A to Z veggies

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  • 1. The A to Z of Veggies Dr. Patti Nagai Horticulture Educator UW Extension - Racine County
  • 2. The Veggie Alphabet
    • A ASPARAGUS
    • B BEAN
    • C CARROT
    • D DANDELION
    • E EGGPLANT
    • F FARMING
    • G GARLIC
    • H HARVESTING
    • I IRISH POTATO
    • J JICAMA
    • K KOHLRABI
    • L LETTUCE
    • M MELON
    • N NUTRITION
  • 3. The Veggie Alphabet
    • O OKRA & ONION
    • P PEPPER
    • Q QUALITY
    • R RADISH
    • S SWEET CORN
    • T TOMATOES
    • U USDA
    • V VEGETABLE GARDEN
    • W WINTER SQUASH
    • X XXX SEX
    • Y YEAR ROUND HARVEST
    • Z ZUCCHINI
  • 4. A is for Asparagus Asparagus officinalis
  • 5. Asparagus Facts
    • Family: Liliaceae
    • Type: Perennial
    • Native: Europe and Western Asia
    • America: Introduced in 1600s
    • Folk Medicinal Use: Jaundice
    • Nutritional Value:
        • 5 spears = 25 calories
        • Vitamin A 10% Vitamin C 15% Calcium 2% Iron 2%
        • Fat 0g Sodium 0mg Carbohydrates 4g Protein 2 g
  • 6. Asparagus Culture
    • Trench 6 - 8 inches
    • Use Compost
    • Cover as spears elongate
    • Harvest 2nd year
    • Fertilize after harvest
  • 7. B is for Bean Phaseolus vulgaris
  • 8. Bean Facts
    • Family: Fabaceae (Leguminoseae)
    • Type: Annual
    • Native: Central America
    • America: Native
    • Folk Medicinal Use: antibacterial (?)
    • Nutritional Value:
        • 3/4 Cup = 25 calories
        • Vitamin A 4% Vitamin C 10% Calcium 4% Iron 2%
        • Fat 0g Sodium 0mg Carbohydrates 5g Protein 1g
  • 9. Bean Culture
    • Seed 1 to 2 inches deep
    • Warm soil, 65ºF
    • Well-drained
    • Replant mid-summer for fall
    • No or little nitrogen
  • 10. Types of Beans
    • Bush
      • erect plant, usually short season
    • Pole
      • twining type of bean, usually matures later but harvest time is longer
    • Snap beans
    • Southern Peas
    • Lima Beans
    • Pinto Beans
    • Black-eyed Peas
    • Black Beans
    • Peanuts
    • English Peas
  • 11. C is for Carrot Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus
  • 12. Carrot Facts
    • Family: Apiaceae
    • Type: Biennial
    • Native: Europe and Western Asia
    • America: Introduced in 1700s
    • Folk Medicinal Use: seeds - birth control
    • Nutritional Value:
        • 7 inches = 35 calories
        • Vitamin A 270% Vitamin C 10% Calcium 2% Iron 0%
        • Fat 0g Sodium 40mg Carbohydrates 8g Protein 1g
  • 13. Carrot Culture
    • Sow 1/4 inch deep
    • Loose soil required
    • Well-drained soil
    • Replant mid-summer for extra sweet fall carrots
    • Mark row w/radish
  • 14. Types of Carrots
    • Danvers
      • medium to long with broad shoulders and sharp taper
    • Imperator
      • more slender and slightly longer than Danvers type
    • Nantes
      • nearly cylindrical with no taper, fairly rounded at ends
    • Chantenay
      • medium to short with a slight taper and blunt end
  • 15. D is for Dandelion (and other “weeds”)
  • 16. Dandelion Facts
    • Family: Asteraceae
    • Type: Perennial
    • Native: probably Europe
    • Folk Medicinal Use: fever and as diuretic
    • Nutritional Value:
        • High in Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Calcium and other minerals
    • Yellow petals can be used for food coloring
  • 17. Dandelion Culture
    • Grows easily from seed
    • ‘ Montmagny’ is a French cultivar with a mild taste
    • Harvest leaves early in spring
  • 18. Other Edible Weeds
    • Chicory
      • Cichorum intybus
    • Purslane
      • Portulaca oleracea
    • Lamb’s Quarters
      • Chenopodium album
  • 19. E is for Eggplant Solanum melongena
  • 20. Eggplant Facts
    • Family: Solanaceae
    • Type: Annual
    • Native: Tropics
    • America: Introduced early as ornamental
    • Folk Medicinal Use: alkaloids (?)
