04 jake waddilove


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  • Adding all this together: Big hit for the next two years at least
  • Adding all this together: Big hit for the next two years at least
  • Adding all this together: Big hit for the next two years at least
  • 04 jake waddilove

    1. 1. English pig production and CIRCOVAC piglet field experience Jake Waddilove MA, VetMB, MRCVS Eastgate Veterinary Group Bury St Edmunds [email_address] VETERINARY GROUP
    2. 2.
    3. 3. The British Pig Industry
    4. 4. Breeding herd trends 000 head ? BPEX
    5. 5. Where are all the pigs? <ul><li>10,000 pig premises </li></ul><ul><li>1600 assured farms account for 92% production </li></ul><ul><li>35 companies account for 50% of breeding herd </li></ul><ul><li>10 companies account for c. 35% of breeding sows </li></ul>
    6. 6. How are our sows kept? <ul><li>No Stalls </li></ul><ul><li>59% of sows indoors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sows usually confined for farrowing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom/welfare crates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>41% of sows outdoors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Sows not confined </li></ul></ul></ul>Source: DEFRA
    7. 7.
    8. 8. How are our finishers kept? <ul><li>97% finished indoors </li></ul><ul><li>39% on fully slatted floors </li></ul><ul><li>30% on partially slatted floors </li></ul><ul><li>31% on solid floors with bedding (e.g. Straw) – Premium product </li></ul><ul><li>3% finished outdoors - Freerange </li></ul>Source: Based on AFS data
    9. 9.
    10. 10.
    11. 11. UK clean pig slaughterings million head BPEX
    12. 12. UK clean pig carcase weights kg BPEX
    13. 13. UK pig meat production 000 tonnes BPEX
    14. 14. UK pig prices (DAPP) BPEX
    15. 15. EU and UK pig meat reference prices p/kg dw BPEX
    16. 16. UK feed prices BPEX
    17. 17. Production costs vs DAPP BPEX
    18. 18. Profitability in the pig chain 12 week periods BPEX
    19. 19. In 12 weeks to 23/1/11 <ul><li>British pig producers lost £35 million </li></ul><ul><li>The pork processing sector made approximately £100 million </li></ul><ul><li>The retailers made a profit from sale of pork and pork products of roughly £192 million </li></ul><ul><li>So what does that mean for the shape of our industry in the future? </li></ul>BPEX
    20. 20. PCV2 Vaccination
    21. 21. What PCV2 Vaccination protocols do we use in our Practice? <ul><li>95% of herds/flows use some form of PCV2 vaccination </li></ul><ul><li>Of these: </li></ul><ul><li>65% use Sow vaccination only </li></ul><ul><li>15% use Piglet vaccination only </li></ul><ul><li>20% use Sow and Piglet vaccination </li></ul><ul><li>So 85% of systems use sow vaccine </li></ul>
    22. 22. Why more sow vaccination? <ul><li>It works </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Classical PCVD in weaners & growing pigs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Late stage/Endemic PCVD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It has other benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In farrowing and early post weaning period </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is easier and cheaper </li></ul><ul><li>PCV2 status is changing on our farms – they are becoming more stable </li></ul><ul><li>We learnt to manage PCVD & vaccination issues </li></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>With sow vaccination it has been important to understand how immunity is transferred from the sow to the piglet </li></ul><ul><li>Colostrum does not just have an antibody component </li></ul><ul><li>It also has a cellular component </li></ul><ul><li>Best if derived from the biological mother </li></ul><ul><li>So needed to modify management of the sow, the piglet and cross fostering to allow for this </li></ul>Transfer of immunity
    24. 24. Why more sow vaccination? (2) <ul><li>Risk factors for PCVD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High sensitivity of young piglets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure to PCV2 early in life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor maternal immunity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Piglet vaccination can be an option </li></ul><ul><li>But vaccination of sows with Circovac: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreases viral shedding and infective load </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Induces both humoral and cellular immunity transfer to piglets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So promotes the establishment of long term protection against PCV2 disease in piglets </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Why do we use piglet vaccination? <ul><li>New outbreaks </li></ul><ul><li>Destabilised herds </li></ul><ul><li>Active infection with different pathogens (eg PRRS) interferes with PCV2 immunity or immune transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Poor colostrum management </li></ul>
