Running head: FACILITATORS GUIDE |1 Facilitator’s Guide to Converting a Psychology 353/Communication 353 course from a Traditional Face-to-Face Course to an Online Course Melissa Kunitzer University of Hawai`i at Manoa
Running head: FACILITATORS GUIDE |2 ContextPurpose The purpose of this paper is to explain and create an instructional model that will assistthe instructor in converting their face-to-face Conflict Management and Resolution class to anonline version that utilizes four web 2.0 tools. This course is currently offered in the spring andis also a required course for a bachelors program. Students who are unable to take the time offfrom work to attend the face-to-face class would be held back another year until they are able tocomplete this required course. In offering this course on-line, the class meets the schedulingneeds of working students and also becomes available to other students who may want to take itfrom other campuses or colleges. Online courses provide students with more flexibility. They may attend online classsessions, review recordings of missed sessions, submit all their work via the internet, interactwith their instructor, and participate in discussions, assignments and projects with their fellowstudents synchronously and asynchronously. Location is no longer a determining factor in attendance. Students and instructors are ableto travel while taking an online course and be successful. Online recordings downloaded mayreplace a missed class or be used as a review tool for upcoming examinations.Locus of Control: This instructional model was designed for the instructors of University of Hawai`i MauiCollege (UHMC) Applied Business with Information Technology’s (ABIT)Psychology353/Communication 353 (Psy/Com 353) course. Demographics. UHMC is located in central Maui. It is a small university with an annualenrollment of 4300 students. Students enrolled in the Psy/Com 353 class will be of junior and
Running head: FACILITATORS GUIDE |3senior standing. Ages will range from 19 years to 55 years of age with diverse ethno-sociobackgrounds. Many of the ABIT cohort students are nontraditional students who are older,employed or may be in job transition. ABIT program. The Applied Business and Information Technology (ABIT) program isthe first accredited bachelor’s degree offered by UHMC. It combines a business entrepreneurialeducation with information technology. Most of the upper division courses are offered either inthe fall or spring semester. Required courses are guaranteed to be offered during their specifiedsemester despite low registration, while electives may be cancelled if registration is low. Ifdesired electives are cancelled in one semester but offered in the following semester, the studentsmay then face scheduling conflicts and work load issues which may force the student to graduatea year later. WASC approved standards: The instructor completed a year-long curricular approvalprocess that met the Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC) accreditationstandards for this particular course. See the appendix for the WASC student learning standardsfor this course. Duration and Sequence. This class will meet once or twice a week online for 15 weeks.Online scheduled online classes are in the instructor’s Elluminate Live! vroom. The length of theclass period will be determined by the instructor. It may range from one to a few hours. During the semester, the students will be introduced to four new web tools that they willuse. Introduction to the new web tools is vital for the students’ success in the course. The firstclass will be used to familiarize the students with Elluminate Live! and Google Docs.Assignments from the first week will require the students to utilize Skype and Google Docs tocomplete their collaborative work. After the first weeks’ in-class and homework collaboration
Running head: FACILITATORS GUIDE |4work, the students should start to be more comfortable with utilizing the required asynchronousand synchronous web tools for the remainder of the course. Students will refer to the coursewebsite for the schedule and assignment descriptions.
Running head: FACILITATORS GUIDE |5 Implementation The instructors will obtain an Elluminate Live! vroom from the Instructional Designcoordinators at the college. Currently the college has two instructors who have been usingElluminate Live in the past school year. The instructors will create a Gmail and Skype account.They will also create or contract services to create a website for the course. The website will include pertinent information about the course. A sample website hasbeen created to demonstrate how it will look and function. The web address ishttp://psycom353.weebly.com. This website is organized so that navigation is as error free aspossible. There are pages with links to other pages located within it, such as the Schedule page. Itwill contain all of the weekly assignments, readings and videos. Creating a well constructedcourse web site will assist the instructor in the future since the website can be used repeatedly.The only aspects of it that will change are the dates to reflect the current semester. Prior to the start of the semester, the instructors should have the accounts and websitecreated. Instructors should also become versed in Elluminate Live, Skype and Google Docs priorto the first day of instruction. If the instructors are not familiar with any of the web tools, thereare tutorials or FAQs located at Elluminate: https://laulima.hawaii.edu/access/content/group/b5ed46a8-3c3f-4f2d- b2aa-9ef3bf7086ee/HTML/support/index.html Skype: http://www.skype.com/intl/en-us/support/user-guides/ Google Docs: http://www.google.com/google-d-s/tour1.html Podcast: http://radio.about.com/od/createyourownpodcast/ss/How-to-Create- Your-Own-Podcast-Make-Your-Own-Talk-Show-Music-Program-or-Audio- Stream.htm
