Graph courtesy of National Academy of Sciences (2008): Retrieved from http://www.nap.edu/reports/energy/supply.html
Graph courtesy of National Academy of Sciences (2008): Retrieved from http://www.nap.edu/reports/energy/supply.html
Graph courtesy of The United States Environmental Protection Agency (2012): retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/gases/co2.html. The EPA notes that all emission estimates are from the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2010.
This low increase is mainly due to the public’s fears and perceptions of the dangers of nuclear fuel and a lack of adequate storage places for spent, and radioactive, nuclear fuels and by-products
Humans: retrieved from http://aahabershaw.files.wordpress.com/2012/03/6a00d8341c71f853ef0115709635eb970b-300wi.jpgOil rig: retrieved from http://www.ukrainebusiness.com.ua/news/2579.htmlExhaust: retrieved from http://townipproject.wikispaces.com/Car+Emissions+%26+PollutionAir quality: retrieved from http://onemansblog.com/2007/12/17/pollution-kills-750000-chinese-each-year/
Solar panel image courtesy of http://www.conserve-energy-future.com/Advantages_SolarEnergy.phpWind energy image courtesy of http://www.conserve-energy-future.com/WindTurbines.phpNuclear energy image courtesy of http://sustainableenergysystemz.com/nuclear-energy/327/
Stewart m bio30643_final_
ENERGY RESOURCES IN THE FUTURE Melody Stewart BIO 30643 Dr. Allen Spaulding June 21, 2012
PLANNING ENERGY FOR 2030Why do we need to plan ahead for energy ?• Global supplies of energy-producing material are not infinite.• Energy sources are not equal: some contribute to climate change and air pollution.• Populations are growing.• Energy-hungry technologies are growing.• Our economy is increasingly affected by the availability of energy supplies.• Energy abuse destroys ecosystems and alters the environment.
Global supplies of energy-producing material are not infinite. Our energy requirements are provided by two categories of material: Renewable sources such as biomass fuels, solar energy, wind energy, and hydroelectric power. These sources are considered renewable because the sources do not deplete with continued use. Non-renewable sources such as oil, coal, natural gas, and nuclear fuel. These sources are considered non-renewable because with use the supply continues to dwindle and will eventually disappear.
Relative contributions of energy sources to total U.S. energyconsumption in 2006.
Where does electricity fit in? Electricity is in demand; The National Academy of Sciences (2008) writes that “experts predict a 35% increase in demand for electricity by 2030” (“Electricity”, para. 2). The generation of electricity accounts for two-fifths of total energy consumption in the United States and uses 90 percent of the United States coal production (National Academy of Sciences, 2008, “Electricity”, para. 2). According to the Environmental Protection Agency, or EPA (2012), “the combustion of fossil fuels to generate electricity is the largest single source of [carbon dioxide] CO2 emissions in the nation, accounting for about 40% of total U.S. CO2 emissions and 33% of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2009” (para. 3).
Energy sources are not equal: some contribute to climatechange and air pollution. Oil: Oil propels the world; liquid fuels, such as gasoline, are produced from oil. Transportation accounts for a major portion of nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide emissions (Wright & Boorse, 2011, p. 487). The EPA (2012) writes that 2010 data shows that 84 percent of the levels of the primary greenhouse gas CO2, could be accounted for by U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions, By human activities (para. 1). Source (EPA, 2012).
Energy sources are not equal: some contribute to climatechange and air pollution.• Coal: Coal is plentiful in the United States and is a fairly inexpensive energy source. Coal is also a major source of pollutants, and according to the Union of Concerned Scientists (2012), turning coal into energy produces sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, small particulate matter, and a slew of heavy metals, including arsenic, mercury, and lead, as well as ash and sludge (“A Case Study”, para. 1-10). Mines in the United States produced 1.2 billion tons of coal in 2006 and demand for coal, most of it slated for production of electricity, is “projected to increase by 30% between now and 2030” (National Academy of Sciences, 2008, Coal, para. 1-2).
Energy sources are not equal: some contribute toclimate change and air pollution. Natural Gas: Natural gas is cleaner than coal; releasing “half as much carbon dioxide, less than a third as much nitrogen oxides, and one percent as much sulfur oxides at the power plant” (Environmental Protection Agency, 2007, Air Emissions, para. 2). The National Academy of Science (2008) reports that our consumption of natural gas is “projected to rise from 21.8 trillion cubic feet (TCF) in 2006 to about 23.4 TCF in 2030” (Natural Gas, para. 1). Nuclear: Nuclear fuel produces cleaner energy than other non-renewable resources, according to the EPA (2012) because they “do not emit carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, or nitrogen oxides” (Nuclear Energy, Air Emissions, para. 1). Currently, nuclear energy provides approximately 20 percent of the United States electricity demand (EPA, 2012, “Electricity from Nuclear”, para.1). According to the National Academy of Sciences (2008) the energy derived from nuclear power plants is “expected to increase only 18% by 2030” (Nuclear Fuel, para. 1).
