Smoke Like an American
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The emergence of the United States in public discourse in the Netherlands, 1890-1990. In this presentation I present the methdology of my research as well as the case study of the my first chapter: ...

The emergence of the United States in public discourse in the Netherlands, 1890-1990. In this presentation I present the methdology of my research as well as the case study of the my first chapter: the cigarette.

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Smoke Like an American Smoke Like an American Presentation Transcript

  • Smoke like an American The emergence of the United States in public discourse in the Netherlands, 1890-1990 MELVIN WEVERS / M.J.H.F.WEVERS@UU.NL UTRECHT UNIVERSITY, THE NETHERLANDS Monday, September 9, 13
  • Reference Culture(s) Monday, September 9, 13
  • Reference Culture(s) Mental constructs or ‘cognitive maps’ by the receiving cultures in asymmetrical cultural exchanges Monday, September 9, 13 View slide
  • Reference Culture(s) Mental constructs or ‘cognitive maps’ by the receiving cultures in asymmetrical cultural exchanges Historical examples: Byzantium, Roman Empire, Dutch Republic, 19th Century England, 20th Century US, China? Monday, September 9, 13 View slide
  • Reference Culture(s) Mental constructs or ‘cognitive maps’ by the receiving cultures in asymmetrical cultural exchanges Historical examples: Byzantium, Roman Empire, Dutch Republic, 19th Century England, 20th Century US, China? Addition to theories of empire, nation, cultural creolization Monday, September 9, 13
  • Reference Culture(s) Mental constructs or ‘cognitive maps’ by the receiving cultures in asymmetrical cultural exchanges Historical examples: Byzantium, Roman Empire, Dutch Republic, 19th Century England, 20th Century US, China? Addition to theories of empire, nation, cultural creolization Transnational, extra-temporal (historical, futuristic), extra- territorial Monday, September 9, 13
  • Reference Culture(s) Mental constructs or ‘cognitive maps’ by the receiving cultures in asymmetrical cultural exchanges Historical examples: Byzantium, Roman Empire, Dutch Republic, 19th Century England, 20th Century US, China? Addition to theories of empire, nation, cultural creolization Transnational, extra-temporal (historical, futuristic), extra- territorial How were ideas, products and practices associated with the United States valued in Dutch public discourse between 1890 and 1990? Monday, September 9, 13
  • Monday, September 9, 13
  • Public Discourse(s) Monday, September 9, 13
  • Public Discourse(s) Reference cultures emerge in collective discussions Monday, September 9, 13
  • Public Discourse(s) Reference cultures emerge in collective discussions Digitized collection of the National Library of the Netherlands Monday, September 9, 13
  • Public Discourse(s) Reference cultures emerge in collective discussions Digitized collection of the National Library of the Netherlands Magazines (De Groene, Elsevier, Commercials) Monday, September 9, 13
  • Public Discourse(s) Reference cultures emerge in collective discussions Digitized collection of the National Library of the Netherlands Magazines (De Groene, Elsevier, Commercials) How does public discourse(s) reflect and influence the emergence and impact of reference cultures? Monday, September 9, 13
  • Digital Humanities Monday, September 9, 13
  • Digital Humanities Digital technologies (i.e. Cultural Text Mining -> Digging for meaning) Monday, September 9, 13
  • Digital Humanities Digital technologies (i.e. Cultural Text Mining -> Digging for meaning) Named Entity Recognition (NER), Sentiment Analysis, Word Cloud Monday, September 9, 13
  • Digital Humanities Digital technologies (i.e. Cultural Text Mining -> Digging for meaning) Named Entity Recognition (NER), Sentiment Analysis, Word Cloud How can digital technologies be used to map historical trends and changes in relation to the economic power, cultural acceptance, and scientific and technological impact of the United States as a reference culture? Monday, September 9, 13
  • Consuming America Monday, September 9, 13
  • Consuming America The United States as ‘Market Empire’ (De Grazia, 2005) Monday, September 9, 13
  • Consuming America The United States as ‘Market Empire’ (De Grazia, 2005) Dutch consumer society shaped by America Monday, September 9, 13
  • Consuming America The United States as ‘Market Empire’ (De Grazia, 2005) Dutch consumer society shaped by America Consumerism as Americanization?? Monday, September 9, 13
  • Consuming America The United States as ‘Market Empire’ (De Grazia, 2005) Dutch consumer society shaped by America Consumerism as Americanization?? “...it is the local context of consumption which ... finishes up commodities and their meaning (Sassatelli, 2007: 115) Monday, September 9, 13
  • Consuming America The United States as ‘Market Empire’ (De Grazia, 2005) Dutch consumer society shaped by America Consumerism as Americanization?? “...it is the local context of consumption which ... finishes up commodities and their meaning (Sassatelli, 2007: 115) The understand of self in society through goods Monday, September 9, 13
  • Case Study: Cigarettes Monday, September 9, 13
  • Case Study: Cigarettes Cultural icon of American entrepreneurialism. (“the product that defined America”) Monday, September 9, 13
