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Literature review Prof. Francisco Guillen Grima
Search Databases  1998-2010 <ul><li>MEDLINE,  </li></ul><ul><li>Web of Science,  </li></ul><ul><li>Current Contents </li><...
Keywords <ul><li>“ family”, “foster home care”, “kinship”, “parenting”, </li></ul><ul><li>“ education”, “child”, “teen”, “...
Definitions <ul><li>Family members, other than parents, raising children full-time </li></ul><ul><li>Family members, other...
Magnitud of the Problem <ul><li>USA 3,8% 2.8  millions </li></ul><ul><li>Australia 1% </li></ul><ul><li>UK 100 000 childre...
<ul><li>General Findings </li></ul><ul><li>Minority groups </li></ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Health Problem...
General Findings <ul><li>Not eligible for the payments and </li></ul><ul><li>support services available  </li></ul><ul><li...
Minority groups <ul><li>grandparent care giving is particularly </li></ul><ul><li>high in inner cities, estimated  30%- 50...
Problems Kinship Carers <ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>social isolation  </li></ul><ul><li>poverty </li></ul>
Health Problems <ul><li>Women caring for non-ill children 21h/week -  9h/wk  have more risk of coronary heart disease (Lee...
Health Problems (2) <ul><li>Kinship carers appear to take less care of their own health. Grandmothers raising a grandchild...
Drug Problems <ul><li>Parenting a grandchild &  the parenthood of a drug abuser produces stress and distress </li></ul>
Prevalence of drug abuse <ul><li>Australia  52 % of abusive parents were known to misuse substances. </li></ul><ul><li>USA...
Effect parents drug use on children <ul><li>Infants with foetal substance abuse high risk health problems </li></ul><ul><l...
KINSHIP CARE PROVIDERS’ NEEDS AND ALCOHOL AND DRUGS PROBLEMS OF THEIR CHILDREN
The Needs of Kinship Carers <ul><li>General needs </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Parental skills </li></ul>
General Needs of Kinship carers <ul><li>Kinship families have less resources, receive less training, services, and support...
Health of Kinship carers <ul><li>Grandmothers who  reported fewer resources, less social support, and poorer physical heal...
Parenting Skills <ul><li>older kin families are smaller, lower income, and include adoptive mothers with  less education. ...
NEEDS OF CHILDREN RAISED IN KINSHIP CARE
The need of children raised in Kinhsip Care. <ul><li>Maltreated Children </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Sch...
Maltreated Children <ul><li>especially advisable (Geen, 2004; Leos- </li></ul><ul><li>Urbel and Geen, 2002; Testa, 2001), ...
Behaviour <ul><li>importance of  children developmental stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>younger children living w Grandmother...
School/Academic functioning <ul><li>children in  out-of-home care are at risk for short and long term  school failure </li...
Meaning of family and care giving: children in foster care and kinship care <ul><li>studies rarely include  assessment of ...
Helping Custodial grandparents to raise healthy children
Needs of kisnhip carers <ul><li>initial stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul><...
Policies and their application: civil services and school . (Context) <ul><li>It’s difficult to find information on existi...
Policies and their application: civil services and school .  <ul><li>Emotional needs of grandchildren: </li></ul><ul><li>E...
Emotional needs of grand children <ul><li>Support groups & mental health resoureces </li></ul><ul><li>Drug & alcohol educa...
Emotional needs grand parents <ul><li>school psychologists should have  helpful information about the available resources ...
Legal issues <ul><li>care of their grandchildren  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>informally, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>formally, t...
Financial support issues: <ul><li>Information about financial assistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many  kinship care families...
Transitions and reorganisation <ul><li>Parenting classes </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage  to seek  help &resources beyond  the...
Successful strategies (1) <ul><li>Support groups </li></ul><ul><li>including the school system as one of the ways to impro...
Successful strategies (2) <ul><li>intergenerational school-based intervention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carers participate in ...
Successful strategies (3) <ul><li>New Technologies  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinship Support Network (KSN) </li></ul></ul><ul...
Key findings
Key findings (1)  <ul><li>   kinship placements.  </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage achievement permanency & improved well-bein...
Key findings (2) <ul><li>pre-adoption and post-adoption services </li></ul><ul><li>lack of legal rights practical difficul...
Key findings (3) <ul><li>KC  protective effect on the early behavioural outcomes for children entering out-of-home care. <...
