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4.3

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reduce Earthquake damage

reduce Earthquake damage

Published in: Education, Technology
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  • 1. Earthquake Damage can be Reduced
  • 2. Why do we care about Earthquakes?
    • Earthquakes can cause severe damage and loss of life.
    • Earthquakes are most dangerous when the epicenter is near a heavily populated area
      • Most injuries are not caused by the movement of the ground.
      • They are caused by collapsing buildings and structure fires due to broken natural-gas lines, electrical lines, etc.
  • 3. Which do you think caused more injuries to people? Recently plowed field, 1979, California Haiti, 2010
  • 4. Earthquake Magnitude
    • Richter Scale - measures magnitude by how fast the ground moves at a seismic station
  • 5. Earthquake Magnitude
    • Moment magnitude scale - based on the total amount of energy released by earthquakes; more accurate than Richter for larger earthquakes
    This information is used to help predict where/when an earthquake is likely to occur
  • 6. Damage from Earthquakes
    • Aftershock - a smaller earthquake that follows a more powerful earthquake in the same area
    • Landslides often occur as a result of earthquakes.
  • 7. Damage from Earthquakes
    • Liquefaction - a process in which shaking of the ground causes soil to act like a liquid
  • 8. Damage from Earthquakes
    • Tsunami - a water wave triggered by an earthquake, volcanic eruption, or landslide
      • These special waves will rise more than the height of a 20 story building.
  • 9. Tsunamis
    • Can travel thousands of miles without weakening.
    • Can reach speeds of 430 mi/hr.
    • In the open ocean the tsunami may only reach about 3 ft. in height. As they get closer to the shore they slow down and gain height.
  • 10. Scientists work to monitor and predict earthquakes.
    • Scientists cannot yet predict the day or even the year when an earthquake will strike.
    • Sometimes there are warning signs, sometimes none at all.
    • Scientists give long term predictions. They may state that an area has a 60% chance of having a magnitude 7 or higher earthquake in the next 25 years.
  • 11. Scientists work to monitor and predict earthquakes.
    • Scientists study seismic activity along faults all over the world. They monitor stress that is building up in rocks.
      • Signs of stress buildup
      • Tilts or changes in elevation of the ground.
      • Slow movements or stretching of rocks.
      • Development of small cracks in the ground.

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