    26. 26. Piglet vaccination Field trial 1
    27. 27. Material and methods <ul><li>700-sow indoor unit </li></ul><ul><li>Piglets were individually weighed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>at weaning (W) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>at the end of the grower stage (EF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>at before slaughter (S) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pigs were allocated randomly to one of two vaccine groups </li></ul><ul><li>Allocation of pigs was blinded to farm management </li></ul><ul><li>Pigs from 2 groups were individually identified </li></ul>Tobin, IPVS 2010
    28. 28. Vaccine Groups <ul><li>Circoflex group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>91 pigs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 ml of Circoflex® (Boehringer Ingleheim) I/M at weaning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Circovac group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100 pigs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0.5 ml of Circovac® (Merial) I/M at weaning </li></ul></ul>Tobin, IPVS 2010
    29. 29. Pig Flow <ul><li>On farm specialist weaner accommodation </li></ul><ul><li>Piglets from 2 vaccine groups were comingled </li></ul><ul><li>Off site finishing on 2 farms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>deep straw bedded lose housing finishing accommodation (Farm 1, n=74) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>solid floor finishing accommodation (Farm 2, n=114). </li></ul></ul>Tobin, IPVS 2010
    30. 30. Material and methods <ul><li>Both vaccines were compared on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average Daily Weight Gain (ADG) in post-weaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADG in finishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADG from weaning to slaughter, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>weight at entry in finishing stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>slaughter weight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two-tailed student t-test was used to compare the different parameters of the 2 vaccines </li></ul>Tobin, IPVS 2010
    31. 31. Results - Farm 1 Tobin, IPVS 2010 * P < 0.05 Circovac Circoflex Diff ADG wean-slaughter g/day 741.4 728.9 12.4 ADG finishers g/day 929.9 919.4 10.5 ADG growers g/day 560.0 547.3 12.8 Weight entry finishing Kg 48.1 47.9 0.1 Slaughter weight Kg 110.9 105.2 5.7*
    32. 32. Results – Farm 2 Tobin, IPVS 2010 Circovac Circoflex Diff ADG wean-slaughter g/day 669.2 653.1 16.1 ADWG finishers g/day 769.6 750.3 19.2 ADWG growers g/day 523.4 509.7 13.7 Weight entry finishing Kg 39.0 38.1 0.96 Slaughter weight Kg 105.3 102.6 2.7
    33. 33. ADWG (g/d) +10.5 +19.3 +12.5 +16.1 Tobin, IPVS 2010 Circoflex Circovac
    34. 34. Results <ul><li>The mean parameters values of Circovac groups are always slightly higher than Circoflex groups values in both farms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no statistically significant difference </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The difference between both vaccines is significant for the slaughter weight parameter only (p=0.040), in farm 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Piglets vaccinated with Circovac presented higher slaughter weight, in average, than the ones vaccinated with the Circoflex </li></ul>Tobin, IPVS 2010
    35. 35. Testing <ul><li>20 pigs were bled at weaning and at the end of the grower stage </li></ul><ul><li>Samples were tested </li></ul><ul><ul><li>by qPCR for quantification of PCV2 genome (minimum detection level 2x10 3 /ml) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>qELISA for quantification of PCV2 specific antibodies </li></ul></ul>Tobin, IPVS 2010
    36. 36. Results <ul><li>qPCR and qELISA tests at different stages </li></ul>W: weaning EF: entry in fattening S: slaughter Tobin, IPVS 2010   qPCR qELISA Positive >10 6 W EF S Circovac 6.7% 0% 2,686.89 3,742.63 2,863.00 Circoflex 23.5% 5.9% 1,569.63 1,088.95 3,172.41
