Cocaine

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Cocaine

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Cocaine

  1. 1. Cocaine Photographer: Dulue Mbachu/ISN Security Watch
  2. 2. Four Facts <ul><li>Only 3% of young people aged 11- 15 think it’s OK to try cocaine. </li></ul><ul><li>From age 14 to 15 years, the number of pupils using cocaine doubles in England and more than trebles in Scotland. </li></ul><ul><li>The most common age for first use is between 17 and 18 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>Cocaine dependence is more likely when first use is under 21 years. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Effects <ul><li>Cocaine is a powerful nervous system stimulant that increases alertness, feelings of well-being and euphoria. Anxiety, paranoia and restlessness are also frequent. </li></ul><ul><li>As the effects of the drug wear off the user feels tired, irritated and mildly depressed, which may lead to re-dosing to try and regain the previous effect. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Dependency <ul><li>The risk of becoming cocaine-dependent within 2 years of first use is 5-6% </li></ul><ul><li>Females are 3–4 times more likely to become cocaine dependent compared to males </li></ul><ul><li>There is higher risk of cocaine dependence if first use is under the age of 21 years. </li></ul>O'Brien MS, Anthony JC (2005), Risk of Becoming Cocaine Dependent: Epidemiological Estimates for the United States, 2000/2001 , Neuropsychopharmacology   30  (5): 1006–1018 Photograph from Flickr user daveblume
  5. 5. Legal Status <ul><li>Cocaine is a Class A drug. This means: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Possession: Up to seven years in prison or an unlimited fine or both. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dealing: Up to life in prison or an unlimited fine or both. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2.6 tonnes of cocaine were seized in England and Wales 09-10 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>57% of seizures were of quantities of less than one gram. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>685 people were convicted of possession of cocaine in Scotland 08-10 </li></ul></ul>Cocaine smuggled in yams Photograph from Flickr user ukhomeoffice
  6. 6. Number of Cocaine Seizures in England and Wales Seizures of Drugs in England and Wales, 2009/10 Home Office (2010)
  7. 7. Young Adults use of Cocaine <ul><li>The most common age for first use is between 17 and 18 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>4.4% 16 to 24 year olds in England and Wales, and 6.6% in Scotland, said they took cocaine in the last year. </li></ul>Photograph by Flickr user lgwright
  8. 8. Prevalence of cocaine use in the last year by young adults (16 – 24 years) in England and Wales Drug Misuse Declared: Findings from the 2009/10 British Crime Survey, Home Office (2010)
  9. 9. Young People and Cocaine <ul><li>0.9% of 11 to 15 years in England have used cocaine in the last year (c. 27,000 people). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4% of 15 year olds in Scotland, and 2.1% in England, said they’d used cocaine in the last 12 months. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More than a quarter (27%) of 15 year olds think it would be easy to get hold of cocaine. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>13% of English and Scottish 15 years olds say they’ve been offered cocaine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8% and 4% respectively say they have been offered crack. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only 2 % of young people aged 11 to 15 years think it’ OK to try cocaine to see what it is like. </li></ul><ul><li>2% of under 18s who access treatment for substance use problems do so primarily for cocaine dependency. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Proportion of pupils in England who have taken cocaine and crack in the last year, by age Smoking, drinking and drug use among young people in England in 2010 NHS Information Centre for Health and Social Care (2011)
  11. 11. Proportion of pupils in Scotland who have taken cocaine and crack in the last year, by age Scottish School Adolescent Lifestyle and Substance Use Survey Scottish Government (2009)
  12. 12. Bibliography <ul><li>World Health Organization (2004).  Neuroscience of psychoactive substance use and dependence </li></ul><ul><li>O'Brien MS, Anthony JC (2005). Risk of Becoming Cocaine Dependent: Epidemiological Estimates for the United States, 2000/2001 , Neuropsychopharmacology 30 (5): 1006–1018 </li></ul><ul><li>Home Office (2010). Seizures of Drugs in England and Wales, 2009/10 </li></ul><ul><li>Scottish Parliament, Written Answers 2 December 2010 http://bit.ly/gbMLQg </li></ul><ul><li>Home Office (2010). Drug Misuse Declared: Findings from the 2009/10 British Crime Survey </li></ul><ul><li>NHS Information Centre for Health and Social Care (2010). Smoking, drinking and drug use among young people in England in 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Scottish Government (2009). Scottish School Adolescent Lifestyle and Substance Use Survey </li></ul>Photograph from Flickr user .CRIGA

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