The Effect Of Poverty On Children’S Development


Published on

Tracing the roots of violence can begin with poverty and the grasping of material items.

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Whites 34% Latinos 32% Blacks 29% Asians 3% N. Amer. 2%
  • Concentrated neighborhood poverty- few resources for child development, parks or playgrounds.
  • 15 year Nationally representative study of poverty patterns on selected group of 4 year olds
  • Ecological- interrelationship of organisms with their environments
  • Ecological- pattern of relations between organisms and their environment
  • Neurobehavioral is the action of the nervous system and behavior Aphasia, alexia and learning disabilities result
  • Neonatal- first month of life LBW is the primary cause of death for black infants Disparity between Cuban and Puerto Rican populations is SES The disproportionate for black infants was studied in 2007 in NYC hospitals for VLBW babies. 11% white 21% black was adjusted for risk (prenatal care, mother’s health) and found that the difference in mortality rates was found in the hospitals themselves. 9 to 27 deaths per 1,000.
  • Neurological abnormalities- sensory integration and motor confusion results Acuity- Sharpness in vision Iron deficiency and stunting are indications of malnourishment
  • Moderate- lessen the intensity Age- under 18 or over 40 Prenatal- iron intake should be double when pregnant if not less oxygen to the baby effect brain development and often preterm labor Problems with pregnancy- gestational diabetes, infections, preeclampsia and placenta abruption
  • Mediating –to effect by action Lifestyle- smoking or drugs
  • Inadequate access- only 56% of poor children with Medicaid received routine care
  • Ear infections may explain the higher incidence of hearing loss among poor children
  • Intellectually stimulating facilities- toys, books, adequate daycare, preschool education
  • Measures the stimulation potential of a child’s environment. Developed as a substitute for reliance on social class or SES as indices of the adequacy of the home environment. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth- 5 biannual assessments Those not in poverty were more likely to have a safe home environment Parents below poverty line were more likely to spank their children
  • Acceptance of child by the parent & disciplining measures Non poor children were far more likely than poor children to have 3 or more children’s books Non poor mothers were more likely to speak to their children twice or more Also respond to their children verbally during the visit Non poor mothers were twice as likely to read to their children 3 or more times a week
  • African Americans, Mexican American and Whites. This measure was used in several international studies of poverty and cognitive development.
  • Food security exists when all people, at all times, have access to sufficient , safe nutritious food.
  • Concentrated neighborhood poverty- less provision of learning experiences and role models
  • Health- lead levels, LBW & ear infections Nutrition- attentiveness, physical & cognitive development Home- organized, free of hazards, stress levels, substance abuse Parents- verbal interactions between parents and children, expectations of achievement, discipline strategies Parental Mental health- impaired parental-child interactions and less provision of learning experience Neighborhood- social disorganization and few resources for child development
  • The Effect Of Poverty On Children’S Development

    1. 1. The effect of Poverty on Children’s Development Karen Kneisley Lifespan Development
    2. 2. Characteristics of Children in Poverty <ul><li>13 million American children (17%) live in families with incomes below the federal poverty level </li></ul><ul><li>1.2 million more children are living in poverty today than in 2000, an 11 percent increase </li></ul><ul><li>20% of all children under the age of six live in poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme poverty among younger children is increasing faster than the overall rate of poverty </li></ul>
    3. 3. Characteristics of Children in Poverty <ul><li>Race and Ethnicity </li></ul>
    4. 4. Characteristics of Children in Poverty
    5. 5. Poverty Threshold <ul><li>Flawed metric of economic hardship from the 1960’s </li></ul><ul><li> Data indicated that 1/3 of income was spent on food </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty level was set at 3 times food costs </li></ul><ul><li>Food cost was determined by a minimally adequate diet developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture </li></ul>
    6. 6. Poverty Threshold <ul><li>Food now comprises less than 1/3 of income </li></ul><ul><li>Costs of housing, childcare, healthcare, and transportation have risen disproportionately </li></ul><ul><li>Formula does not adjust for variation of cost of living from state to state or urban to rural </li></ul><ul><li>Today, the federal poverty for a family of four is $20,650 </li></ul>