    37. 37. Testing comments <ul><li>Both groups had high titres of antibodies at weaning </li></ul><ul><li>PCR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All pigs tested were negative at weaning and at the end of the grower stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>% of sampled pigs positive before slaughter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>23.5% of those vaccinated with Circoflex </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6.7% of those vaccinated with Circovac </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 pig in the group Circoflex above 10 6 PCV2 genome copies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note difference not associated with disease </li></ul></ul>Tobin, IPVS 2010
    38. 38. Discussion <ul><li>Due to the small number of animals involved in </li></ul><ul><li>this study it was not possible to show a statistical difference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>except for slaughter weight in farm 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ADWG at all stages of production and the slaughter weight always slightly higher in Circovac vaccinated groups in both finishers </li></ul><ul><li>Circoflex had a slightly higher level of viraemia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>but this was not associated to disease </li></ul></ul>Tobin, IPVS 2010
    39. 39. Piglet vaccination trial 2
    40. 40. Material <ul><li>750 sow farrow-to-finish unit </li></ul><ul><li>Farrowing was by room </li></ul><ul><li>Pigs were age-segregated by room in slatted accommodation through to approximately 15 weeks of age. </li></ul><ul><li>They were then placed in mixed age finishing accommodation. </li></ul>Waddilove, APVS 2011
    41. 41. Unit health profile <ul><li>High disease burden in the rearing herd including PCVD, PRRS, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and various secondary bacterial </li></ul><ul><li>High levels of respiratory disease, wean to finish mortality ~8%, poor growth rates and high levels of treatment for respiratory disease. </li></ul>Waddilove, APVS 2011
    42. 42. Control measures <ul><li>PRRS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vaccinated sows and pigs with PRRS-MLV vaccine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PCV2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vaccinated sows and piglets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>M. Hyopneumoniae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccinated piglets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Various strategies of antibiotic treatment </li></ul>Waddilove, APVS 2011
    43. 43. Methods <ul><li>Each litter randomly allocated into equal groups </li></ul><ul><li>Blinded from farm staff </li></ul><ul><li>Identified with ear tags at weaning </li></ul><ul><li>Weighed at weaning,10 weeks and 25 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>A t-test and a Chi 2 test was applied to compare the average daily gain results and the mortality rate respectively </li></ul>Waddilove, APVS 2011
    44. 44. Vaccination <ul><li>Vaccinated for PCV2 at weaning (23-25 days of age). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Half of each litter received 0.5ml Circovac® (Merial) by intramuscular injection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Half of each litter received 1.0ml Circoflex® (Boehringer Ingleheim) by intramuscular injection. </li></ul></ul>Waddilove, APVS 2011
    45. 45. Results Waddilove, APVS 2011 No Significant Differences Circovac Circoflex Number 344 353 ADG Wean – Finish (gm) 540 536 ADG Wean – Grower (gm) 436 436 ADG Grower – Finish (gm) 593 585 Mortality (%) 3.5 4.5
    46. 46. Discussion <ul><li>Under commercial conditions </li></ul><ul><li>High disease burden including PCVD </li></ul><ul><li>No significant difference in growth rates and mortality levels between piglets vaccinated with 0.5ml Circovac or 1.0ml Circoflex. </li></ul><ul><li>Numerical benefits in growth rate and mortality for Circovac vaccinated pigs were observed. </li></ul>Waddilove, APVS 2011
    47. 47. Conclusions <ul><li>2 trials </li></ul><ul><li>Both in normal field conditions in commercial herds </li></ul><ul><li>No significant difference between vaccinating pigs with 1ml Circoflex or 0.5ml Circovac </li></ul><ul><li>In both trials some numerical advantages to the Circovac vaccinated pigs </li></ul>
    48. 48. And a final thought <ul><li>How well do combination vaccines work? </li></ul><ul><li>Here is some data from the British slaughter house survey </li></ul>
    49. 49. Apical lobe consolidation (EP like lesions) Group 1 using mixed M hyo and PCV2 vaccine10,000 sows Group 2 using PCV2 sow vaccination and M+PAC or Stellamune 24,000 sows Group 3 using PCV2 Circovac piglet vaccination and M+PAC 5000 sows
    50. 50. Thank you