Constituting Development in Somaliland Development, Democracy, and Institution-Building   Mercatus Center George Mason Uni...
The 21 st  Century Challenge <ul><li>Numerous independent nation states emerged in the 20th Century… </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
The Constitutional Challenge Sujai Shivakumar PhD <ul><li>Whether human societies are capable of establishing good governm...
<ul><li>Focus on Somaliland </li></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
Sujai Shivakumar PhD
Somali Society  <ul><li>Clan structure remains the bedrock foundation of the pastoral Somali society </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
A Recent History of Somaliland (in Brief) <ul><li>British Somaliland (1899-1960) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruled from British ...
Today’ Presentation <ul><li>Institutions and Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development as Adaptive wellbeing through C...
Institutions and Development Technologies for Successful Collective Action
The Meaning of Development <ul><li>Development concerns the realization of our adaptive wellbeing through productive assoc...
State Governance & Development <ul><li>Traditional Interpretation: Development as Transformation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fea...
What is an Institution? <ul><li>They are rules, socially considered </li></ul><ul><li>By structuring human interaction, th...
Institutions and Development <ul><li>Institutions are important because successful collective action is needed for growth ...
Addressing Collective Action Situations lies at the Heart of Development <ul><li>Collective Action Situations exist where ...
Motivation problems <ul><li>Social Dilemmas: Potential conflict between individual gain and collective benefits </li></ul>...
Information problems <ul><li>Missing information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time and Place Knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Societies around the world have variously developed institutional solutions to these problems Are these problem-solving te...
An example of an Institutional Solution to a Free Rider Problem <ul><li>Free riders are those who seek to benefit from the...
An example of an Institutional Solution to a “Tragedy of the Commons” Problem <ul><li>The Tragedy of the Commons refers to...
People everywhere face challenges of collective action <ul><li>In developed countries, well adapted networks of institutio...
Crafting Solutions to Collective Action Problems <ul><li>A Complex task … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collective Action Problems...
Crafting Solutions to Collective Action Problems <ul><li>Improving development requires a focus on the multiple contexts w...
Ideology of the State <ul><li>The State as the Preeminent Tool for Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rulership </li></ul><...
Is the State Competent? <ul><li>The Knowledge Problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agents of the state cannot gain “knowledge of ...
Failures of the Ideology of the State <ul><li>The emphasis on state-led development has often ruined capabilities for loca...
What is the alternative? <ul><li>Begin with the recognition that failures of development are rooted in institutional failu...
The Meaning of Democracy Foundations of Constitutional Governance
The Role of Democracy in Development <ul><li>Democracy concerns the norms of inclusion in public discourse and decision ma...
Centralized Democracy? <ul><li>Popular view equates democracy with elections of representatives to a national government  ...
Polycentric Governance  <ul><li>Tocqueville, in  Democracy in America , described a system of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi...
Foundations of Constitutional Governance  <ul><li>Constitutionally Constrained Democratic Governance </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Achieving a Self-Governing Civilization Starting from Here Building on Indigenous Institutional Foundations
Starting from “here”— Why? <ul><li>We have to deal with indigenous institutions because they represent existing communitie...
Starting from “here”— How?   <ul><li>Challenge lies in developing and modifying existing rules and constitutional amenitie...
Reviving indigenous capabilities for problem-solving <ul><li>Ubudehe is being revived in Rwanda today </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Crafting Capabilities for Self-governance in Somaliland <ul><li>A challenging environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil conf...
Constituting Somaliland <ul><li>Today, Xeer is underpinning new governance structures in Somaliland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Somaliland’s “Success” <ul><li>The chaos in Somalia obscures a remarkable political development in Somaliland. </li></ul><...
To Conclude Achieving a Self-Governing Civilization
Achieving a Self-Governing Civilization <ul><li>Alexander Hamilton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presumption that societies of men...
Achieving a Self-Governing Civilization for the 21 st  Century <ul><li>The challenge of  Constitutional Political Economy ...
Thank you Sujai Shivakumar, PhD The National Academies 500 Fifth Street NW Washington DC 20001 Tel: 202 334 1337 Email: ss...
Agenda for Future Research:  Recovering from State Failure <ul><li>Analyze link between Institutional conditions and Devel...
Publications <ul><li>The Constitution of Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crafting Capabilities for Self Governance </li>...
