   %
• Pneumonia: more treatment in Belgian Blue
(expensive calv...
Pneumonia on all farms the most important reason for treatment, but large variation 
Farm related: peritonitis, otitis, ar...
Morbidity parameters
farm 1 HF farm 2 HF farm 7 HF 
farm 3 
BBxHF 
farm 5 
BBxHF 
farm 4 
BWB 
farm 6 
BWB  average 
SARGE...
Group treatments
42 group treatments for 6 farms: average= 7 (4‐12)
BRD most important reason for group treatment 
* Data ...
Conclusions
• Mortality and morbidity: Belgian Blue > crossbreed > dairy
• Pneumonia
– at very young age: 24-49 days (week...
Conclusions
• Breed predisposition
– Belgian Blue: arthritis, necrobacillosis, pneumonia,
enterotoxaemia
– dairy breed: pe...
22
• Multifactorial
• Complex interaction of different factors
(animal-environment-pathogens)
• Tendency to overestimate t...
Multifactorial model
Environ-
ment
Animal
Pathogens
BRD• Breed
• FPT ( colostrum)
• Oppressed
immunity (BVDV)
• Malnutriti...
Identify the pathogens
I
d
e
n
t
i
f
y
Sampling 24 BRD-
’outbreaks’(okt. 07- Jan. 09)
-1.serumsamples of 10
calves: Ab BRD-virussen
and Mycoplasm...
Bacteria: calf level
Mycoplasma strongly present on calf level
32.7% of the calves: mixed infections
• 32.9% calves seroconverted clearly for M. bovis during
BRD-outbreak (63.2% showing increasing Ab- titer)
• Presence of M...
Antibiotics resistance
A lot of antibiotics frequently used orally seem to work inadequately
against the common pathogens
• BVD most found in serovonversions
• Mixed viral infections are seldom (5,6%) BVD frequently
found in those mixed infecti...
Still BVD most present, followed by parainfluenza
IBR and bRSV seems to be less important
Viruses: herd level
• Outburst peak around 6.5 weeks after arrival (1-12.5 weken)
• 28.5% of the lungs = typical lesions for Mycoplasma bovis
...
33
• What do we know so far?
‐ A lot of information!
‐ Problems that were found: frequent therapy failure!
• High presence...
34
• What is failure of therapy?
‐ Not working of a treatment = relapsing calves
• Evaluation of one of the outburst:
3/ S...
35
• In conclusion of this outburst
3/ Strategic approach of BRD
Product Amount of days
Amoxycillin +
Colistin
6
Doxycycli...
36
• What can we change in treatments?
‐ Treat quickly
‐ Treat long enough
‐ Treat with broad-spectrum
• Won’t this increa...
SCORE 0 1 2 3
Rectal t°C
(°C)
< 38.5 38.5-39.0 39.0-39.5 > 39.5
Cough None Induced single cough Induced repeated cough
or ...
38
• When do we treat an animal?
‐ Temp: 40°C → 3
‐ Spontaneous cough → 2
‐ Nasal discharge ‘cloud’ → 1
‐ Eyes → 0
‐ Moder...
With the thermometer in hand…
39
S h f t l
40
3/ Strategic approach of BRD
Decision of first treatment:
Score chart
Long shot or 7 days
Therapy succes
Failure of the...
41
• Why moving to a sick-bay?
‐ Chronically ill or relapsing calves: big shedders of
infection!
• BVD carrier
• chronical...
42
• Last but not least
‐ we know that:
• calves arriving from different herds : a lot of different
pathogens!
• some path...
43
43
Thank you for your attention!
Any questions?
