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Building Material (Library Site report)
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Building Material (Library Site report)


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  • 1. 1 SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING AND DESIGN BACHELOR OF QUANTITY SURVEYING (HONOURS) Site research report Kevin Lee Hee Xian 0315192 Jake Sia Chyi Sern 0314396 Melvin Lim Wei Jien 0315772 Voon Sze Lun 0315032
  • 2. 2 Table of Content Introduction of the building and area Existing type of materials Explain existing type of materials Compare and contrast Reference
  • 3. 3 Part 1 - Introduction of the building and area The building chosen for this assignment is Taylor’s Lakeside University. The area our group has chosen as the site is Taylor’s Lakeside University Library. The function of this area is to let the students of Taylor’s Lakeside University to study quietly. There are a total of four floors in this library. The space of the library is big and wide. The facilities provided in this library are book lending, computers, printers, discussion rooms and much more. The location of the library is Jalan Taylors, Subang Jaya, 47500 Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • 4. 4 Part 2 - Existing type of materials There are a total of four floors in this library. A lot of materials are used in this area for building. The existing types of materials in this library are cements and concrete, timber, plasters, paints, glass and metal. Cements and concrete is widely used in Taylor’s Lakeside University Library. Most of the floors, walls, staircase and columns are made of cements and concrete. Floor is a wide area in the library and there is a lot of load on it containing dead and live load. In this case, the floor must be strong and durable. Cement used for staircase
  • 5. 5 Timber is lesser used in the library. The area that contains timber is discussion rooms and level four’s silent study area. The timber floor can be seen on raise floors. Raised floor on level 4 in the library Timber flooring seen after pulling up the carpet
  • 6. 6 Raised floor on discussion rooms Plaster can be found at walls around the library. When knocking on plaster walls, a hollow sound can be heard which makes a loud sound. Plaster walls can be found in between discussion rooms and around the information counter in the library. Plaster wall on level 3 in the library
  • 7. 7 Paints are found at the interior and exterior of the library. Paint is covered around the exterior of the library. For the interior, only some parts of the library are painted to save cost. Paint coated wall on level 3 of library
  • 8. 8 Glass can be found in the interior and exterior of the library. Glass doors and panels can be found at the discussion rooms and level 2 silent study area for the interior of the library. Glass windows can be seen around the exterior of the library. Glass windows on level 2 in the library Glass door for discussion room on level 2 in the library
  • 9. 9 Metal is a common material used in the construction industry. Metal can be found at railings and pipes. Railings are located at the edge of each floor and beside the stairs. The pipes can be seen at the ceiling around the whole library. The purposes for those pipes are for fire sprinklers, air conditioning and more. Metal pipes on level 3 in the library
  • 10. 10 Explaining existing type of materials Cement & Concrete Concrete is composed from cement + aggregate + sand + water + chemical admixtures. The cement acts as a bonding agent to bond the other elements found in concrete. The aggregate and sand is composed of inert material that gives strength to the concrete. The water acts as a lubricant for the aggregates and also reacts with cement to form the binding paste. The chemical admixtures give additional properties to the concrete such as accelerating, air-entraining, water-reducing, retarding and plasticizers. Pros and Cons Concrete has relatively high compressive strength but lower tensile strength. Concrete has very low coefficient of thermal expansion hence shrink as it matures. Concrete has relatively high durability. Sustainability Hydrophobic Impregnations – increase the concrete’s durability Impregnations – increase the concrete’s strength Protective Coatings – provides chemical resistance Reinforcement Corrosion Protection – protects the steel bars from corrosion Maintenance Bonding Primer – used to promote the bonding behaviour of concrete Repair Mortars – laying a new coat of mortar to improve the condition of the building Smoothing Mortars – done to prevent surface pores and honey combs
  • 11. 11 Paints Paints are composed of 3 components, pigments + binders + solvents. Pigments are used to produce the wanted colour in the paint it also contributes to the paint’s protective properties. Binders are used to hold the pigment particles together to help them stay on the surface. It also contains most of the protective properties of the paint. Solvents are used to spread the paint evenly unto the surface desired. However, paint without pigment is called varnish that provides a colourless layer of coat that just protects the surface. Pros and Cons Paints come in a wide range of colour which can be made to meet any colour desired. Paints act as good protective agents to shield against the environment. Paints are generally environmentally unfriendly to both humans and atmosphere. Paints applications use more electricity. Paints produce more waste due to overspray. Maintenance One of the ways to make painting easier will be to maintain the condition of the brushes used. The brush would be soaked in water and fabric softener. This will allow the paint to wash off more easily afterwards.