Key Findings <ul><li>Children‘s services should separate a carer´s need for support (money and services) from a child´s ne...
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Transcript of "Literature"

  1. 1. Literature review Prof. Francisco Guillen Grima
  2. 2. Search Databases 1998-2010 <ul><li>MEDLINE, </li></ul><ul><li>Web of Science, </li></ul><ul><li>Current Contents </li></ul><ul><li>Connect </li></ul><ul><li>PsycINFO </li></ul><ul><li>Scholar google </li></ul>
  3. 3. Keywords <ul><li>“ family”, “foster home care”, “kinship”, “parenting”, </li></ul><ul><li>“ education”, “child”, “teen”, “adolescent”, “young”, “drug”, </li></ul><ul><li>“ alcohol”, “risk”, or “prevention” </li></ul>
  4. 4. Definitions <ul><li>Family members, other than parents, raising children full-time </li></ul><ul><li>Family members, other than parents, who are primary carers for extended periods. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Magnitud of the Problem <ul><li>USA 3,8% 2.8 millions </li></ul><ul><li>Australia 1% </li></ul><ul><li>UK 100 000 children </li></ul><ul><li>Spain 11 000 families </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>General Findings </li></ul><ul><li>Minority groups </li></ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Health Problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug related problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevalence of Drug abuse in Parents </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. General Findings <ul><li>Not eligible for the payments and </li></ul><ul><li>support services available </li></ul><ul><li>legal rights are often ambiguous and difficult to enforce </li></ul>
  8. 8. Minority groups <ul><li>grandparent care giving is particularly </li></ul><ul><li>high in inner cities, estimated 30%- 50% </li></ul>
  9. 9. Problems Kinship Carers <ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>social isolation </li></ul><ul><li>poverty </li></ul>
  10. 10. Health Problems <ul><li>Women caring for non-ill children 21h/week - 9h/wk have more risk of coronary heart disease (Lee, 2003) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Health Problems (2) <ul><li>Kinship carers appear to take less care of their own health. Grandmothers raising a grandchild are less likely to report influenza vaccination and cholesterol screening. (Baker 2008) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Drug Problems <ul><li>Parenting a grandchild & the parenthood of a drug abuser produces stress and distress </li></ul>
  13. 13. Prevalence of drug abuse <ul><li>Australia 52 % of abusive parents were known to misuse substances. </li></ul><ul><li>USA: 72 % Kinship carers due to maternal substance abuse [Patton, 2003] </li></ul>
  14. 14. Effect parents drug use on children <ul><li>Infants with foetal substance abuse high risk health problems </li></ul><ul><li>Mothers more punitive affecting kids self-esteem. </li></ul><ul><li>↑ risk of abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to hostile environments (drug dealing, prostitution, criminal activities) </li></ul>
  15. 15. KINSHIP CARE PROVIDERS’ NEEDS AND ALCOHOL AND DRUGS PROBLEMS OF THEIR CHILDREN
  16. 16. The Needs of Kinship Carers <ul><li>General needs </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Parental skills </li></ul>
  17. 17. General Needs of Kinship carers <ul><li>Kinship families have less resources, receive less training, services, and support. </li></ul><ul><li>kinship families are less qualified </li></ul>
  18. 18. Health of Kinship carers <ul><li>Grandmothers who reported fewer resources, less social support, and poorer physical health experience higher levels of psychological distress. (Kelley SJ, 2000). </li></ul><ul><li>relationship between burden (family conflict, behaviour management of children, and negative interactions social services) and emotional distress. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Parenting Skills <ul><li>older kin families are smaller, lower income, and include adoptive mothers with less education. </li></ul><ul><li>would benefit from preadoption & post-adoption services to assist them </li></ul><ul><li>grandmothers more difficulties when caring for boys & white </li></ul><ul><li>Kinship carers receive less supervision and fewer services than non-kin carers. </li></ul>
  20. 20. NEEDS OF CHILDREN RAISED IN KINSHIP CARE
  21. 21. The need of children raised in Kinhsip Care. <ul><li>Maltreated Children </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>School/Academic functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning family & care giving: Children in foster care and Kinship Care. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Maltreated Children <ul><li>especially advisable (Geen, 2004; Leos- </li></ul><ul><li>Urbel and Geen, 2002; Testa, 2001), </li></ul><ul><li>no advantage (Lawler, 2008) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Behaviour <ul><li>importance of children developmental stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>younger children living w Grandmothers comparable other children (Pittman and Boswell, 2005). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>young adolescents living w custodial grandmothers more problematic behaviours; </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. School/Academic functioning <ul><li>children in out-of-home care are at risk for short and long term school failure </li></ul><ul><li>children in kinship care greater difficulties school than children in general </li></ul>