    • Nutritional Value:
        • 1/5 = 25 calories
        • Vitamin A 0% Vitamin C 2% Calcium 0% Iron 2%
        • Fat 0g Sodium 0mg Carbohydrates 5g Protein 1g
  • 21. Eggplant Culture
    • Large, healthy transplants
    • Warm season
    • Chilling sensitive
    • Well-drained soil
    • Bees helpful
  • 22. Cultivars of Eggplant
    • Japanese ‘Ichiban’
    • ‘ Neon’
  • 23. F is for Farming
    • US Market
      • $1.5 billion
    • In Wisconsin
      • $150 million
    • Market gardens
    • Plant breeding
    • Genetic engineering
  • 24. G is for Garlic Allium sativum
  • 25. Garlic Facts
    • Family: Alliaceae
    • Type: Bulbous perennial
    • Native: Middle Asia
    • America: 1700s (?)
    • Folk Medicinal Use: colds, warding off evil
    • Nutritional Value:
        • 1 clove = 5 calories
        • Vitamin A 0% Vitamin C 2% Calcium 0% Iron 0%
        • Fat 0g Sodium 0mg Carbohydrates 1g Protein 0g
  • 26. Garlic Culture
    • Plant cloves in late summer, early fall
    • Cool season
    • Well-drained soil
    • Harvest >9 months
    • Curing necessary
  • 27. H is for Harvest
  • 28. Harvest Facts
    • Depends on taste and timeliness
    • Fruit Vegetables : immature and mature
    • Leaf and Stem Vegetables : slightly immature is preferable
    • Floral Vegetables : Hand harvest when head size is right
    • Roots, Tubers and Bulb Vegetables : various stages of development
  • 29. I is for Irish Potato Solanum tuberosum
  • 30. Irish Potato Facts
    • Family: Solanaceae
    • Type: Tuberous perennial
    • Native: America
    • Folk Medicinal Use: pimples and burns
    • Nutritional Value:
        • 1 medium = 100 calories
        • Vitamin A 0% Vitamin C 45% Calcium 2% Iron 8%
        • Fat 0g Sodium 0mg Carbohydrates 26g Protein 4g
  • 31. Irish Potato Culture
    • Plant certified seed tubers or pieces
    • Cool season
    • Well-drained soil
    • Low pH
    • Skin set occurs after vines die
  • 32. J is for Jicama Pachyrrhizus erosus
  • 33. Jicama Culture
    • Climbing legume 10 to 20 ft tall
    • Warm season
    • Harvest root after 3 to 5 months
    • Leaves, pods, seeds may be poisonous
  • 34. K is for Kohlrabi Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes
  • 35. Kohlrabi Culture
    • Brassicacea family
    • Cool season
    • Frost tolerant
    • Plant early or late
    • Harvest when young and tender
  • 36. L is for Lettuce Lactuca sativa
  • 37. Lettuce Facts
    • Family: Asteraceae
    • Type: Herbaceous Annual
    • Native: Mediteranean Basin
    • America: a long time
    • Folk Medicinal Use: lactucopicrin (?)
    • Nutritional Value (leaf lettuce):
        • 1 1/2 cups = 15 calories
        • Vitamin A 40% Vitamin C 6% Calcium 4% Iron 0%
        • Fat 0g Sodium 30mg Carbohydrates 4g Protein 1g
  • 38. Lettuce Culture
    • Seed at 1/4 inch depth or use transplants
    • Cool season
    • Moist soil
    • Well-drained soil
    • Harvest in ~50 days
  • 39. M is for Muskmelon Cucumis melo L. Reticulatus
  • 40. Muskmelon Facts
    • Family: Cucurbitaceae
    • Type: Annual
    • Native: Persia
    • America: 1400s
    • Folk Medicinal Use: ?