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7.dealing with brd in flemish veal calf production

  1. 1. Dierengezondheidszorg Vlaanderen vzw 1 Dealing with BRD in Flemish veal calf production Dr. Koen De Bleecker Dierengezondheidszorg Vlaanderen vzw
  2. 2. 2 1. Introduction 2. Situating the problem 3. Evaluating the BRD- complex 4. Strategic approach Content
  3. 3. 3 Veal industry
  4. 4. 4 • Small market: +/- 290.000 slaughtered calves on 1100 herds • 95% in Flanders • 70% in the northern part (province of Antwerp) • Strongly integrated (>90%) • France (32%)> Netherlands (24%)> Belgium (7%) Veal calf production -Flanders
  5. 5. 5 • 14 days on arrival – from different farms • 3 breeds: dairy calves( 60%), Belgian Blue- calves(20%)and mixed breeds(20%) • Individual untill 6 weeks after arrival, then groupe housing • Slaughtered at 8 months (250kg) • Nutrition ‐ mainly milk powder ‐ feed rich in fiber: 50 g to 250g at 20 weeks • Production of white veal meat → ‘controlled’ anemia Veal calves
  6. 6. 6 • Grown within ‘VEEPEILER’ ‐ Veepeiler= Monitoring program for cattle diseases • Financed by Belgian Sanitary Fund= farmers money!! • Main Purpose: monitoring infectious diseases in cattle: both existing and emerging • Means: ‐ Consultancy and advice for individual farms with specific problems: » guidance » extra analyses » follow-up ‐ Shorttime projects with focus on practical and current topics: » Veal calf BRD project Situating the project
  7. 7. 7  1/. Situate the problem: mortality/morbidity figures  2/. Evaluate the BRD complex in the veal calf industry identify the pathogens  evaluate immunity  evaluate environmental factors  3/. Strategic approach of BRD in the veal calf industry Veal calf BRD project: aims & goals
  8. 8. 8 • Gather figures on mortality/morbidity: ‐ 15 herds (5837 calves) • 5 HF – herds (2743 calves) • 5 Belgian Blue – herds (1487 calves) • 5 mixed breed – herds (1607 calves) ‐ between oct 2007- oct 2009 1/ Situate the problem ‘‘Measurement is the first step that leads to control and eventually to improvement. If you can’t measure something, you can’t understand it. If you can’t understand it, you can’t control it. If you can’t control it, you can’t improve it.’’ H. James Harrington
  9. 9. Pneumonia border line the most important cause of mortality   Peritonitis/polyserositis and acute ruminitis important  Average mortality= 5,17% (127/2458) Dairy 4,38  %  Mixed breed 4,76   % Belgian Blue 7,43   % 9 Global mortality
  10. 10. Global mortality 2 peaks of mortality caused by pneumonia:  week 4‐8 (acute disease) and week 17‐23 (mainly loss due to chronic pneumonia) 10
  11. 11. 1 large peritonitis peak: week 8‐11 Polyserositis/peritonitis peak immediatly after a pneumonia peak 11 Global mortality
  12. 12. Peritonitis/polyserositis in veal calves Exsudative fibrinous peritonitis often with pneumonia, sometimes pleuritis Several agents have been cultured: Pasteurella, Mannheimia, E. coli, Klebsiella,… Etiology? Hematogenous? Primary source: • lung? • abomasum? Catry et al., 2005 J Clin Microbiol.43(3):1480-3 12
  13. 13. • Belgian Blue (7.43%)>> crossbreeds (4.76%) > dairy breed (4.38%) • Pneumonia of greater importance in the Belgian Blue and crossbreed • Belgian Blue: enterotoxaemia, arthritis, necrobacillosis • Dairy breed: omphalitis and perforating abomasal ulcers  • All breeds: polyserositis/peritonitis, acute ruminitis and diarrhea 13
  14. 14. Global morbidity 19.44% individually treated (478/2458 calves at risk)  Pneumonia most important reason for individual treatment   Diarrhea, otitis externa/media, peritonitis/polyserositis and arthritis important  •14
  15. 15. Pneumonia peak: week 2‐5 (climax week 5) (age: 24‐49 days) Diarrhea: week 1‐3 Peritonitis/polyserositis: week 7‐11 2e half: limited amount of individual treatment  15