    7. 7. Varying Experiences of Poverty <ul><li>Some are poor for the duration of childhood with little upward mobility </li></ul><ul><li>5% of all children experience poverty for two thirds of their childhood </li></ul><ul><li>An additional 7% were poor between 5 and 9 years </li></ul><ul><li>These children suffer concentrated neighborhood poverty as well as family hardship </li></ul>
    8. 8. Varying Experiences of Poverty <ul><li>Many more children come into sporadic contact with poverty </li></ul><ul><li>1/3 of all children experience poverty for at least one year </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary spells of economic deprivation due to divorce or unemployment </li></ul>
    9. 9. Varying Experiences of Poverty <ul><li>Black children have a much higher risk of being poor over the long term than whites </li></ul><ul><li>Average black child in the study spent 5.5 years in poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Average non-black child spent 0.9 years in poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer than 1 in 7 black children lived above the poverty line for the entire period </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the children (90%) who were poor for at least 10 of the 15 years were black </li></ul>
    10. 10. The Cumulative and Ecological Effects of Poverty <ul><li>The earlier poverty strikes in the developmental process, the more deleterious and long- lasting its effects </li></ul><ul><li>Initial developmental problems that are caused by child poverty can be exacerbated by subsequent poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty also effects the multiple ecologies of a child’s life </li></ul>
    11. 11. The Cumulative and Ecological Effects of Poverty <ul><li>The micro context of interactions between parents and other adults </li></ul><ul><li>The micro context of interactions between parents and children </li></ul><ul><li>The macro context of the neighborhood and the availability of basic educational and health services for children </li></ul><ul><li>The macro context of neighborhood and job opportunities for adults </li></ul><ul><li>The macro context of formal and informal social networks to which adults have access </li></ul>
    12. 12. Birth Outcomes <ul><li>Babies in poverty are more likely to experience- </li></ul><ul><li>Growth retardation in utero </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate neurobehavioral development </li></ul><ul><li>Premature birth </li></ul><ul><li>Low birth weight </li></ul><ul><li>Asphyxia </li></ul><ul><li>Birth defects </li></ul><ul><li>Fetal alcohol syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>disability </li></ul>
    13. 13. Infant Mortality <ul><li>Death rates for the neonatal period are largely dependent on birth weight </li></ul><ul><li>Mortality among black infants is 13.6 per 1,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Native American 8.46 </li></ul><ul><li>Whites 5.66 </li></ul><ul><li>Asian/Pacific Islander 4.67 </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanic 5.75 </li></ul><ul><li>Variation among Hispanic population- Puerto Rican (7.82), Mexicans (5.47), Central/South American ( 4.56) and Cuban ( 4.5) </li></ul>
    14. 14. Low Birth Weight <ul><li>Poverty increases the incidence of LBW for whites </li></ul><ul><li>LBW for Hispanics is only associated with poverty for Puerto Ricans or an U.S. born member of another subgroup </li></ul><ul><li>Blacks have a higher risk of LBW at all socioeconomic levels </li></ul>
    15. 15. Birth Weight and the Effects of Poverty <ul><li>Minor neurological abnormalities </li></ul><ul><li>Subnormal head circumference ( catch-up at 7 to 8 months) </li></ul><ul><li>Impaired development of language comprehension skills </li></ul><ul><li>Deficient visual recognition acuity </li></ul><ul><li>Iron deficiencies and reduced stature </li></ul><ul><li>At age 3 only 12% functioned at the normal cognitive level </li></ul>
    16. 16. Moderating Factors <ul><li>Maternal education </li></ul><ul><li>Maternal age </li></ul><ul><li>Prenatal care </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy experience </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitalization </li></ul>
    17. 17. Mediating Factors <ul><li>Maternal substance abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Poor nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyles that increase chance for infection </li></ul><ul><li>Neighborhoods that contain hazards affecting fetal development </li></ul>