Running head: FACILITATORS GUIDE |6 Elluminate Live does offer a feature that records the session so it can be accessed later forreview. This feature is very handy and convenient by students who’ve missed a class or are inneed of reviews. But this feature may not be accessible by Iphone or other digital devices that donot support Java or Flash. The instructors should use Elluminate Live for each scheduled class. I recommend that Google Docs be introduced during the first half of the first scheduledclass. The students will use create a Gmail and Skype account and contribute their contactinformation to a class roster document that the instructor will create in her Google Docs and sendto the students’ Gmail address. During this activity, the students will learn how to access GoogleDocs, access a shared document and contribute to that document. The benefit of this activity isthe students will see the real time typing and changes made to document as each student entershis/her contact information. Information shared will be limited to Gmail address, Skype name,UH email, and name. Any other information is not needed. During the second half of class the instructor could have the students do an ice breakeractivity using Skype. The instructor will send an email to each student asking the students toanswer a question. Responses will be known only to the teacher and student. Student will berequired to add all students and instructors to their Skype contact list. The instructor will send asan email to each student a document that will require students to “skype” each other to fill in thequestions. At the end of the activity, the instructor will then invite all the students to a GoogleDoc and everyone will discuss in Elluminate who fits the descriptions best. Since the instructors will be using their computers to conduct the class, they can alsorecord an audio or video version of it to upload as a podcast. Podcasts can when students are notable to listen to the Elluminate recordings on their phones. There are a few websites that can
Running head: FACILITATORS GUIDE |7assist with creating podcasts. The podcasts can then be embedded or a link can be added in thewebsite. Podbean.com : http://radio.about.com/gi/o.htm?zi=1/XJ&zTi=1&sdn=radio&cdn=gadgets&tm=9 &f=10&su=p504.1.336.ip_&tt=29&bt=1&bts=0&st=16&zu=http%3A//www.pod bean.com/ Aktiv MP3 Recorder: http://www.goforsharing.com/index.php/home-mainmenu- 1/aktiv-mp3-recorder-mainmenu-130
Running head: FACILITATORS GUIDE |8 Research Delivery of the course work and interaction between students and instructors will bedelivered solely online using six different web tools. Asynchronous tools used will be Laulimaand Google Docs. Synchronous tools used will be podcasts, Skype, and Elluminate Live!. Thecourse will also have a website that will contain detailed course information and schedules notfound in Laulima.Asynchronous Asynchronous learning can be beneficial to students who are busy or with conflictingschedules and are not able to attend synchronous learning sessions whether it be face-to-face oronline. Students can use asynchronous methods to obtain reading materials, assignments orcontribute to group’s collaboration assignments or projects. Some of the different asynchronousmethods include Podcasts, Laulima, and Google Docs. Podcasts. Podcasts (personal on demand broadcasts) are recordings that can bedownloaded anywhere at any time. Different types of podcasts include audio lectures, videos,and slide show presentations. Podcast links could be contained within a learning platform likeLaulima or the course website and be downloaded individually or by RSS feed subscription forautomatic updates and downloads. Nast, Schafer-Hesterberg, Zielke, Sterry and Rzany (2009)found in their study that 80% of the students surveyed, whose face-to-face lectures wererecorded to podcasts, did report that they benefited from the e-learning program. Most of thestudents used the podcast recordings as a supplement to their readings or as a review forexaminations. Lee and Chan (2007) described podcasting as a “low-cost, low-barrier solution for thetimely delivery of content as it becomes available, ready for transfer to or synchronization with a
Running head: FACILITATORS GUIDE |9portable device.” Harris and Park described podcasting as having different usagescharacteristics. This course could utilize podcasting as Teaching-driven where it could providelecture content for review, summarizing or additional content that was not mentioned earlier. Itcan also have Service-driven characteristics where it could be used by students to deliver theirrequired Group project that is due at the end of the semester. This method of presentationprovides the students with more flexibility and opportunities to be creative in their presentationand also allows the audience to view the presentation at their leisure (Harris, & Park, 2008). Laulima. Enrolled students should be already familiar with the first tool, Laulima if theywere previously enrolled in the University of Hawai`i system or if they transferred from acollege system