Breastcancer genes-ppt

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Breastcancer genes-ppt

  1. 1. Breast Cancer, Genes, and the Environment UNC-Chapel Hill Center for Environmental Health and Susceptibility Funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), P30ES10126 Collaborators: Breast Cancer Coalition of North Carolina, University of Cincinnati 11/2005
  2. 2. Goals • To learn about breast cancer risks • To learn how individual genetics and environmental factors may contribute to increased breast cancer risk • To identify risk reduction activities
  3. 3. What Is Breast Cancer? • Cells in the breast grow out of control and form a lump Lobules Ducts • Lumps can either be benign or malignant • Malignant growths are called breast cancer
  4. 4. Risks for Breast Cancer Personal Environmental
  5. 5. Personal Estrogen-Related Risks • Early menstruation Before 12yrs old -- increased risk • Oral contraceptives Increased risk dissipates since time of last use • Child bearing First child born after age 30 -- increased risk No children -- increased risk
  6. 6. Personal Estrogen-Related Risks • Breastfeeding 12+months -- decreased risk • Late menopause After 55yrs old -- increased risk • Long-term hormone replacement therapy More than 5yrs -- increased risk
  7. 7. Other Personal Risks • Being age 55 or older • Having breast cancer previously • Family history of breast cancer • Some types of breast disease • Dense breast tissue
  8. 8. Family History • Shared genetic makeup • Shared lifestyle • Similar environmental exposure
  9. 9. A Quick Science Lesson Genes: Present in all cells and help provide instructions for how to build and maintain a human.
  10. 10. A Quick Science Lesson
  11. 11. A Quick Science Lesson Environment: Everything around you. (air, water, diet, home, workplace, etc.)
  12. 12. Hereditary Genetic Risks • 5-10% of breast cancer is caused by inherited genetic mutations. • 2-5% caused by inherited mutations in BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 genes.
  13. 13. Gene-Environment Interaction Individual Susceptibility Environmental Exposure No Breast Cancer Breast Cancer
  14. 14. Environmental Risk Factors and Preventive Steps • Alcohol One or more drinks/day -- increased risk • Diet High in fruits and vegetables -- decreased risk • Exercise Regular exercise -- decreased risk • Weight Maintaining healthy weight -- decreased risk
  15. 15. Environmental Risk • Toxins can damage breast DNA. Over time damaged DNA can lead to cancer. • Exposure to high doses of radiation, such as for treating Hodgkin’s disease, in women under 30 shows increased risk for breast cancer.
  16. 16. Environmental Risk • Organochlorines such as DDT and PCBs No association with increased breast cancer risk • Electromagnetic fields No association with increased breast cancer risk Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project, 2002 Carolina Breast Cancer Study, 2001
  17. 17. Environmental Risk • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) Produced when coal, oil, gas, garbage, or other organic substances are burned Can damage DNA • Smoking Passive smoking – long-term smoking spouse Smoking – teenager Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project, 2002
  18. 18. Screening for Breast Cancer • Breast self-exam • Clinical breast exam + + • Annual mammogram after + age 40 + • Early diagnosis increases + + chance of survival
  19. 19. Questions? Kathleen Gray, Acting Director UNC CEHS Community Outreach and Education Program (919) 966-9799 kgray@unc.edu Diana Degen, Research Associate UNC CEHS Community Outreach and Education Program (919) 966-2463 degen@email.unc.edu

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