  • 12. 12 Glass Glass is transparent, heat resistant, pressure resistant and chemical resistant. Glass is made up of silica + alkali + lime + cullet. Silica is obtained from pulverised sandstone and is used to give strength to the glass. Alkali is used to lower the melting point. Lime is used as a stabilizer. Cullet is used to assist in the melting of the mixture. Pros and Cons Glass may reduce the usage of electricity as it allows light to pass through. Glass comes in many forms and varieties. Glass is considerably more beautiful than compared to other materials. Glass is expensive. Glass is difficult to install. Sustainability Glass can be used to generate renewable energy through solar-thermal applications. Glass can provide natural light into buildings which enhances living and working conditions. After usage, glass can also be recycled to form cullet that serve as raw material. Maintenance Only use cleaning materials which are free of grit and debris to avoid scratching and marking of the glass surface. Wipe the surface with a few drops of methylated spirits on a damp cloth and then polish the surface dry with a lint free cloth. Use detergents and cleaning solutions that specifically state they are safe for glass cleaning.
  • 13. 13 Timber Timber is one of the most environmentally friendly building materials available compare with others. Timber is a good material which light in weight, yet with excellent load bearing and thermal properties. Timber can contribute significantly with the carbon sink effect of the forests, carbon storage of the timber and as substitution for carbon intensive materials. Timber compares favorably with other construction materials in terms of fire resistance. Light timber section may ignite easily and reduce to ash. Pros and Cons Timber is a poor conductor of heat. The denser timbers are better conductors than the lighter timbers. Timber will burn, whilst some of the alternative materials such as masonry and steel do not. Timber has proved to be a strong and durable material. Well timber frame building can last for hundreds years. Sustainability Harm to eco-systems is minimized. Productivity of the forest is maintained. Forest ecosystem health and vitality is maintained. Use the rights related to the forest are identified, documented and respected, mechanisms for resolving grievances. Maintenance Cleaning is one of the methods which cleans non-confined surfaces as required and remove build-up of soil against timber near to ground. Metal fasteners are to retighten the bolts, screws and repunch those nails if required after 6 months and one year if unseasoned timber used.
  • 14. 14 Plaster Plaster’s absorption properties are keys to producing quality ceramic pieces. Plaster is used as a binding or gelling agent for plaster bandages. Plaster expands during setting and expansion may be controlled to meet application requirements. Plaster can be formulated to optimize surface hardness and impact resistance. Pros and Cons Plaster has low conductivity making it an energy saving, insulating material in construction applications. A key property in plaster ceramic moulds, plaster can be formulated for use under varying air pressure conditions. For medical casts, the water resistant property of plaster of Paris is highly important. It prevents additional moisture from getting in between the cast and skin, which can lead to staph infections. The cast would lose firmness and strength if water was able to absorb into the bandages, resulting in bones not healing properly. Sustainability Plasterboard partitions can receive in its cavity mineral wool to increase thermal comfort obtaining maximum performance in less space. Therefore, partitions, ceilings and linings become thermal insulated systems. Maintenance Plaster Claddings are applied over a ' rain screen, drainage' cavity. As with the majority of external claddings today, plaster cladding allowing incidental moisture to drain away, in a similar way that brick veneer, and weatherboard cladding does.
  • 15. 15 Part 3 - Compare and contrast Cement and concrete (Cast-in-place/In-situ) 2 types of other materials: Bricks and Pre-cast concrete Cement/Concrete Bricks Pre-cast concrete Construction period time is moderate compared to pre- cast. Construction period time is longer. Construction period time is shorter/faster. Flexible when doing framing. Flexible when doing framing. Not so flexible when doing framing. Quality control harder to achieve. Hard to also achieve quality control. Potentially better quality control. Durable but not that durable under cold situations/weather. Durable. Durable even in cold situations/weather. Alternative material: Pre-cast concrete is recommended for Taylor’s library as it better quality. It has the same durability as Cast-in-Place concrete but it is more durable under cold situations.