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Constituting Development in Somaliland

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Constituting Development in Somaliland

  1. 1. Constituting Development in Somaliland Development, Democracy, and Institution-Building Mercatus Center George Mason University October 7, 2009 Sujai Shivakumar PhD Board on Science, Technology and Economic Policy The National Academies
  2. 2. The 21 st Century Challenge <ul><li>Numerous independent nation states emerged in the 20th Century… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End of European Imperialism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marxist-Leninist Revolutionary Struggles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>.. but many have not succeeded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development Failures, State Failures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plunder and Pillage; Humanitarian Crises </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How to achieve democratic governance in the 21st Century? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we achieve stable, self-governing societies? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we address the Challenge of Development? </li></ul></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  3. 3. The Constitutional Challenge Sujai Shivakumar PhD <ul><li>Whether human societies are capable of establishing good government from refection and choice, or whether they are destined to depend for their political constitutions on accident and force </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alexander Hamilton, The Federalist </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Focus on Somaliland </li></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  5. 5. Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  6. 6. Somali Society <ul><li>Clan structure remains the bedrock foundation of the pastoral Somali society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The primacy of clan interests is its natural divisive reflection at the political level. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The viability of the blood compensation paying group depends primarily on how wealthy the members are. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As long there is a social need for the dia-paying group, the traditional structures will persist. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Somali customary laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Xeer can be contracted into - and out of – and, according to need, contracts can be abrogated, modified, rescinded or new ones made. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basis of new Somaliland constitution </li></ul></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  7. 7. A Recent History of Somaliland (in Brief) <ul><li>British Somaliland (1899-1960) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruled from British India; Provided security to the Suez Canal and safety for the Empire's vital naval routes through the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Briefly conquered by the Italians during WWII </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Merger with Somalia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1967 Coup by Siad Barre, who instituted a Marxist regime, and became a close ally of the Soviet Union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disenchantment with Somalia as SL is marginalized in government </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Civil War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1981- 1990: Somali National Movement seeks to topple Barre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barre responds with areal bombings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Independence (1991) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Somaliland asserts independence—Still remains unrecognized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inter-clan conflict continues through mid-1990s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace conference (1993) and gradual fall in violence; Rebuilding begins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mid to late1990s—New Constitution adopted </li></ul></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  8. 8. Today’ Presentation <ul><li>Institutions and Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development as Adaptive wellbeing through Collective Action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutions as Technologies for Successful Collective Action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assessing the State as an Institution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limits of State-led Development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role of Democracy in Development </li></ul><ul><li>Constituting Somaliland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Starting from Here” </li></ul></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  9. 9. Institutions and Development Technologies for Successful Collective Action
  10. 10. The Meaning of Development <ul><li>Development concerns the realization of our adaptive wellbeing through productive association with others </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions matter for development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Represent a shared understanding of rules needed for collective action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We need to recognize and renew these shared institutional resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many assume state provides institutional basis for development </li></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  11. 11. State Governance & Development <ul><li>Traditional Interpretation: Development as Transformation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Features of a “developing” country  Features of a “developed” country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aid to facilitate this process by filling gaps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role of the State is to transform society from developing to developed status </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agents of state to formulate and administer policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution typically recognized as a charter describing the organization of the state and legitimizing coercion by the state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The State often does not provide the institutional basis for this transformation </li></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  12. 12. What is an Institution? <ul><li>They are rules, socially considered </li></ul><ul><li>By structuring human interaction, they </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help each anticipate the actions of others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce uncertainty, promote coordination and cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To be successful, rules must be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliable —triggering consistently in similar circumstances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizable —subject to broad awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-arbitrar y—seemingly dependant on general principles </li></ul></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  13. 13. Institutions and Development <ul><li>Institutions are important because successful collective action is needed for growth and development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We need to cooperate successfully to grow food, build roads, maintain safe neighborhoods, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Successful collective action also needed to craft and maintain rules of the market and collective decision-making </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When the social technologies for collective action are kept in good repair, we are better off </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens are better equipped to solve problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well maintained institutions ensure our improved adaptive well being </li></ul></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  14. 14. Addressing Collective Action Situations lies at the Heart of Development <ul><li>Collective Action Situations exist where contributions from multiple actors are required to produce joint outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Collective Action Problems occur when unresolved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation Problems and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… create sub-optimal outcomes </li></ul></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  15. 15. Motivation problems <ul><li>Social Dilemmas: Potential conflict between individual gain and collective benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provision of public goods (public safety, health, knowledge, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provision and maintenance of common-pool resources (protection of forests, wildlife, species, lakes, rivers, oceans, atmosphere) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If benefits can be obtained by an actor without contributing, temptation always exists to free ride on the efforts of others. May also face overuse. </li></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  16. 16. Information problems <ul><li>Missing information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time and Place Knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of local realities, rules, and relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Asymmetric information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral Hazard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principle-agent problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signaling Problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiscal Illusion (Policy Context) </li></ul></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  17. 17. Societies around the world have variously developed institutional solutions to these problems Are these problem-solving technologies still relevant?