  • Case Study: Cigarettes Cultural icon of American entrepreneurialism. (“the product that defined America”) Advertisements as contextual point-of-departure in which “the product is symbolically charged and inserted in wider lifestyles” (Sassatelli, 2007: 126) Monday, September 9, 13
  • Case Study: Cigarettes Cultural icon of American entrepreneurialism. (“the product that defined America”) Advertisements as contextual point-of-departure in which “the product is symbolically charged and inserted in wider lifestyles” (Sassatelli, 2007: 126) How is America perceived as part of the brand identity of cigarettes sold in the Netherlands? Monday, September 9, 13
  • Case Study: Cigarettes Cultural icon of American entrepreneurialism. (“the product that defined America”) Advertisements as contextual point-of-departure in which “the product is symbolically charged and inserted in wider lifestyles” (Sassatelli, 2007: 126) How is America perceived as part of the brand identity of cigarettes sold in the Netherlands? Do moral and social values associated with cigarettes or smoking in Dutch public discourse reflect or effect the cultural position of the United States? Monday, September 9, 13
  • Case Study: Cigarettes Cultural icon of American entrepreneurialism. (“the product that defined America”) Advertisements as contextual point-of-departure in which “the product is symbolically charged and inserted in wider lifestyles” (Sassatelli, 2007: 126) How is America perceived as part of the brand identity of cigarettes sold in the Netherlands? Do moral and social values associated with cigarettes or smoking in Dutch public discourse reflect or effect the cultural position of the United States? What role do reference cultures play in the gender aspects of the cigarette and/or smoking? Monday, September 9, 13
  • The Modern Cigarette Monday, September 9, 13
  • The Modern Cigarette Americanness of the cigarette: Monday, September 9, 13
  • The Modern Cigarette Americanness of the cigarette: the leafs and curing techniques originated in the US [Tobacco associated with the new world] Monday, September 9, 13
  • The Modern Cigarette Americanness of the cigarette: the leafs and curing techniques originated in the US [Tobacco associated with the new world] packaging and branding is based on American marketing techniques Monday, September 9, 13
  • The Modern Cigarette Americanness of the cigarette: the leafs and curing techniques originated in the US [Tobacco associated with the new world] packaging and branding is based on American marketing techniques the production technique is often associated with the United States [Mass machine-produced] -> Bonsack Monday, September 9, 13
  • The Modern Cigarette Americanness of the cigarette: the leafs and curing techniques originated in the US [Tobacco associated with the new world] packaging and branding is based on American marketing techniques the production technique is often associated with the United States [Mass machine-produced] -> Bonsack American tobacco industry dominates the global market Monday, September 9, 13
  • The Modern Cigarette Americanness of the cigarette: the leafs and curing techniques originated in the US [Tobacco associated with the new world] packaging and branding is based on American marketing techniques the production technique is often associated with the United States [Mass machine-produced] -> Bonsack American tobacco industry dominates the global market Military presence important in spreading American cigarettes Monday, September 9, 13
  • American national identity Monday, September 9, 13
  • American national identity Cigarettes were marketed as national brands: American blend, “America’s most popular cigarette”, “Welcome to Marlboro Country”, “American Blend” Monday, September 9, 13
  • American national identity Cigarettes were marketed as national brands: American blend, “America’s most popular cigarette”, “Welcome to Marlboro Country”, “American Blend” Country-of-Origin effect Monday, September 9, 13
  • American national identity Cigarettes were marketed as national brands: American blend, “America’s most popular cigarette”, “Welcome to Marlboro Country”, “American Blend” Country-of-Origin effect associated with global and local icons -> labeling as exotic or national offers a moral picture of consumption Monday, September 9, 13
  • American national identity Cigarettes were marketed as national brands: American blend, “America’s most popular cigarette”, “Welcome to Marlboro Country”, “American Blend” Country-of-Origin effect associated with global and local icons -> labeling as exotic or national offers a moral picture of consumption Values: independence, autonomy, pleasure, leisure, health, price, everyday life as a sign of modernity Monday, September 9, 13
  • American national identity Cigarettes were marketed as national brands: American blend, “America’s most popular cigarette”, “Welcome to Marlboro Country”, “American Blend” Country-of-Origin effect associated with global and local icons -> labeling as exotic or national offers a moral picture of consumption Values: independence, autonomy, pleasure, leisure, health, price, everyday life as a sign of modernity GOAL: Chart the values associated with cigarettes both in advertising and wider public discourse Monday, September 9, 13
  • Cigarettes in the Netherlands Monday, September 9, 13
  • Cigarettes in the Netherlands Russian cigarettes popular in the beginning of the 20th century. First Dutch produced cigarette ‘Encore’ showed an Indonesian girl with palm leafs on the packaging. Monday, September 9, 13
