Chapter 8 : DRAMA


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Chapter 8 : DRAMA

  1. 1. Chapter 8 THE DRAMA
  2. 2. <ul><li>Drama comes from Greek words meaning &quot;to do&quot; or &quot;to act.“ </li></ul><ul><li>Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Oxford Dictionary, drama is a composition in prose or in verse; adapted to be acted and is represented with accompanying gesture, costume, and scenery, as in real life. </li></ul><ul><li>It is essentially social and involves contact, communication and the negotiation of meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Drama needs an individual or a group of people who use themselves – their bodies and their minds – through action and offers through speech to tell a story. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a social encounter in a special place and in a special time. The actors and the spectators move between real time and imaginary time, from existential reality to dramatic reality. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>A world-wide show (A Dramatic Entertainment) , Miss Saigon , which was produced by Cameron Mackintosh of England whose company received a Queen’s award for Export Achievement was staged in the Cultural Center of the Philippines in March 2001 . </li></ul><ul><li>As to casting, the producers unanimously felt that they needed Asian voices that could sing Western music. And this world-wide search took them to 10 countries including the Philippines where they found the majority of their original London cast. </li></ul><ul><li>It is here that Miss Lea Salonga of the Philippines became the first star of the show. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Ancient Drama : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Among the Egyptians of about 2000 B.C.E., drama existed in religious ceremonies for the worship of Osiris. There are some evidences of drama in the Book of Job and in the song of Solomon, where occasionally there appear to be parts for two speakers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But the drama, as known today, in distinct forms of tragedy and comedy is originated in Greece, in the festivals of Dionysus in the fifth and sixth centuries B.C.E., where poetry, a Dithyrambic ode with song and dance, was presented by a leader and a chorus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the dramatic contest under Pisistratus, the Dithyramb developed into drama. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Medieval Drama : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There was three kinds of development in the Medieval play, there are the following : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mystery Play </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Was based on the Holy Scripture. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In France, it is to be distinguished from the miracle play, which dealt with the life of a saint or a miracle of the Virgin. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But in England, both of these forms were termed miracles. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Morality Play </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The chief characters represented abstract qualities, such as vice, humanity, or death, and the tone was generally philosophical. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The moralities contained humor. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secular Drama </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dealing with everyday character such as lawyers, the merchant, the student, the young wife, and the old foolish husband. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>Renaissance Drama : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With the rediscovery of classical literature during this period, the Greek and Roman dramatists were imitated first in Italy and later, with the spread of humanism, in France, Germany, and England. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By the advent of the Renaissance in the 15 th and 16 th cent., most European countries had established native traditions of religious drama and farce that contended with the impact of the newly discovered Greek and Roman plays. Little had been known of classical drama during the Middle Ages, and evidently the only classical imitations during that period were the Christian imitations of Terence by the Saxon nun Hrotswitha in the 10 th cent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The commedia dell’ arte’ was original and lifelike. It was an unwritten impromptu drama, produced on platforms on the streets by strolling players. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The most brilliant 16 th century drama was from the English, chiefly because, in the reign of Elizabeth I, drama was the source of entertainment for all classes of people. All of the medieval and renaissance drama were produced. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 10. <ul><li>Drama of the 17 th , 18 th and 19 th Centuries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In England, in the middle of the 18 th century, the theater was briefly revived by the comedy of manners. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French drama emerged in the 17 th century, from its medieval and religious influences, with the classical tragedies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>German drama came to maturity much more slowly than did the Roman and English dramas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The popular 18 th century drama in France was the farcical comedy; in England, the comedy of manners and the domestic drama. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the 19 th century, romantic drama flourished throughout Europe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Idealized historical or sentimental characters figured in complex plots of adventure and triumphant love. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Various types of romantic drama, melodrama, the historical play, and the fantasy play flourished in Italy and in Russia. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 12. <ul><li>Modern Drama : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Credit should be given to Ibsen, a Norwegian dramatist, for the development of the modern drama. Ibsen’s influence on modern drama was immense. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There was a brief revival of romantic fantasy in France; symbolism was carried to great extremes; expressionism appeared in Germany after World War I; comedy was rejuvenated in England and the United States. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French impressionism made small showing in the theater; poetic drama reached new heights in England, Ireland, France, Spain, and United States. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 14. <ul><li>Dramas from Asian countries, like the Japanese, the Chinese, and the Filipino drama. </li></ul><ul><li>It will help us appreciate Asian heritage, culture, and civilization more. This is a culture or civilization not far from those established by Rome, Greece, or other countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Like Western drama, the drama of Asia originated as an elaboration of liturgical practices. </li></ul><ul><li>It is based on the concept of sangita9or sammita0, the threefold art of music, dance, and poetry, fused into single artistic entity. </li></ul><ul><li>The emphasis is on performance rather than on the intellectual significance of the subject matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Asian actors long ago rejected realistic presentation in favor of abstraction and symbolism. </li></ul>
