PLOT• Eccentric billionaire John Hammond ,has recently created Jurassic Park: a theme park populated with dinosaurs cloned from the DNA extracted from insects preserved in prehistoric amber.• After a park worker is fatally attacked by a dinosaur, Hammonds investors, represented by their lawyer Donald Gennaro , demand that experts visit the park and verify that it is safe. Gennaro invites Dr. Ian Malcolm, a mathematician, while Hammond invites paleontologists Dr. Alan Grant and Dr. Ellie Sattler . They are joined on the island by Hammonds two grandchildren—Tim and Lex Murphy. Hammond asks Malcolm, Grant, and Sattler what their thoughts are about having recreated dinosaur species. The three of them engage in an intense l debate about the ethics of having cloned extinct dinosaurs with Gennaro being the only one to express optimism. The group sets off to explore the park while Hammond observes his guests along with Head Technician Ray Arnold.• The head computer programmer, Dennis Nedry is secretly in the employ of one of InGens corporate rivals, and has been paid to steal fertilized dinosaur embryos. During his theft, Nedry deactivates the parks security system, allowing him access to the embryo storage. During the exploration, Dr. Sattler spots a sick Triceratops and the group gets out to investigate. With a storm heading in, everyone gets back into the cars except for Dr. Sattler, who stays with the park doctor to look after the animal. The rest of the group, who have been stranded in the park due to the system shutdown, are attacked by the Tyrannosaurus, which kills Gennaro. Grant and the children are able to escape.• Meanwhile, a fleeing Nedry crashes his jeep. He decides to use a winch on the front of his jeep to tie it to a tree that will bring him to the road to help him reach the dock. As hes tying the winch around the tree, he encounters a dilophosaurus which kills him.• Ellie and Muldoon try to find Alan and the children, but to no avail. Then they find Ian under the demolished bathroom. As they try to look for the children deep inside the jungle, Ian realizes the Tyrannosaurus is near. He orders Ellie and Muldoon to flee, with the Tyrannosaurus chasing after them. The three of them are able to escape in their jeep.• Meanwhile, Alan and the children climb up a high tree to avoid the Tyrannosaurus, and in a distance from the tree, they can see a family of Brachiosaurus• Back at the Visitors centre, being unable to decipher Nedrys code to reactivate the security fences, the group decides to take the drastic measure of rebooting the entire parks computer and electrical network. Arnold refuses at first by worrying that the parks network might not come back on at all, But Hammond pressures him by saying that people are dying. Arnold, along with Ellie, Hammond, Muldoon and Malcolm, shut down the parks grid and retreat to the emergency bunker, from where Arnold heads to the maintenance bunker to reboot the system. When he doesnt return, Ellie and Muldoon decides to head for the bunker. At the same time, Grant and the children discover a nest full of hatched eggs, indicating the dinosaurs are breeding on their own.• As Muldoon and Ellie proceed to the maintenance bunker, Muldoon notices that they are being hunted by Velociraptors. Muldoon is killed by a raptor, while Ellie makes it to the bunker and restarts the parks systems. After Ellie turns the parks systems back on, she almost gets killed by a raptor hidden within some cables; she then discovers Arnolds mutilated remains and narrowly escapes the raptor. At the same time, Tim, Lex and Grant climb an electrified fence out of the parks animal zone and Tim is nearly killed upon the reactivation of the electricity.• Grant and the children head for the visitors center; he leaves them alone in the kitchen while he reunites with Ellie and the others. The kids manage to escape two raptors before reuniting with Grant and Ellie. Lex is able to assist getting the parks security systems working from the control room. Grant contacts Hammond and tells him to call the mainland for rescue, but the two raptors find the group and attack.• The group flees through the vents, only to be cornered in the entrance hall by the raptors, who prepare to strike. However, the Tyrannosaurus breaks into the main hall and attacks the raptors, allowing the foursome to escape outside where they are rescued. Hammond and the others escape via helicopter. Hammond takes one last look at Jurassic Park, before boarding the helicopter. As the helicopter flies away, Grant watches a flock of pelicans gliding over the sea.
CHARACTERS/CAST• Sam Neill as Dr. Alan Grant, a leading paleontologist and main protagonist.• Laura Dern as Dr. Ellie Sattler, a paleobotanist and graduate student of Grants.• Jeff Goldblum as Dr. Ian Malcolm, a mathematician and chaos theorist.• Richard Attenborough as John Hammond, billionaire CEO of InGen and creator of Jurassic Park.• Ariana Richards as Lex Murphy, Hammonds granddaughter.• Joseph Mazzello as Tim Murphy, Hammonds grandson.• Wayne Knight as Dennis Nedry, the disgruntled architect of Jurassic Parks computer systems.• Bob Peck as Robert Muldoon, the parks game warden.• Martin Ferrero as Donald Gennaro, a lawyer who represents Hammonds concerned investors.• Samuel L. Jackson as Ray Arnold, the parks chief engineer.• B. D. Wong as Dr. Henry Wu, the parks chief geneticist.• Cameron Thor as Lewis Dodgson, the head of InGens rival corporation Biosyn.DIRECTED BY STEVEN SPIELBERG
• Sam Neill• Laura Dern• Jeff Golblum• Richard Attenborough• Ariana Richards• Joseph Mazzello• Wayne Knight• Bob Peck
Inspiration• Michael Crichton originally conceived a screenplay about a graduate student who recreates a dinosaur; he continued to wrestle with his fascination with dinosaurs and cloning until he began writing the novel Jurassic Park.• Even before publication, Spielberg learned of the novel in October 1989 and fought to gain rights, giving Crichton 1.5 million before obtaining them in May 1990DIFFERENCES- The book went in to greater detail about how the dinosaurs were created and how they lived on the island. - The characters differ greatly in personality.- The cast of dinosaurs are is much smaller in the film/changed- The ending is completely different-• The books sequel, The Lost World (1995), was also adapted by Spielberg into a film in 1997
MAIN DINOSAURSTyrannosaurus rex was one of the largestmeat-eating dinosaurs that ever lived. Everythingabout this ferocious predator, from its thick, heavyskull to its 4-foot-long (1.2-meter-long) jaw, wasdesigned for maximum bone-crushing action.Fossil evidence shows that Tyrannosaurus wasabout 40 feet (12 meters) long and about 15 to 20feet (4.6 to 6 meters) tall. Its strong thighs and long,powerful tail helped it move quickly, and its massive5-foot-long (1.5-meter-long) skull could bore intoprey.T. rexs serrated, conical teeth were most likely usedto pierce and grip flesh, which it then ripped awaywith its brawny neck muscles. Its two-fingeredforearms could probably seize prey, but they weretoo short to reach its mouth.Scientists believe this powerful predator could eatup to 500 pounds (230 kilograms) of meat in onebite. Fossils of T. rex prey, including Triceratops andEdmontosaurus, suggest T. rex crushed and brokebones as it ate, and broken bones have been foundin its dung.Tyrannosaurus rex lived in forested river valleys inNorth America during the late Cretaceous period. Itbecame extinct about 65 million years ago in theCretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction.