that also used Sakai. Laulima will enable the students to: (a) retrieve the syllabus,(b) course information, (c) receive announcements, (d) submit their homework and journals, (e)create and participate in discussions, (f) download podcasts of video presentations and slideshow presentations, and (g) email instructors and classmates. Google Docs. Google’s application suite offers different tools that can be utilized bystudents and instructors for collaboration and organization. If a student can’t afford to purchaseMicrosoft Office or can’t download Open Office, Google Docs will fill the void. Google Docsallows you to create, access, edit and share your documents online from any computer. If youwant to share your document, after entering the recipient’s email, Google Docs will send amessage to them informing them that you have shared a document and they can find yourdocument in their Google Docs. Team collaboration can take place synchronously or asynchronously. If it occurssynchronously, you can see the person typing and making changes in real time. There are nowaiting periods like those accompanied with email or instant messages. The tool automatically
Running head: FACILITATORS GUIDE | 10saves the document after the typing stops. Devon Adams states in his paper that by having hisclassroom’s documents online, this can also eliminate all need for printing. Turning inhomework, reviews, and grading can be done online as well. Students can no longer say that theyforgot their homework at home or accidentally deleted it if it is on Google Docs (Adams, 2009).Synchronous Elluminate Live! and Skype. Students moving from a face-to-face, traditional class toan online class may experience difficulties adjusting to the delivery differences. A questioncould be raised as to would it be possible to maintain the same quality of learning experience orlessen the loss of experience in an online environment that would be experienced in face-to-faceclass? If the materials and course work is the same or increased, will that make up for the visualand social interaction that is lost? According to Michael Moore’s theory of transactional distanceit is a common mistake to over-structure the course program so that it resembles one-way mediapresentations (such as televised classes) and in the process neglect the potential for dialogue thatcould be achieved by having a looser structure. McBrien, Jones and Cheng (2009) summarizedthat the more rigid the course structure, delivery and organization the more likely there will behigher levels transactional distance experienced by the student. Synchronous classes that are designed well and conducted in a supportive environmentcan create a positive learning experience for students while within a loose course structure. In astudy of graduate students, Maushack and Ou (2007) found that collaborative interactions inonline project based learning or collaboration can be similar to the same interactions found inface-to-face situations. Their recommendations for success are to (1) keep the group size small,(2) assign a group leader, (3) have the students get to know each other through other assignmentsbefore they start the larger project, (4) have the instructor participate on a random basis by
Running head: FACILITATORS GUIDE | 11having the instructor join a Skype or Elluminate breakout room, (5) use a communication toolthat will allow emoticons. Student often use emoticons to express what they feel and arecomfortable with that form of communication (Maushak & Ou, 2007). By not restricting studentstoo much, this allows for greater dialogue, a more comfortable environment where ideas,opinions and discussions can take place with trust and understanding.Web-based Course Website. A course web site will assist in as a central hub of information that thestudents could rely on. It will contain information such as (a) the syllabus, (b) the coursecalendar or schedule, (c) information of the teachers, contact information, important webaddresses, (d) information about the web tools used and any links to tutorials or assistance, (e)forums, reading material information, (f) contain links of podcasts and Elluminate sessionrecordings, and (g) assignments and group project details. I’ve made a mock web site of how itcould look. The web address is www.psycom353.weebly.com .
Running head: FACILITATORS GUIDE | 12 AppendixAssessment of Intended Student Learning Outcomes Standards(Scale 0-3 - 3 highest) PSY/COM 353Standard 1 - Written CommunicationOutcome 1.1 - Use writing to discover and articulate ideas. 2Outcome 1.2 - Identify and analyze the audience and purpose for anyintended communication. 1Outcome 1.3 - Choose language, style, and organization appropriate toparticular purposes and audiences. 2Outcome 1.4 - Gather information and document sources appropriately. 2Outcome 1.5 - Express a main idea as a thesis, hypothesis, or otherappropriate statement. 2Outcome 1.6 - Develop a main idea clearly and concisely with appropriatecontent. 2Outcome 1.7 - Demonstrate a mastery of the conventions of writing,including grammar, spelling, and mechanics. 2Outcome 1.8 - Demonstrate proficiency in revision and editing. 1Outcome 1.9 - Develop a personal voice in written communication. 0Standard 2 - Quantitative ReasoningOutcome 2.1 - Apply numeric, graphic, and symbolic skills and other formsof quantitative reasoning accurately and appropriately. 0Outcome 2.2 - Demonstrate mastery of mathematical concepts, skills, andapplications, using technology when appropriate. 0Outcome 2.3 - Communicate clearly and concisely the methods and results ofquantitative problem solving. 0Outcome 2.4 - Formulate and test hypotheses using numericalexperimentation. 0Outcome 2.5 - Define quantitative issues and problems, gather relevantinformation, analyze that information, and present results. 0Outcome 2.6 - Assess the validity of statistical conclusions. 0