  25. 25. Meaning of family and care giving: children in foster care and kinship care <ul><li>studies rarely include assessment of children’s feelings and thoughts regarding their foster placements (Berrick, Frasch and Fox, 2000). </li></ul><ul><li>If kinship carers & parents have good relations child is more socially integrated. </li></ul><ul><li>keeping children within their extended family reduces stigma and trauma of separation from parents. </li></ul><ul><li>Children were happy to be in care of their grandparents and y loved and trustedthem . </li></ul>
  26. 26. Helping Custodial grandparents to raise healthy children
  27. 27. Needs of kisnhip carers <ul><li>initial stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>clothing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ongoing needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>information regarding case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>progress and system procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>day care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>counselling for the child. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Policies and their application: civil services and school . (Context) <ul><li>It’s difficult to find information on existing programs </li></ul><ul><li>lack of legal rights </li></ul><ul><li>fear of the child welfare system </li></ul><ul><li>disparities between informal &formal kinship care policies </li></ul>
  29. 29. Policies and their application: civil services and school . <ul><li>Emotional needs of grandchildren: </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional needs of grandparents </li></ul><ul><li>Financial support issues </li></ul><ul><li>Legal issues </li></ul><ul><li>Transitions and reorganisation (Mayer, 2002 </li></ul>
  30. 30. Emotional needs of grand children <ul><li>Support groups & mental health resoureces </li></ul><ul><li>Drug & alcohol education </li></ul><ul><li>Intergenerational activities </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring programs </li></ul><ul><li>Training for social workers. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Emotional needs grand parents <ul><li>school psychologists should have helpful information about the available resources in the community </li></ul><ul><li>Information on before and after-school activities on (grand)parenting </li></ul><ul><li>extra time for grandparent/teacher conferences </li></ul><ul><li>services &support to enhance their parental role </li></ul>
  32. 32. Legal issues <ul><li>care of their grandchildren </li></ul><ul><ul><li>informally, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>formally, through legal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>custody, guardianship, adoption or by becoming a </li></ul><ul><li>foster parent. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Financial support issues: <ul><li>Information about financial assistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many kinship care families do not know that they are eligible for it. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information and advice in order to get additional money </li></ul>
  34. 34. Transitions and reorganisation <ul><li>Parenting classes </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage to seek help &resources beyond the family unit </li></ul><ul><li>Counselling first aid in stabilizing the family system early </li></ul>
  35. 35. Successful strategies (1) <ul><li>Support groups </li></ul><ul><li>including the school system as one of the ways to improve the kinship care families’ support </li></ul>
  36. 36. Successful strategies (2) <ul><li>intergenerational school-based intervention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carers participate in support groups and case management services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>children participate in tutoring, mentoring and counselling, advocacy and resources procurement </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Successful strategies (3) <ul><li>New Technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinship Support Network (KSN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD_ROM </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Key findings
  39. 39. Key findings (1) <ul><li> kinship placements. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage achievement permanency & improved well-being. </li></ul><ul><li>poorer & less educated. </li></ul><ul><li>receive less supervision & services </li></ul><ul><li>psychological distress </li></ul>
  40. 40. Key findings (2) <ul><li>pre-adoption and post-adoption services </li></ul><ul><li>lack of legal rights practical difficulties (eg. school, medical care). </li></ul><ul><li>children less mental problems. </li></ul><ul><li>KC advisable for maltreated children </li></ul>
  41. 41. Key findings (3) <ul><li>KC protective effect on the early behavioural outcomes for children entering out-of-home care. </li></ul><ul><li>reduces stigma & trauma of separation from parents. </li></ul><ul><li>more stable adolescents less mental problem. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Key Findings <ul><li>Children‘s services should separate a carer´s need for support (money and services) from a child´s need for supervision (casework oversight). </li></ul><ul><li>It`s difficult for Grandparents finding information on existing programs especially during a family crisis. </li></ul>
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