  10. 16. <ul><li>Early forms of the Philippine Drama : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duplo – was a poetical debate held by trained men and women in the ninth night, the last night of the mourning period for the dead. The male participants, bellacos , are the heads of the game. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Karagatan – was also a poetical debate like duplo, but its participants were amateurs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both held in the homes and the theme was all about a ring that fell into the sea. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 17. <ul><li>Three Plays and Two Street Dramas that became popular during Spanish era : </li></ul><ul><li>Cenakulo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a very heavy drama shown in relation to the life sacrifices and death f Jesus Christ. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is like a passion play presented and celebrated during the month of March or April, depending upon the exact date of the Holy Week. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are two kinds of presenting Cenakulo : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ablada – oral </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kantada - song </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 19. <ul><li>Moro-Moro </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a cloak-and-dagger play depicting the wars between the Christians and the Muslims, with the Christians always on the winning side. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The first Moro-Moro was written by Fr. Jeronimo Perez and was staged in manila in 1637, to commemorate Governor General Consueras’ victory over the Muslims of Mindanao. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since then, it has become the favorite play of the people, especially during the town festivals. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 21. <ul><li>Zarzuela </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a melodrama with songs and dances that have a three-in-one-act play. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is intended to make the mass feeling towards love, fear, grief, sorrow or any emotional reactions sublime. It sometimes shows the political and social conditions of our country. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a musical comedy. Rizal wrote a zarzuela entitled Junto Al Pasig (Beside the Pasig). It was staged at the Ateneo de Manila on December 8, 1880 on the occasion of the celebration of the Feast Day of the Immaculate Conception, patron saint of the college. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 23. <ul><li>Moriones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Morion festivals is a Lenten ritual that is as clorful as it is unique. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is celebrated every Holy Week in Marinduque, an island at the southern end of Luzon, particularly in the towns of Boac, Gasan, and Mogpog. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morion means mask or visor which is the top part of the medieval Roman armor covering the face. It is this mask carved from dapdap wood that is the focal point of the Moriones celebration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The climax of the festival is the pugutan ceremony held at noon of Easter Sunday. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 25. <ul><li>Ati-Atihan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a pagan ritual which has become an annual affair that the natives look forward to with graet expectation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is the most extravagant fiesta in the Philippines celebrated in Kalibo, Aklan, every third Sunday of January in honor of the Infant Jesus. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 27. <ul><li>The Modern Philippine Drama/stage play was rejuvenated upon the establishment of the Repertory Philippines on June of 1967 which was founded by Zeneida “Bibot” Amador and Baby Barredo. </li></ul><ul><li>In its years of existence, Repertory Philippines has become the country’s leading theater company, keeping abreast of new materials and demanding outstanding performances from its extraordinary talents. </li></ul>
  17. 29. <ul><li>Noh Plays </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The oldest Japanese drama. Developed in the 1300s, it reached its present form in the 1600s. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are poetic treatments of history, legends, love and war stories, influenced by Buddhism and Shintoism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter than Western plays and undramatic. Preformed by masked actors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 types: the dramatic and dream Noh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dream Noh is rich in symbolic and poetic beauty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Although roughly 1000 plays were written, only about 250 plays are used today. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hagoromo is one of the most performed Noh plays </li></ul></ul>
  18. 30. <ul><li>Joruri Plays </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A puppet drama. The puppets are extremely complex. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The puppeteers are often visible on stage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded 1864 in Osaka. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The puppets height range from 2 ½ to 4 feet tall. The mouth, tongue, eyelids, etc. can be manipulated and some can even transform into a demon's face </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The most popular subject for these plays was the lovers' double suicide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kabuki Drama </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most popular form of traditional Japanese Drama </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Originated at the end of the 16 th century, it is much more extravagant than the Noh plays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on the visual aspects of theater, heavy makeup, exaggerated acting, and special effects. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 31. <ul><li>Vun Pan Shi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The oldest form, focuses on patriotism and filial devotion. Music and action are meant to play on the audience's emotion. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sin Pan Shi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This play presents civil and military condidtions. It differs from the Vun Pan Shi in the manner of singing certain roles and in the acting. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vun Min Shi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Modern Play. Colloquial dialects are allowed instead of Mandarin. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 32. <ul><li>The cinema or motion picture is one of the most popular form of art and entertainment in the Philippines. </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of people go to the movies and many more watch movies on the television every week. </li></ul><ul><li>TV networks use picture techniques to film many of the programs that appear on the television each week. </li></ul><ul><li>Philippine motion picture is also source of information as well as of entertainment. It can introduce us to new ideas and help us explore serious social issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Students, industries and our government uses it for educational, to advertise their products and to inform and influence the Filipino and people from other countries. </li></ul><ul><li>It is an art form that has been called “a wild combination of art, culture, commerce, and technology.” </li></ul><ul><li>The film extensively makes use of sound and light. It has its intellectual, imaginative, and technical aspects. </li></ul>
  21. 33. <ul><li>1926 – Hollywood silent movies are shown in the Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>1927 – The Silos brothers make “The Three Tramps” a short comedy </li></ul><ul><li>1929 – Collegian Love is written and directed by Carlos Vander Tolosa </li></ul><ul><li>Petronilo Tolentino bought the negatives and prints of four movies from Jose Nepomuceno. </li></ul><ul><li>Asuncion Leyba bought two movies from Nepomuceno </li></ul><ul><li>Nepomuceno's competitor, Rafael Fernandez, formed Banahaw Pictures With attractive salaries, he took man of Nepomuceno's best actors and actresses. Banahaw Pictures was the last to produce silent films. </li></ul><ul><li>George Musser produced the first Tagalog talking picture for Manila Talkatone. It was Ang Aswang and was exhibited at the Lyric Theater in Manila in 1932 </li></ul><ul><li>1933 – Nepomuceno started to make Tagalog talkies with Americans. </li></ul>
  22. 34. <ul><li>The war temporarily crippled the movie industry. The Japanese imposed censorship and introduced propaganda. </li></ul><ul><li>Many famous actors and actresses went to the stage. </li></ul><ul><li>Local movies have been gradually improving. </li></ul><ul><li>The slow pace for Philippine movie development is caused by factors like: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited market for local movies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of funding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate equipment and facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But Philippine movies can compare with other Asian productions in terms of quality. </li></ul>
  23. 35. <ul><li>MUSIC AND MUSICAL DIRECTOR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During the era of silent movies, every cinema house employed musicians who played music that suited the tempo and varying moods of the scenes as they were projected on the screen while others used phonograph records for economy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The musician required to see the pictures and make musical arrangements that suited the tempo and moods on different scenes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The musical director, in charge of the music, composed new songs and wrote their orchestration, repaired background music, created music scores, and supervised all recording and re-recording. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MAKE-UP, COIFFEUR, AND COSTUMES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make-up consist of the sticky substances, which are applied on the face of the actors before facing the camera. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The hair of the actress should suit the part she place in the picture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before, the actors were required to furnish their own attire. However, if they did not have a particular attire or suit which the script required, the producer supplied them at his own expense. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 36. <ul><li>ACTING AND THE STARS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acting is the art of portraying or impersonating a character. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A performer should forget his own personality and live the life of the character his portraying. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costumes, hair, make-up, body movement, mannerisms, and way of speaking, expression of the eyes and other parts of the face, the gesture of the hand are the factors that help the performers in perfecting the role he is portraying. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>COLOR IN THE MOVIES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Color is the latest innovation in cinematography. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color in local movies was attempted in 1941 by LVN Pictures Inc. in Ibong Adarna. LVN Pictures Inc was the first to introduce color in local movies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today, LVN color film laboratory is considered the best in the Far East. Color films and their processing cost twice as much as the black and white film. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At present, all the local pictures are already in color. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 37. <ul><li>SET AND ART DIRECTORS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beautiful setting gives beauty to the pictures and pleases the eye. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Art directors should know the natural setting and build artificial sets. They should get the inspiration from liberal producers and disappoint the stingy ones. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SOUND, CAMERAS, AND TECHNICIANS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technicians exert efforts in making the dialogue clear and music of fine quality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recording is the process where an orchestra playing the music or song is being recorded in the sound track by the recording apparatus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Playback is the method employed when an actress or actor borrows the voice of another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Camera man is responsible for exact framing and also decides the use of masking, the choice of lens, the camera angle and the control of camera movements. </li></ul></ul>