    18. 18. Child Health <ul><li>2 to 3 times more likely to suffer complications from appendicitis and bacterial meningitis </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of acute illness is higher </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibit higher morbidity rates as a result of- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower odds of intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased risk of accidents and illness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lack of intervention stems from- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of medical coverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medicaid coverage with inadequate access </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Child Health <ul><li>Higher rates of hospitalization for illness or injury </li></ul><ul><li>Increased incidence of middle ear infections </li></ul><ul><li>( both are indications of inadequate primary care) </li></ul><ul><li>Higher blood lead levels </li></ul><ul><li>Lead exposure is linked to- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stunted growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearing loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin D metabolism damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impaired blood production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxic effects on kidneys </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Cognitive Development <ul><li>Among SES measures, family income is a more powerful correlate for IQ at age 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Long term poor score significantly lower on tests of cognitive achievement </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 times more likely to have developmental delays or learning disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>As the number of years spent in poverty increases, so do the cognitive deficiencies experienced </li></ul><ul><li>Economic limitations cause parents difficulty in providing intellectually stimulating facilities </li></ul>
    21. 21. Cognitive Development <ul><li>HOME Scale- Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Infant- Toddler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization of the physical environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate play materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunities for variety in daily experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parental involvement with the child </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional and verbal responsivity of primary caregiver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidance of restriction and punishment </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Cognitive Development <ul><li>Preschool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language stimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parental responsivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic stimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptance </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Cognitive Development <ul><li>Intelligence and cognitive development are influenced by environmental variables </li></ul><ul><li>HOME scores had strong correlations with mental development that were proportional across race </li></ul><ul><li>Vygotsky- practical activity when linked with speech provides opportunities for healthy socialization of children’s cognitive development </li></ul>
    24. 24. Cognitive Development <ul><li>The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture estimates 11% of households experienced food insecurity during 2005 </li></ul><ul><li> Food insecurity has been associated with poor academic performance and less adaptive psychosocial functioning among three to eight years old </li></ul><ul><li>Low nutritional intake results in low motivation attentiveness and emotional expression, negatively affecting critical developmental processes </li></ul><ul><li> Under nutrition can permanently retard brain development and cognitive functioning </li></ul>
    25. 25. Socio-emotional Development <ul><li>Owing to the chronic stress of poverty parents- </li></ul><ul><li>Are more likely to display punitive behaviors such as shouting, yelling and slapping </li></ul><ul><li>Less likely to display love and warmth through cuddling and hugging </li></ul><ul><li> long-term harsh treatment results in insecure emotional attachment and subsequent behavior problems </li></ul>
    26. 26. Socio-emotional Development <ul><li>Behavioral problems associated with insecure emotional attachment are- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor goal orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low levels of self-confidence and self-competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater tendency towards inconsistent conduct and behavior </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Social-Emotional Development <ul><li>Preschoolers living in a low income neighborhood predicted higher levels of externalizing problems at age 5 (temper tantrums and destruction of objects) </li></ul><ul><li>Parents’ reports, teachers’ reports and self reports reveal a higher prevalence for emotional and behavioral problems among poor and low SES children and adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>Externalizing behaviors ( disobedience, fighting impulsivity, getting along with others) are more pronounced than internalizing behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Low SES is a risk factor for chronic delinquency and early onset antisocial behavior </li></ul>