  18. 18. An example of an Institutional Solution to a Free Rider Problem <ul><li>Free riders are those who seek to benefit from the actions of others without contributing their share of the effort </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: Ubudehe in Rwanda </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ubudehe is rooted in a long history of inclusive community participation in tilling fields for planting crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found among the Hutu and Tutsi communities in Rwanda, long before genocide of the 1990s </li></ul></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  19. 19. An example of an Institutional Solution to a “Tragedy of the Commons” Problem <ul><li>The Tragedy of the Commons refers to a failure of cooperation in the shared use of a Common Pool Resource </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When needed institutions are absent, individuals may be motivated to use more than their share of a limited but openly available resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to non-sustainable use and degradation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solution: Xeer in Somalia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectations for arrangements to share scarce grazing land and water sources among nomadic pastoralists in northern Somalia </li></ul></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  20. 20. People everywhere face challenges of collective action <ul><li>In developed countries, well adapted networks of institutions generally lead to productive outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>In poor countries, individuals often face negative incentives, making it difficult to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>invest in economic activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide public goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve communally held resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This failure of social cooperation is rooted in a variety of social dilemmas that remain unsolved—there are no relevant institutions </li></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  21. 21. Crafting Solutions to Collective Action Problems <ul><li>A Complex task … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collective Action Problems are often highly localized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social dilemmas are numerous and often difficult to diagnose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different interests and theories about working properties of rules can make agreement difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><li>… but one that is necessary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Existence of institutions like ubudehe and xeer show that it is possible </li></ul></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  22. 22. Crafting Solutions to Collective Action Problems <ul><li>Improving development requires a focus on the multiple contexts within which citizens can identify and craft solutions to problems of collective action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This perspective differs from the State-centered approach to development </li></ul></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  23. 23. Ideology of the State <ul><li>The State as the Preeminent Tool for Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rulership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unity of power to maintain unity of law critical for social harmony—Hobbes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bureaucratic Public Administration—Weber & Wilson </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aggregate data  Develop Policy  Implement Policy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>This ideology still widely articulated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But is the State competent to address the range of collective action problems facing its subjects? </li></ul></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  24. 24. Is the State Competent? <ul><li>The Knowledge Problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agents of the state cannot gain “knowledge of time and place”— Friedrich Hayek </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Motivation Problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibility of self-seeking and opportunistic agents of the state — James Buchanan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Intellectual Crisis of Public Administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideology of state stifles modes of creative inquiry and participation among citizens in solving problems of collective action — Vincent Ostrom </li></ul></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  25. 25. Failures of the Ideology of the State <ul><li>The emphasis on state-led development has often ruined capabilities for locally based problem-solving </li></ul><ul><li>The results have often been catastrophic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rwanda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indigenous institutions like ubudehe have been overlooked in favor of the “modernizing” potential of the state </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resulting deterioration of networks of trust contributed to the genocide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Somalia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UN imposed constitution failed to account for local institutional resources, like xeer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Somali rulers exploited indigenous institutions to stay in power, fraying the constitutional fabric of society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resulting in famine, civil war, state collapse </li></ul></ul></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  26. 26. What is the alternative? <ul><li>Begin with the recognition that failures of development are rooted in institutional failures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The state often does not address underlying problems of collective action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization of state often fosters perverse incentives of its own </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need to develop an alternate approach to the puzzle of development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One based on a deeper understanding of democracy and constitutional government </li></ul></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  27. 27. The Meaning of Democracy Foundations of Constitutional Governance
  28. 28. The Role of Democracy in Development <ul><li>Democracy concerns the norms of inclusion in public discourse and decision making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participation and Debate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures that policy decisions draw on knowledge that individuals have of their own time and place </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consensus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helps strengthen common understandings about new decisions and rules—creating an institutional basis for successful collective action </li></ul></ul></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  29. 29. Centralized Democracy? <ul><li>Popular view equates democracy with elections of representatives to a national government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some believe that party politics associated with elections interfere with State’s ability to govern wisely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Idea underpins current efforts in “Nation-Building” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Centralized democracy can lead to ‘political free-riding’ that stifles local initiative and problem-solving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tocqueville </li></ul></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  30. 30. Polycentric Governance <ul><li>Tocqueville, in Democracy in America , described a system of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple overlapping arenas of political authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Various scales, from community organizations, to state government to national government </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Governance structures are adaptive framework for problem-solving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World Wide Web is a modern example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of public entrepreneurship in seeking solutions to problems of collective action </li></ul></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  31. 31. Foundations of Constitutional Governance <ul><li>Constitutionally Constrained Democratic Governance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on collective action within institutional constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens addressing their common needs through the freedom to integrate their actions with those of others within crafted rules and innovated institutional arrangements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Challenge: Crafting a system of interlinked problem-solving arenas </li></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  32. 32. Achieving a Self-Governing Civilization Starting from Here Building on Indigenous Institutional Foundations