  • 16. 16 Paint 2 other types of materials: Faux Painting and Combing. Paint Fabric Temporary Wallpaper Requires more effort Requires less effort Requires less effort Just a solid colour on the wall More decorative and innovative More decorative and innovative No noise reduction Able to reduce noise No noise reduction Alternative Material: We recommend using fabric as an alternative for the painted walls. As they are more colorful and more pleasing to see in a person’s eyes. It also give a soft touch, fabric to walls are like carpet to floors. It is able to also reduce the noise compared to a normal painted wall. Glass (Windows) We believe that the glass used for the windows in the library are tempered glass. 2 other types of materials: Laminated glass and Heat-Strengthened glass Tempered Glass Laminated Glass Heat-Strengthened Glass Not able the reduce the heat and light from sun Good at reducing light and heat from sun Very durable for hot weathers High is strength Able to reduce sound and noise Twice as strong as others Alternative Material: Recommended material for the glass that is used for windows are laminated glass as they are able to prevent the hot sun from shining in, the current glass used in the library aren’t able to prevent it. The discussion rooms in the library are also recommended to use laminated glass as it is able to reduce the noise.
  • 17. 17 Timber (Flooring) Timber are mostly found used on flooring in Taylor’s library but it is covered with carpet. 2 other types of materials: Marble and Ceramic Tiles Timber Marble Ceramic Tiles Gives a comfortable feeling to people Gives a cooling sensation Sound proof/Sound reduction. Durable but corrosion and termites may occur. Decorative but also easy to get stain Slip and stain resistant Alternative Material: Ceramic Tiles is recommended as it give a noise reduction and it is suitable for quiet places such as the library. Besides that, it is also stain resistant and therefore easier to clean. Marble flooring gives a cooling sensation but it does not have sound reduction.
  • 18. 18 Reference Application Shield Notification In-text: (, 2014) Bibliography:,. (2014). Application Shield Notification. Retrieved 10 June 2014, from Concrete, Its Ingredients and Properties In-text: (, 2014) Bibliography:,. (2014). Concrete, Its Ingredients and Properties. Retrieved 10 June 2014, from ingredients-and-products 2. PAINTS In-text: (, 2014) Bibliography:,. (2014). 2. PAINTS. Retrieved 13 June 2014, from Aluminum Extrusion Company � Anodizing, Painting, Powder Coating, Thermal Barrier, Thermal Strutting, Custom Extrusion/Profile Manufacturer: Keymark Corporation In-text: (, 2014) Bibliography:,. (2014). Aluminum Extrusion Company � Anodizing, Painting, Powder Coating, Thermal Barrier, Thermal Strutting, Custom Extrusion/Profile Manufacturer: Keymark Corporation. Retrieved 13 June 2014, from
  • 19. 19 glass: Composition and Properties of Glass | In-text: (, 2014) Bibliography:,. (2014). glass: Composition and Properties of Glass | Retrieved 13 June 2014, from glass.html BUILD How to clean and maintain windows In-text: (BUILD, 2014) Bibliography: BUILD,. (2014). How to clean and maintain windows. Retrieved 13 June 2014, from Glass Sustainability & the Environment - Glass Alliance Europe In-text: (, 2014) Bibliography:,. (2014). Glass Sustainability & the Environment - Glass Alliance Europe. Retrieved 13 June 2014, from Exterior Cladding In-text: (, 2014) Bibliography:,. (2014). Exterior Cladding. Retrieved 19 June 2014, from Cantore, T. Properties of Plaster of Paris | eHow In-text: (Cantore, 2014) Bibliography: Cantore, T. (2014). Properties of Plaster of Paris | eHow. eHow. Retrieved 19 June 2014, from
  • 20. 20 Why use timber for sustainable construction | John Brash & Co. Limited In-text: (, 2014) Bibliography:,. (2014). Why use timber for sustainable construction | John Brash & Co. Limited. Retrieved 19 June 2014, from timber-for-sustainable-construction/ Timber Structural Design In-text: (, 2014) Bibliography:,. (2014). Timber Structural Design. Retrieved 19 June 2014, from A-Z of Properties / Gypsum and plaster / Home - Saint gobain formula In-text: (, 2014) Bibliography:,. (2014). A-Z of Properties / Gypsum and plaster / Home - Saint gobain formula. Retrieved 19 June 2014, from plaster/A-Z-of-Properties Legality and Sustainability | Timber in Construction In-text: (, 2014) Bibliography:,. (2014). Legality and Sustainability | Timber in Construction. Retrieved 19 June 2014, from