    28. 28. Academic Achievement <ul><li>Teacher attitudes and expectations- </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers tend to perceive low SES students less positively in academic and self-regulation skills </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers provide poor children with less positive attention and less reinforcement for good performance </li></ul><ul><li>Pay less attention to poor children and may ignore developmental and behavioral problems that need addressing </li></ul>
    29. 29. Academic Achievement <ul><li>40% of American children are not prepared for primary schooling </li></ul><ul><li>More than one third of children from low income communities enter kindergarten behind their peers and by fourth grade, more than 50% will not meet the standard for reading proficiency </li></ul>
    30. 30. Academic Achievement <ul><li>Poor and low SES children perform significantly below their non-poor peers on numerous indicators of academic achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement test scores </li></ul><ul><li>Grade retentions </li></ul><ul><li>Course failures </li></ul><ul><li>Placement in special education </li></ul><ul><li>High school graduation rate </li></ul><ul><li>High school drop out rate </li></ul><ul><li>Completed years of schooling </li></ul>
    31. 31. Pathways of Influence <ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Home environment </li></ul><ul><li>Parental interactions with children </li></ul><ul><li>Parental mental health </li></ul><ul><li>Neighborhood conditions </li></ul>
    32. 32. References <ul><li>Aber, J.L., Bennett, N.G., Conley, D.C. & Li, J. (1997) The effects of poverty on child health and development. Annual Review of Public Health. 18: 463-83 </li></ul><ul><li>Achenbach, T., Verhulst, F., Edelbrock, C., Baron, G.D., Akkerhuis, G. (1987) Epidemiological comparisons of American and Dutch children: Behavioral/emotional problems reported by teachers for ages 6 to 11. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 26, 326-332. </li></ul><ul><li>Brooks-Gunn, J. & Duncan, G. (1997) The effects of poverty on children: The future of children. Children and Poverty, Vol. 7, No. 2 pp. 55- </li></ul><ul><li>Caldwell, & Bradley (1984) Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory. Friends National Resource Center for Community Based Child Abuse Prevention Retrieved Oct. 2, 2008) from </li></ul><ul><li>Center for Hunger and Poverty ( 1998) Statement on the link between nutrition and cognitive development in children . Brandeis University. Retrieved on Sept. 25, 2008 from </li></ul><ul><li>Child Trends Data Bank, Retrieved Sept 25, 2008 from </li></ul><ul><li>Conger, R.D., Conger, K.J. & Elder, G. (1997) Family economic hardship and adolescent academic performance: Mediating and moderating processes. In G. Duncan & J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.) Consequences of growing up poor (pp.288-310). New York: Russell Sage Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Conger, R.D., Ge, X., Elder, G.H., Lorenz, F.O., Simons, R.L. (1994) Economic stress, coercive family process, and the developmental problems of adolescents. Child Development, 65: 541-61 </li></ul><ul><li>Di Pietro, J.A., Costigan, K.A., Hilton, S.C., Pressman, E.K. (1999) Effects of socioeconomic status and psychosocial stress on the development of the fetus. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences- Blackwell Synergy </li></ul><ul><li>Duncan, G.J., Rodgers, W. (1988) Has children’s poverty become more persistent? American Sociological Review, 56: 538-50 </li></ul><ul><li>Duncan, G.J., Aber, J.L., (1996) Neighborhood conditions and structure. In G.J. Duncan, J. Brooks-Gunn & J.L. Aber (Eds.) Neighborhood Poverty: Context and Consequences for Child and Adolescent Development. New York: Russell Sage Foundation </li></ul>
    33. 33. References <ul><li>Elder, G.H., Van Nguyen, T., Caspi, A. (1995) Linking family hardship to children’s lives. Child Development 56: 361-375 </li></ul><ul><li>Fass, S. & Cuthen, N. (2007) Who are America’s poor children? National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved Sept. 26, 2008 from </li></ul><ul><li>Michaelis, R., Asenbauer, C., Buchenwald-Senal, M., Hass, G. & Krageboh-Mann, I. (1993) Transitory neurological findings in a population of at risk infants. Early Human Development 34: 143-53 </li></ul><ul><li>Olsen, C.M. (1999) Nutrition and health outcomes associated with food insecurity and hunger. Juvenile Nutrition, 129 ( 2S Suppl) 521S-4S </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Department Health and Human Services (2000) Healthy People 2010. Washington, DC: US GPO </li></ul><ul><li>Zill, N., Moore, K., Smith, K., Steif, T. & Coiro, M.J. ( 1991) The Life Circumstance s and Development of Children in Welfare Families: A Profile Based on National Survey Data. Washington, DC: Child Trends </li></ul>