    • Nutritional Value:
        • 1/4 melon = 50 calories
        • Vitamin A 100% Vitamin C 80% Calcium 2% Iron 2%
        • Fat 0g Sodium 25mg Carbohydrates 12g Protein 1g
  • 41. Muskmelon Culture
    • Seed at 1/2 to 1 inch depth, 5 ft centers
    • Warm season
    • Chilling sensitive
    • Well-drained soil
    • Moist soil
    • Bees essential
    • Powdery mildew
  • 42. N is for Nutrition
    • Vitamin C
    • Vitamin A - Carotenes
    • Vitamin E
    • Vitamin B6
    • Minerals
    • Fiber
    • Terpenes
    • Carotenoids
    • Phytosterols
    • Phenols
    • Isoflavones
    • Thiols
    • Glucosinolates
    • Allylic sulfides
    • Indoles
  • 43. O is for Okra Abelmoschus esculentus
  • 44. Okra Culture
    • Malvaceae family
      • (Hibiscus)
    • Warm season
    • Warm soil
    • Soak seed 24 hrs
    • Use knife to harvest pods when ~3 inches
    • Ornamental Value
  • 45. O is for Onion Allium cepa
  • 46. Onion Facts
    • Family: Alliaceae
    • Type: Herbaceous Biennial
    • Native: Southern Asia
    • America: 1400s
    • Folk Medicinal Use: antibiotic
    • Nutritional Value:
        • 1 1/2 cups = 15 calories
        • Vitamin A 40% Vitamin C 6% Calcium 4% Iron 0%
        • Fat 0g Sodium 30mg Carbohydrates 4g Protein 1g
  • 47. Onion Culture
    • Alliaceae family
    • Plant sets, transplants or seeds
    • Seeds are short-lived
    • Cool season
    • High organic matter
    • Harvest bulb onions when tops fall over
  • 48. P is for Pepper Capsicum annuum
  • 49. Pepper Facts
    • Family: Solanaceae
    • Type: Annual (or perennial)
    • Native: Central America, Central Mexico
    • America: 1700s (?)
    • Folk Medicinal Use: colds
    • Nutritional Value (green bell pepper):
        • 1 medium pepper = 30 calories
        • Vitamin A 8% Vitamin C 190% Calcium 2% Iron 2%
        • Fat 0g Sodium 0mg Carbohydrates 7g Protein 1g
  • 50. Pepper Culture
    • Plant transplants
    • Warm season
    • Moist soil - mulch is beneficial
    • Harvest immature or mature
    • Ornamental Value
  • 51. Q is for Quality
    • Appearance
      • size and shape
      • color
      • gloss
      • blemishes
    • Texture
    • Flavor
    • Nutritive Value
    • Safety
  • 52. R is for Root Crops
  • 53. Root Crop Facts
    • Families:
      • Apiaceae (carrot, parsnip)
      • Chenopodiaceae (beet)
      • Brassicaceae (turnip, rutabaga)
      • Convolvulaceae (sweet potato)
    • Nutritional Value (beet):
        • 1 medium beet = 50 calories
        • Vitamin A 0% Vitamin C 4% Calcium 0% Iron 0%
        • Fat 0.5g Sodium 150mg Carbohydrate 11g Protein 1g
  • 54. Root Crop Culture
    • Seed or slips (sweet potato)
    • Loose soil essential - sandy loam
    • Warm Season
      • sweet potato ( Ipomea batatas )
    • Cool Season
      • radish ( Raphanus sativus )
      • beets ( Beta vulgaris )
      • carrots ( Daucus carota )
  • 55. S is for Sweet Corn Zea mays
  • 56. Sweet Corn Facts
    • Family: Poaceae
    • Type: Annual grass
    • Native: Central America <3500 B.C.