  • Cigarettes in the Netherlands Russian cigarettes popular in the beginning of the 20th century. First Dutch produced cigarette ‘Encore’ showed an Indonesian girl with palm leafs on the packaging. British prisoners-of-war introduced Virginia cigarettes in the Netherlands (1914) Monday, September 9, 13
  • Cigarettes in the Netherlands Russian cigarettes popular in the beginning of the 20th century. First Dutch produced cigarette ‘Encore’ showed an Indonesian girl with palm leafs on the packaging. British prisoners-of-war introduced Virginia cigarettes in the Netherlands (1914) British American Tobacco grew in NL -> More American brands that use Native Americans, movie stars, and oriental (!) imagery Monday, September 9, 13
  • Cigarettes in the Netherlands Russian cigarettes popular in the beginning of the 20th century. First Dutch produced cigarette ‘Encore’ showed an Indonesian girl with palm leafs on the packaging. British prisoners-of-war introduced Virginia cigarettes in the Netherlands (1914) British American Tobacco grew in NL -> More American brands that use Native Americans, movie stars, and oriental (!) imagery In 1967, 65% of the smokers prefers American (filter) cigarettes Monday, September 9, 13
  • Cigarettes in the Netherlands - Statistics Monday, September 9, 13
  • Cigarettes in the Netherlands - Statistics Between 1923-1940 steady increased from 274 cigarettes per person per year to 596 Monday, September 9, 13
  • Cigarettes in the Netherlands - Statistics Between 1923-1940 steady increased from 274 cigarettes per person per year to 596 After war a short dip and then a steady increase up until 1964 (1.460) - Surgeon General Luther Terry’s announcement that smoking is harmful Monday, September 9, 13
  • Cigarettes in the Netherlands - Statistics Between 1923-1940 steady increased from 274 cigarettes per person per year to 596 After war a short dip and then a steady increase up until 1964 (1.460) - Surgeon General Luther Terry’s announcement that smoking is harmful Shortly afterwards, increase until 1977 after which consumption decreased Monday, September 9, 13
  • Digital Humanities Monday, September 9, 13
  • Digital Humanities Principle uses: generate hypotheses & spot continuities and discontinuities Monday, September 9, 13
  • Digital Humanities Principle uses: generate hypotheses & spot continuities and discontinuities Query: “Sigaret AND Virginia” Monday, September 9, 13
  • Digital Humanities Principle uses: generate hypotheses & spot continuities and discontinuities Query: “Sigaret AND Virginia” The “pure” Virginia blend is sometimes associated with England, whereas blended cigarettes (burley) are associated with the United States. Monday, September 9, 13
  • Digital Humanities Principle uses: generate hypotheses & spot continuities and discontinuities Query: “Sigaret AND Virginia” The “pure” Virginia blend is sometimes associated with England, whereas blended cigarettes (burley) are associated with the United States. Goal: Chart this shift in the connection between nation and blend Monday, September 9, 13
  • Digital Humanities Principle uses: generate hypotheses & spot continuities and discontinuities Query: “Sigaret AND Virginia” The “pure” Virginia blend is sometimes associated with England, whereas blended cigarettes (burley) are associated with the United States. Goal: Chart this shift in the connection between nation and blend Texcavator & SPSS - Text analysis, sentiment analysis Monday, September 9, 13
  • Digital Humanities Principle uses: generate hypotheses & spot continuities and discontinuities Query: “Sigaret AND Virginia” The “pure” Virginia blend is sometimes associated with England, whereas blended cigarettes (burley) are associated with the United States. Goal: Chart this shift in the connection between nation and blend Texcavator & SPSS - Text analysis, sentiment analysis Monday, September 9, 13
  • Close-reading Monday, September 9, 13
  • Close-reading 1932: article in “Het Vaderland”, reaction on possible tax increases on consumption goods in the United States Monday, September 9, 13
  • Close-reading 1932: article in “Het Vaderland”, reaction on possible tax increases on consumption goods in the United States “There is a clear difference with European cigarettes.” Monday, September 9, 13
  • Close-reading 1932: article in “Het Vaderland”, reaction on possible tax increases on consumption goods in the United States “There is a clear difference with European cigarettes.” “zenith of simplicity” Monday, September 9, 13
  • Close-reading 1932: article in “Het Vaderland”, reaction on possible tax increases on consumption goods in the United States “There is a clear difference with European cigarettes.” “zenith of simplicity” “circular instead of smashed flat” Monday, September 9, 13
  • Close-reading 1932: article in “Het Vaderland”, reaction on possible tax increases on consumption goods in the United States “There is a clear difference with European cigarettes.” “zenith of simplicity” “circular instead of smashed flat” “we [Europeans] are not at the point that women smoke as regular in public as men” Monday, September 9, 13
  • Monday, September 9, 13
  • Monday, September 9, 13
  • Thank you! Questions? m.j.h.f.wevers@uu.nl Twitter: @melvinwevers Sources: De Grazia, Victoria. Irresistible Empire: America’s Advance through Twentieth-century Europe. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2005. Sassatelli, Roberta. Consumer Culture History, Theory and Politics. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, 2007. Monday, September 9, 13