Populations are growing. Population increases = Increased energy needs. According to the United States Census Bureau’s population clock (2012) the population of the United States reached 313,800,896 people in the first half of 2012. The United States Census Bureau (2004) estimates the population of the United States will reach 363,584,000 people by the year 2030. The United States Energy Information Administration, the EIA (2011) reports that “in 2010, the average annual electricity consumption for a U.S. residential utility customer was 11,496 kWh, an average of 958 kilowatt hours (kWh) per month (“How Much”, para.1).
Energy-hungry habits are growing. Technology Travel We are an increasingly The advent of the media mobile society. Wright age with internet, social and Boorse (2011) write networking, online- “between 1970 and 2007, the number of vehicle schooling, cell phones, miles increased from 1 and other technologies trillion to 3 trillion miles are increasing our use of per year, and between electricity to power 1980 and 2007, the these devices. number of vehicles on the road increased more than 63%” (p. 503).
Our economy is increasingly affected by the availability ofenergy supplies. The availability of oil fuels our vehicles and the price of oil fuels or stalls a major portion of our economy. The United States has limited capacity to produce its own oil, peaking at 9.5 million barrels a day (MBD) produced in 1970 and declining to 5.1 million barrels per day by 2006 (National Academy of Science, 2008, Oil, para. 1). According to the National Academy of Science (2008) the United States uses 21 MBD, most of which, up to 70 percent, is purchased from other oil- producing countries (para. 1-3). Worries about the availability of oil, particularly in the face of global civil unrest have prompted the United States to stockpile a Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The United States Department of Energy (2012) reports that the reserve was “established in the aftermath of the 1973-74 oil embargo” and “with a capacity of 727-million-barrels, [the] U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve is the largest stockpile of government- owned emergency crude oil in the world (para. 1).
How Long Will Our Resources Last? Oil: The United States Energy Administration (as cited in National Academy of Sciences, 2008) estimates world oil reserves at 1.3 trillion barrels, and our current consumption worldwide at 85 MBD (Oil, para. 1-2). Our reserves give us roughly enough oil for 15,294 days or almost 42 years; if our consumption patterns do not increase. Coal: The Union of Concerned Scientists (2012) states that “annual coal production is projected to remain around 1 billion tons into the next century . . . . [meaning] our coal won’t be depleted for 265 years” (para. 2). However, if our coal use grows at 2 percent a year, our supplies will be depleted in 93 years, and if our use grows at 3 percent a year, our supplies will be depleted in 73 years (Union of Concerned Scientists, 2012, “The Future of”, para. 2). Natural Gas: The National Academy of Sciences (2008) estimates that “global consumption of natural gas in 2004 was 100 TCF [and] known reserves of conventional natural gas total about 6000 TCF . . . . adequate for about 60 years” (Natural Gas, para. 2). Nuclear Fuel: According to the Council on Foreign Relations (as cited in National Academy of Science, 2008) there are enough world uranium supplies “for about 70 years at current consumption rates and under current policies” (Nuclear Fuel, para. 2).
Energy use and abuse destroys ecosystems and altersthe environment. • Air pollution drill • Water and land pollution • Air pollution damage • Water and land pollution • Respiratory illnesses destroy • Contaminated resources
Clearly we have toaddress the problems ofenergy supply anddemand in tandem withhow best to protect andpreserve our environment
ENERGY PLAN FOR 2030 Reduce Demand Diversify Supply Create and improve Fund research into new technologies to be ecologically safe energy more energy-efficient. supplies Educate citizens how Plan energy sources to the to best reduce their strengths of different energy requirements regions Mandate new energy Reduce reliance on policies and strengthen existing imported energy sources laws such as oil.
DIVERSIFYING ENERGY PRODUCTIONFeatures ofregions shoulddictate alternativeenergy sources.Solar whereconditions arepredominantlysunny.Wind where nuclearconditions areindicated.Nuclear nearmetropolitan areasto reduce highlevels ofemissions Diversification
Individuals Making a DifferenceThe future ofenergy in the Walk or ConsumeUnited States of bicycle Eat less lessAmerica is at risk.We, the citizens ofthis country, cannotsit idly by and waiton policies fromthe government or Replace Geton cooperation recycle light bulbs involvedfrom corporations.Every day we canmake a choice to beenergy-efficient inour own homes, inour neighborhoods, Energy Vote for theand in our habits Buy local star environmentand practices.
References Environmental Protection Agency. (2007). Natural gas. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/energy-and- you/affect/natural-gas.html Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). Carbon dioxide emissions. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/gases/co2.html Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). Nuclear energy. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/energy- and-you/affect/nuclear.html National Academy of Sciences (2008). What you need to know about energy. Retrieved from http://www.nap.edu/reports/energy/supply.html Union of Concerned Scientists. (2012). How coal works (briefing). Retrieved from http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/coalvswind/brief_coal.html United States Census Bureau. (2004, March 18). Projected population of the United States, by age, and sex: 2000 to 2050. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/population/www/projections/usinterimproj/natprojtab02a.pdf United States Census Bureau. (2012). U.S. & world population clocks. Retrieved from United States Department of Commerce at http://www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html United States Department of Energy. (2012). United States petroleum reserves. Retrieved from http://www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/reserves/ Wright, R. T. & Boorse, D. F. (2011). Environmental science: Towards a sustainable future (11th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education.
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