    • America: 63 varieties by 1900
    • Nutritional Value:
        • 1 ear = 80 calories
        • Vitamin A 2% Vitamin C 10% Calcium 0% Iron 2%
        • Fat 1g Sodium 0mg Carbohydrates 18g Protein 3g
  • 57. Sweet Corn Culture
    • Seed
    • Warm season
    • Soil 70 - 85ºF
    • Planting pattern critical for proper pollination - “think square”
    • 4 rows minimum
  • 58. T is for Tomato Lycopersicon lycospersicum
  • 59. Tomato Facts
    • Family: Solanaceae
    • Type: Annual
    • Native: Peru or Bolivia
    • America: 1710
    • Folk Medicinal Use: insect repellent
    • Nutritional Value:
        • 1 medium tomato = 35 calories
        • Vitamin A 20% Vitamin C 40% Calcium 2% Iron 2%
        • Fat 0.5g Sodium 5mg Carbohydrates 7g Protein 1g
  • 60. Tomato Culture
    • Plant transplants
    • Warm season
    • Moist soil - mulch is beneficial, red is best
    • Calcium nitrate
    • Night temperature critical: 60 - 70 ºF
  • 61. Types of Tomatoes
    • Cherry
      • smaller, sweeter tomatoes
    • Roma
      • paste or processing tomatoes
    • Beefsteak
      • larger tomatoes for fresh slicing
    • Determinate
      • 3 to 4 ft tall
      • plant ends in flower bud
    • Indeterminate
      • 7 to 15 ft tall
      • plant “never ends”, remains vegetative
  • 62. U is for USDA
    • United States Department of Agriculture
    • Agricultural Marketing Service
      • Fresh Products of Fruits and Vegetables
      • Grade Fresh Produce at point of shipping
      • 150 official grade standards used
  • 63. V is for Vegetable Gardens
        • Garden to meet your needs
        • Garden to help others
        • Garden for fresher produce
        • Garden for organic produce
        • Garden for specialty crops
        • Garden for the pure joy
  • 64. W is for Winter Squash
  • 65. Winter Squash Facts
    • Family: Cucurbitaceae
      • Cucurbita argyosperma (pumpkin, cushaw, winter squash)
      • Cucurbita moschata (gourd, butternut squash)
      • Cucurbita maxima (giant pumpkin)
    • Native: Americas
    • Nutritional Value (spaghetti squash):
        • 1/2 cup= 25 calories
        • Vitamin A 0% Vitamin C 2% Calcium 2% Iron 2%
        • Fat 0g Sodium 15mg Carbohydrate 4g Protein 0g
  • 66. Winter Squash Culture
    • Seed early
    • Moist soil
    • Warm Season
    • Mulch
    • Bees essential
    • Powdery mildew
  • 67. X is for XXX (Sex) = + Female Male Pumpkin +
  • 68. X is for XXX (Sex) = + Female Male Kernels of Corn
  • 69. X is for XXX (Sex) = + eggplant bean tomato tomatillo pepper some vegetables prefer privacy
  • 70. Y is for Year Round Gardening
    • Know Your Last Frost Date in Spring
      • Warm the soil - plastic
      • Mulch after soil is warm
      • Cloches
      • Greenhouses
      • Cool Season Crops
    • Know Your First Frost Date in Fall
      • Plant fall garden in August
      • Windowsills and artificial lights
  • 71. Z is for Zucchini Cucurbita pepo
  • 72. Zucchini Facts
    • Family: Cucurbitaceae
    • Type: Annual
    • Native: Mexico (?) to Italy
    • America: ?
    • Nutritional Value:
        • 1/2 medium squash = 20 calories
        • Vitamin A 6% Vitamin C 30% Calcium 2% Iron 2%
        • Fat 0g Sodium 0mg Carbohydrates 4g Protein 1g
  • 73. Zucchini Culture
    • Seed
    • Warm season
    • Bush-type plants
    • Shallow roots - irrigate
    • Bees essential
    • Excess Squash?
    • Harvest
    • for the Hungry
  • 74. Veggie References
    • Vegetable Crops
      • by Dennis Decoteau
    • Manual of Minor Vegetables
      • by James M. Stephens
    • Vegetable Gardening in the Midwest
      • by C.E. Voigt and J.S. Vandemark
      • Extension Bulletin A8IL1331
    • Vegetable Cultivars and Planting Guide - 2000
      • by Helen Harrison
      • UW Extension Bulletin A1653
  • 75. The A to Z of Veggies Dr. Patti Nagai Horticulture Educator UW Extension - Racine County 14200 Washington Avenue Sturtevant, WI 53177 Phone: 262-886-8460 e-mail: [email_address]