Running head: FACILITATORS GUIDE | 13Standard 3 - Information Retrieval and TechnologyOutcome 3.1 - Use print and electronic information technology ethically andresponsibly. 1Outcome 3.2 - Demonstrate knowledge of basic vocabulary, concepts, andoperations of information retrieval and technology. 1Outcome 3.3 - Recognize, identify, and define an information need. 1Outcome 3.4 - Access and retrieve information through print and electronicmedia, evaluating the accuracy and authenticity of that information. 2Outcome 3.5 - Create, manage, organize, and communicate informationthrough electronic media. 1Outcome 3.6 - Recognize changing technologies and make informed choicesabout their appropriateness and use. 0Standard 4 - Oral CommunicationOutcome 4.1 - Identify and analyze the audience and purpose of any intendedcommunication. 3Outcome 4.2 - Gather, evaluate, select, and organize information for thecommunication. 3Outcome 4.3 - Use language, techniques, and strategies appropriate to theaudience and occasion. 3Outcome 4.4 - Speak clearly and confidently, using the voice, volume, tone,and articulation appropriate to the audience and occasion. 3Outcome 4.5 - Summarize, analyze, and evaluate oral communications andask coherent questions as needed. 3Outcome 4.6 - Use competent oral expression to initiate and sustaindiscussions. 3Standard 5 - Critical ThinkingOutcome 5.1 - Identify and state problems, issues, arguments, and questionscontained in a body of information. 3Outcome 5.2 - Identify and analyze assumptions and underlying points ofview relating to an issue or problem. 3Outcome 5.3 - Formulate research questions that require descriptive andexplanatory analyses. 2Outcome 5.4 - Recognize and understand multiple modes of inquiry,including investigative methods based on observation and analysis. 3
Running head: FACILITATORS GUIDE | 14Outcome 5.5 - Evaluate a problem, distinguishing between relevant andirrelevant facts, opinions, assumptions, issues, values, and biases through theuse of appropriate evidence. 3Outcome 5.5 - Evaluate a problem, distinguishing between relevant andirrelevant facts, opinions, assumptions, issues, values, and biases through theuse of appropriate evidence. 3Outcome 5.6 - Apply problem-solving techniques and skills, including therules of logic and logical sequence. 3Outcome 5.7 - Synthesize inform from various sources, drawing appropriateconclusions. 3Outcome 5.8 - Communicate clearly and concisely the methods and results oflogical reasoning. 2Outcome 5.9 - Reflect upon and evaluate their thought processes, valuesystem, and world views in comparison to those of others. 3
Running head: FACILITATORS GUIDE | 15 ReferencesAdams, D. (2008). Gaga for google in the twenty-first century advanced placement language classroom. Clearing House, 82(2), 96-100.Harris, H, & Park, S. (2008). Educational usages of podcasting. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(3), 548-551.Lee, M., & Chan, A. (2007). Pervasive, lifestyle-integrated mobile learning for distance learners: an analysis and unexpected results from a podcasting study. Open Learning, 22(3), 201- 218. Retrieved from ERIC database. http://eres.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?dir ect=true&db=eric&AN=EJ776788&site=ehost-liveMaushak, N., & Ou, C. (2007). Using synchronous communication to facilitate graduate students’ online collaboration. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 8(2), 161-169. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database. http://eres.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?dir ect=true&db=aph&AN=26266359&site=ehost-live This study supports Maushak’s earlier study that found an overall satisfaction with taking an online course in regards to interaction and management factors.McBrien, J, Jones, P, & Cheng, R. (2009). Virtual spaces: employing a synchronous online classroom to facilitate student engagement in online learning. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 10(3), Retrieved from ERIC database. http://eres.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?dir
Running head: FACILITATORS GUIDE | 16 ect=true&db=eric&AN=EJ847763&site=ehost-liveMoore, M. (1997). Theory of transactional distance. In D Keegan (Ed.), Theoretical Principles of Distance Education (pp. 22-38). New York: Routledge.Nast, A., Schäfer-Hesterberg, G., Zielke, H., Sterry, W., & Rzany, B. (2009). Online lectures for students in dermatology: A replacement for traditional teaching or a valuable addition?. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology & Venereology, 23(9), 1039-1043. doi:10.1111/j.1468-3083.2009.03246.x. http://eres.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?dir ect=true&db=aph&AN=43459893&site=ehost-liveSkylar, A. (2009). A comparison of asynchronous online text-based lectures and synchronous interactive web conferencing lectures. Issues in Teacher Education, 18(2), 69-84. Retrieved from ERIC database. http://eres.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?dir ect=true&db=eric&AN=EJ858506&site=ehost-live