VELOCIRAPTORRecent research suggests that Velociraptor mongoliensis was a feathered dinosaur. A forelimb fossildiscovered in Mongolia showed quill knobs like those found in many modern birds. These telltalefeatures are evidence of where ligaments attached flight feathers to bone and are considered proofthat Velociraptor sported a fine feathery coat.Velociraptor highlights many of the numerous similarities between dinosaurs and birds, which go farbeyond the skin-deep appearance of feathers. Like birds, Velociraptor had hollow bones, tendednests of eggs, and probably behaved in similar ways.Their short forelimbs made lift off impossible, though they may be the evolutionary remnants of anancient ancestors flight-giving wings.Velociraptor was probably one of the more intelligent dinosaurs, because it had a large brainproportionate to its body size. It was formidable on land and, as the name suggests, almost certainlycovered ground quickly. Moving upright on two legs, they may have been able to reach speeds of 24miles an hour (39 kilometers an hour).When they caught up to prey, these predators likely brought them down quickly with a long, 3.5-inch(9-centimeter) retractable claw on each foot and a mouth full of sharp teeth. Velociraptor is known tohave preyed on herbivores such as Protoceratops.( Scientists stress that the Velociraptors portrayed in Jurassic Park areof little resemblance to real Velociraptors)
BRACHIOSAURUSBrachiosaurus was one of the tallest and largest dinosaurs yet found. It had a long neck,small head, and relatively short, thick tail.Brachiosaurus walked on four legs and, like the other Brachiosaurids and unlike mostdinosaurs, its front legs were longer than its hind legs. These unusual front legs togetherwith its very long neck gave Brachiosaurus a giraffe-like stance and great height, up to40-50 feet (12-16 m) tall.Brachiosaurus was about 85 feet (26 m) long, and weighed about 33-88 tons (30-80tonnes). It had a claw on the first toe of each front foot and claws on the first three toesof each rear foot (each foot had five toes with fleshy pads).Brachiosaurus was an herbivore, a plant eater. It probably ate the tops of tall trees withits large spatulate (chisel-shaped) teeth. It swallowed its food whole, without chewing it,digesting the plant material in its gut.Brachiosaurus lived in the middle to late Jurassic period, about 156-145 million yearsago, near the middle of the Mesozoic Era, the Age of Reptiles. Some dating estimateshave Brachiosaurus surviving until 140 million years ago, during the dawn of theCretaceous period. Among the contemporaries of Brachiosaurus were other giantSauropods including Camarasaurus, Supersaurus, Ultrasauros, and Haplocanthosaurus.
Critical• The film was widely acclaimed. High praise was heaped on the visual effects, although there was some criticism leveled at departures from the book.• Janet Maslin of The New York Times called it "a true movie milestone, presenting awe- and fear- inspiring sights never before seen on the screen… On paper, this story is tailor-made for Mr. Spielbergs talents…[but] [i]t becomes less crisp on screen than it was on the page, with much of the enjoyable jargon either mumbled confusingly or otherwise thrown away.“• In Rolling Stone, Peter Travers described the film as "colossal entertainment—the eye-popping, mind-bending, kick-out-the-jams thrill ride of summer and probably the year [...] Compared with the dinos, the characters are dry bones, indeed. Crichton and co-screenwriter David Koepp have flattened them into nonentities on the trip from page to screen.“• Roger Ebert noted, "The movie delivers all too well on its promise to show us dinosaurs. We see them early and often, and they are indeed a triumph of special effects artistry, but the movie is lacking other qualities that it needs even more, such as a sense of awe and wonderment, and strong human story values."[• Empire magazine gave the film five stars, hailing it as "...quite simply one of the greatest blockbusters of all time.• Rotten Tomatoes rated the film a "Certified Fresh" of 89%, with an average score of 7.5 out of 10, mostly from critics giving Jurassic Park a positive write-up with 90% of top critics being positive, and the sites consensus states "Jurassic Park is a spectacle of special effects and life-like animatronics, with some of Spielbergs best sequences of sustained awe and sheer terror since Jaws."[• In 1994, the film won all three Academy Awards it was nominated for: Visual Effects, Sound Effects Editing, and Sound (at the same ceremony, Steven Spielberg, Michael Kahn, and John Williams took home Academy Awards for Schindlers List).