By: Melissa Velez, Alex Nguyen,Anfranee Vanterpool, Jordan Hebbert, Alex Hrenko
After what happened in pearl harbor, FDR had to prepare his army for anything, that could happen. He required that anyone between the ages of 21 and 36 must be registered for military service. Later on FDR shared his vision, of the “four freedoms speech” which is what his army would be fighting for. This was freedom of speech, and expression. Freedom of worship. Freedom of want and last of all freedom of fear. A painter names Norman Rockwell illustrated these four freedoms in a series of paintings.
Many men and women served in World War II, as soldiers, sailors, and aviators. They were all considered GIs. This was considered a “government issue”. -No matter how bad the conditions that soldier went through; deserts, swamps, seas, and skies, the soldiers knew what they were fighting for, even though the dreamed about going home and relaxing.
Itdidn’t matter what your ethnicity was, or where you came from, if you lived in the US and wanted to serve for the country, they let you. There was more than 300,000 Mexican Americans, and 25,000 native Americans that also served. 400 Navajos were recruited to become radio operators. They had a special language, that the enemies could not figure out, so it was perfect for communicating during battle.
Women became more involved with the war, there was about 350,00 American women. Even though they didn’t go into combat, they were used in other areas such as clerks, typists, airfield control tower operators, mechanics, photographers, and drivers.
Women who drive pilots in World War IIWomen who fight for their country
F.D.R knew in order to meet Allied demand. The federal government would have to have to take control of the production of the American businesses. the government had already gained a tremendous amount of power during the New Deal. On January 1942 the (WPB) also know as the War Production Board was created. The program was created so that companies that made nonmilitary goods can quickly be changed to produce war goods. This quickly halted production of most civilian consumers goods. As the war continued many other programs and agencies were created to help with the war production. On May 1943 the president appointed James F.Byrnes a longtime member of congress and close advisors to head the Office of War Mobilization . The office would be like a super agency in the centralization of resources. Henry j Kaiser introduced mass production of the Liberty ships from 400 days to 40.The Liberty ships were large ships carried supplies or troops. In 1944 American production levels doubled those of all the axis nations together. By the middle of 1945 the nations had produced 300,000 airplanes, 100,000 tanks or armored cars ,5,600 ships 2,600 of those were the liberty ships, 6 Million rifles and over 41 billion rounds of ammunition.
The war production benefited the American workers also, ending the massive unemployment of the 1930s unemployment virtually disappear during the war. Not only did people get jobs they were making more money with more people working union membership increased by about 5 million from 1941 to 1915 after pearl harbor labor, and businesses representive agreed to refrain to "locksout" or "strikes". As the cost of living during the war time increased the unions were finding it hard to honor there agreement. the number of strikes rose sharply in the last two years of the war. John.l Lewis head of the united mine workers union called strike on 4 different occasions . in 1943 the workers watched as the cost of living increased while there wages stayed the same. Secretary of the interior Harold l Ickes finally negotiated an agreement with Lewis. Meanwhile congress passed the Smith connally act in June 1943 limiting further striking activity.
The United States to spend whatever was necessary to sustain the war effort. Federal spending increased from 8.9 billion to 95.2 billion between 1939 to 1945 . The Gross National Product more than doubled between 1941 to 1945. The government spent about 321 billion more than 10 times the amount spent on WW1. The tresurary department launched bond drives to encourage Americans to buy war bonds to help finance the war. Total war bond sales totaled about 186 billion dollars. The country could not afford to pay all the war cost so deficit spending allowed a way to postpone some of the payments. Deficit spending raised the national debt from 43 billion dollars to 259 billion dollars from 1940 to 1945.
Wartime jobs gave people extra cash for the first timesince the depression. However shortages and rationinglimited goods for people that could afford it. The supply offood dropped greatly due to demand because thegovernment need food for the military. Worried theshortage of food would cause prices to increase thegovernmnet used tough measures to head off inflation. In1941 The (OPA) or Office of Price Administrations wasestablished due to executive order. The OPAs job was tocontrol inflation by limiting prices and rents.The cost of living had rised but not nearly as much as it didduring WW!.the OPA also oversaw rationing during the war.The goal of rationing was to fairly distribute scarce items.Its issued ration books of coupons worth a certain numberof point for categories of food or clothing.
- With so many good unavailable Americans looked for other ways to spend their money. Civilians bought more books and magazines. They bought recording of popular songs. They flocked to baseball even though most of their favorite players went off to war. Millions of Americans about 60 percent of the population went to the movies every week.
The government understood the need to keep up moral. Itencouraged citizens to participate in the war effort whilepersuading them to accept rationing and conserve preciousresources Roosevelt established the office of warinformation in June 1942 to work with magazinepublishers, advertising agencies, and radio stations. Athired workers and artists to create posters and ads thatstirred Americans patriotic feelings. One popular idea wasthe victory garden, a home vegetable garden planted to asto the home food supply and replace farm produce sent tofeed soldiers. The war became apart of everyday life.people drew their shades for nighttime "blackouts" whichtested there readiness for possible bombing raids. Womenknit scarves and socks or rolled bandages for the red cross.the government encouraged recycling of metal paper andother materials for war production.