  33. 33. Starting from “here”— Why? <ul><li>We have to deal with indigenous institutions because they represent existing communities of understanding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yet, we must recognize that evolved institutional forms, presented as indigenous or traditional do not necessarily denote optimal or even acceptable solutions to prevailing collective action problems </li></ul></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  34. 34. Starting from “here”— How? <ul><li>Challenge lies in developing and modifying existing rules and constitutional amenities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to harness more effectively the problem solving potentials latent in various locally focused indigenous institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to draw on existing mechanisms/ shared concepts to encourage rule change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normative bases for rules—conjectural evolutionary claims </li></ul></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  35. 35. Reviving indigenous capabilities for problem-solving <ul><li>Ubudehe is being revived in Rwanda today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on cellule level to rebuild local institutions and to encourage individuals to solve problems in association with each other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Xeer is underpinning new governance structures in Somaliland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept of covenanting now used to craft and maintain collective action institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A major Challenge of Development is to draw on such indigenous practices in crafting capabilities for self-governance </li></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  36. 36. Crafting Capabilities for Self-governance in Somaliland <ul><li>A challenging environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil conflict following the collapse of the Somali State </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clan-on-clan violence exacerbated by destruction of common pool resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recognizing the underlying collective action problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tragedy of the Commons  Conflict over Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leveraging existing institutional capital: “Xeer” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional ad hoc arrangements to share grazing land and water sources among nomadic pastoralists in northern Somalia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action-Aid drew on clan traditions to craft new institutional arrangements before delivering aid </li></ul></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  37. 37. Constituting Somaliland <ul><li>Today, Xeer is underpinning new governance structures in Somaliland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept of covenanting now used to craft and maintain collective action institutions at various levels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The broader Challenge for Development in Africa and elsewhere is to draw on such indigenous practices in crafting capabilities for self-governance </li></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  38. 38. Somaliland’s “Success” <ul><li>The chaos in Somalia obscures a remarkable political development in Somaliland. </li></ul><ul><li>Somaliland, which declared its independence in 1991, has </li></ul><ul><ul><li>held three consecutive competitive elections since 2001, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>has a parliament with opposition parties, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>boasts a growing economy propelled by the private sector. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The key to its success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The integration into politics of traditional Somali models of governance by consultation and consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A contrast to the standard development paradigm </li></ul></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  39. 39. To Conclude Achieving a Self-Governing Civilization
  40. 40. Achieving a Self-Governing Civilization <ul><li>Alexander Hamilton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presumption that societies of men and women can choose good government through reflection and choice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federalism as the foremost theory of citizenship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alexis de Tocqueville </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A new age of democracy will only succeed to the degree that it developed a new science of politics that is based on principles of association, rather than on the ideology of state </li></ul></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  41. 41. Achieving a Self-Governing Civilization for the 21 st Century <ul><li>The challenge of Constitutional Political Economy lies in looking beyond the ideology of state governance </li></ul><ul><li>Need to understand the nature of collective undertakings with reference to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple levels of governance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple sources of adaptation </li></ul></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  42. 42. Thank you Sujai Shivakumar, PhD The National Academies 500 Fifth Street NW Washington DC 20001 Tel: 202 334 1337 Email: sshivaku@nas.edu
  43. 43. Agenda for Future Research: Recovering from State Failure <ul><li>Analyze link between Institutional conditions and Development Sustainability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact on Aid on Successful Collective Action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Study local institutions and local governance structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize role of indigenous institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modernize institutions to address contemporary challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reconciling Bottom-up and Top-down governance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incentives to recognize and nurture local/indigenous institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Training in Institutional Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build capacity to recognize and leverage existing institutional potentials </li></ul></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
  44. 44. Publications <ul><li>The Constitution of Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crafting Capabilities for Self Governance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Palgrave Macmillan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Samaritan’s Dilemma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Political Economy of Development Aid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With Elinor Ostrom, Clark Gibson and Krister Andersson </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxford University Press </li></ul></ul></ul>Sujai Shivakumar PhD
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