  16. 16. Dairy 17.12  %  Mixed  breed 21.73   % Belgian  Blue 21.62   % • Pneumonia: more treatment in Belgian Blue (expensive calves‐farmer influence?‐ increased susceptibility pneumonia)  • Belgian Blue: necrobacillosis, arthritis (also mixed breed) • Otitis: dairy and mixed  • Peritonitis: dairy  16
  17. 17. Pneumonia on all farms the most important reason for treatment, but large variation  Farm related: peritonitis, otitis, arthritis, omphalitis True differences or ‘farmers nature’? 17
  18. 18. Morbidity parameters farm 1 HF farm 2 HF farm 7 HF  farm 3  BBxHF  farm 5  BBxHF  farm 4  BWB  farm 6  BWB  average  SARGEANT  ET AL. ** Percentage individually treated 15,72    27,31    13,77    25,81    16.67 21,84    20.35 20.35 59,1  (46‐78,5)  Number of treatment days  941 238,00 222,00 115,00    70,00    394,00    334.43    334.43    ‐ Number of treatment days per  treated calf 7.23    3.35 3.64    2,40    2,80    5,71    6.12 4.46    5,6 (4,5‐10,6)  Number of treatment days per  calf 1,14    0.91 0,50    0,62    0,47    1,25    1.31    0.89    3,3 (3,1‐8,2)  * * Sargeant et al., 1994, Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 58, 189‐195 In Belgium less individual treatments  compared to Canada Major farm differences Number of individual treatments: high on both Belgian blues Adequate individual therapy length, but not always on consecutive days But substantial amount of group treatments 18
  19. 19. Group treatments 42 group treatments for 6 farms: average= 7 (4‐12) BRD most important reason for group treatment  * Data on 6 farms (farm 4 excluded)
  20. 20. Conclusions • Mortality and morbidity: Belgian Blue > crossbreed > dairy • Pneumonia – at very young age: 24-49 days (week 2-5 after arrival) – more problems in the Belgian Blue breed – all farms, large variation • Peritonitis/polyserositis – farm related – all breeds: differences in clinical presentation between dairy and Belgian Blue • Acute ruminitis – all farms, large variation between farms 20
  21. 21. Conclusions • Breed predisposition – Belgian Blue: arthritis, necrobacillosis, pneumonia, enterotoxaemia – dairy breed: peritonitis/polyserositis, perforating abomasal ulcers • Farm related prevalence – peritonitis/polyserositis, otitis, arthritis, omphalitis, pneumonia, diarrhea, acute ruminitis • Antibiotic use – extensive!! (group >> individual) 21
  22. 22. 22 • Multifactorial • Complex interaction of different factors (animal-environment-pathogens) • Tendency to overestimate the importance of the pathogens involved! 2/ Evaluate the BRD-complex
  23. 23. Multifactorial model Environ- ment Animal Pathogens BRD• Breed • FPT ( colostrum) • Oppressed immunity (BVDV) • Malnutrition • Se-status • Vaccinations • Stress • Ventilation and climate • Population density • Hygiëne • Herd management • Humidity • Dust • Irritating gasses • Viruses • Bacteria • Parasites
  24. 24. Identify the pathogens
  25. 25. I d e n t i f y Sampling 24 BRD- ’outbreaks’(okt. 07- Jan. 09) -1.serumsamples of 10 calves: Ab BRD-virussen and Mycoplasma bovis -2.deep nasopharyngeal swabs -3.post mortems
  26. 26. Bacteria: calf level Mycoplasma strongly present on calf level 32.7% of the calves: mixed infections
  27. 27. • 32.9% calves seroconverted clearly for M. bovis during BRD-outbreak (63.2% showing increasing Ab- titer) • Presence of Mycoplasma bovis during peak of BRD- problems on 23/24 outbreaks • M. haemolytica en P. multocida 70.8% each of the outbreaks • All three major bacterial pathogens found in 59.1% of the outbreaks Mycoplasma bovis
  28. 28. Antibiotics resistance A lot of antibiotics frequently used orally seem to work inadequately against the common pathogens
  29. 29. • BVD most found in serovonversions • Mixed viral infections are seldom (5,6%) BVD frequently found in those mixed infections Viruses: calf level
  30. 30. Still BVD most present, followed by parainfluenza IBR and bRSV seems to be less important Viruses: herd level
  31. 31. • Outburst peak around 6.5 weeks after arrival (1-12.5 weken) • 28.5% of the lungs = typical lesions for Mycoplasma bovis • Mycoplasma bovis isolated in 61.9% of the lungs • 33%: A. pyogenes ( suppurating bacteria) • Mannheimia en Pasteurella found only sporadical • 60% of the calves: BVD virus positive • 20% of the calves: RSV positive Post mortem
  32. 32. 33 • What do we know so far? ‐ A lot of information! ‐ Problems that were found: frequent therapy failure! • High presence of Mycoplasma bovis: few specific treatments • High presence of BVDV • ‘Common’ BRD bacteria resistant to frequently used antibiotics ‐ Too many different types of antibiotics on herd and on calf level! ‐ Insufficient in duration ‐ Insufficient in indication 3/ Strategic approach of BRD
  33. 33. 34 • What is failure of therapy? ‐ Not working of a treatment = relapsing calves • Evaluation of one of the outburst: 3/ Strategic approach of BRD 40/182 (22%) calves were individual treated 72,2% single treatment (11% long shot) 27,8% two or three days treatment same antibiotic: 20% different antibiotics: 80% 1e treatment Amount of calves (% of treated animals) Lincospectin + Neopen 57.6% Danofloxacine 15.3% Cefquinome 7.7% Tulathromycine 7.7% Florfenicol + marbofloxine 3.8% Marbofloxacine 3.8% Tilmicosine 3.8%
  34. 34. 35 • In conclusion of this outburst 3/ Strategic approach of BRD Product Amount of days Amoxycillin + Colistin 6 Doxycyclin 5 Oxytetracyclin 10 Oxytetracyclin + Tylosin 10 • 24% of the doses go to calves that finally die!!! • 29% of the doses given to 3 calves !!!(1 BVD positive, died) • Group treatments Amount of treatmentdays /treated calf: 5 days (individual) + 31 days= 36 days Product Nb of given doses Lincospectin 41 Neopen 43 Gentaject 1 Advocin 27 Nuflor 14 Cobactan 9 Vetalgin 3 Vetodexin 28 Meflosyl 9 Micotil 10 Metacam 3 Floxadyl 3 Emdofluxim 6 Draxxin 6 Marbocyl 5 Dicural 1 Multivit. 1 Potencil 2 212
  35. 35. 36 • What can we change in treatments? ‐ Treat quickly ‐ Treat long enough ‐ Treat with broad-spectrum • Won’t this increase labour for the farmer? ‐ NO: • Less relapsing calves, less treatments • Use longacting one-shot products! 3/ Strategic approach of BRD
  36. 36. SCORE 0 1 2 3 Rectal t°C (°C) < 38.5 38.5-39.0 39.0-39.5 > 39.5 Cough None Induced single cough Induced repeated cough or occasional spontaneous cough Repeated spontaneous cough Nasal discharge Normal, serous Limited quantities of unilateral ‘cloud’ colored discharge Bilateral ‘cloud’ of excessive muceus discharge Abundant bilateral and purulent Awareness Normal Slower, but responding to stimulus Isolated,responding slowly to stimulus, lying down a lot Strongly reduced, few responding to stimulus 37 Decision making on treating or not:  Score chart (McGuirk) 
  37. 37. 38 • When do we treat an animal? ‐ Temp: 40°C → 3 ‐ Spontaneous cough → 2 ‐ Nasal discharge ‘cloud’ → 1 ‐ Eyes → 0 ‐ Moderate drooping ears → 1 ‐ Total = 7 3/ Strategic approach of BRD When score> 5 = treatment
  38. 38. With the thermometer in hand… 39 S h f t l
  39. 39. 40 3/ Strategic approach of BRD Decision of first treatment: Score chart Long shot or 7 days Therapy succes Failure of therapy: daily antibiotics for 1 week Therapy failure: Moving to sick- bay Euthanasia? BVD‐antigen test? 3e treatment round? *B. Pardon Fac. Vet.Med. Ghent University
  40. 40. 41 • Why moving to a sick-bay? ‐ Chronically ill or relapsing calves: big shedders of infection! • BVD carrier • chronically Mycoplasma infected ‐ ‘Sick-bay’: as far as possible from healthy calves 3/ Strategical approach of BRD
  41. 41. 42 • Last but not least ‐ we know that: • calves arriving from different herds : a lot of different pathogens! • some pathogens (Mycoplasma!) survive in wet and chilly stable conditions ‐ key words between 2 rounds of calves: • 1/ cleaning • 2/ desinfecting • 3/ sanitary void and drying! 3/ Strategical approach of BRD
  42. 42. 43 43 Thank you for your attention! Any questions?
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