Fredericksburg and ChancellorsvillePresentation Transcript
Battles of Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville Chancellorsville May 1-4, 1863 Fredericksburg December 11-14, 1862
What turnover in leadership occurred after Antietam?
Ambrose Burnside became the new commander of the Union forces since the politicians felt that George McClellan was becoming too cautious and did not turn his advantageous position at Antietam into a total victory.
Why did the fighting ensue at Fredericksburg?
Ambrose Burnside wanted to make a campaign towards Richmond, and the Confederates had begun to encamp for the Winter at Fredericksburg, where Burnsides troops met them.
Burnside ordered the creation of 3 pontoon boat bridges so that the Union could cross the Rappahannock River and move into Fredericksburg.
Pontoon Boats used in the Battle of Fredericksburg for crossing the Rappahannock River
How did Ambrose Burnside plan on attacking Robert E. Lee at Fredericksburg?
William Franklin of the Union was expected to make a diversionary attack to the South, upon the lines of “Stonewall” Jackson
Edwin Sumner and Joseph Hooker attacked James Longstreet in the Center of the Confederate defense.
Effects of the Union attack on December 13, 1862
William Franklin’s troops had some success and created a gap in “Stonewall” Jackson’s lines, but reinforcements soon plugged the hole and turned Franklin’s Union troops away.
The Union troops under Edwin Sumner and Joseph Hooker led 14 assaults upon Marye’s Heights at the center of the Confederate Defense, not gaining any ground throughout the day.
“ The Stone Wall”
End of the Battle of Fredericksburg
Ambrose Burnside was humiliated by Robert E. Lee’s Confederate troops and retreated back over the Rappahannock River.
Ambrose Burnside would be replaced by Joseph Hooker after Fredericksburg
Union- 12,653 lost
Confederacy- 5,377 lost
Review- The Sites
The Battle of Chancellorsville May 1-4, 1863
How did the Battle of Chancellorsville begin?
Joseph Hooker had taken over as the Union Commander after the failed Battle of Fredericksburg
As the Winter of 1862-1863 set in, the Confederates camped at Fredericksburg as the Union camped just across the Rappahannock River from the Confederates.
How did the Battle of Chancellorsville begin?
Joseph Hooker sent John Sedgewick eastward on the banks of the Rappahannock River to create a diversion while he and the rest of the Union Army of the Potomac marched West in a flanking movement against the Confederates.
The Plan was that Hooker and the Union would cross the Rappahannock and the Rapidan Rivers without Lee knowing their movements.
The Battle of Chancellorsville Begins, May 1, 1863
Robert E. Lee and the Confederates found out about the presence of the Union when some of his troops scuffled with the enemy in the dense forests of the Wilderness just Southeast of Joseph Hooker’s main positioning.
Robert E. Lee planned to encounter the enemy at Chancellorsville and sent Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson on a Wilderness march to attack the troops of Oliver Howard.
“ Stonewall” Jackson moves through the Wilderness
Chaplain B.F.C. Lane told Robert E. Lee that he could navigate his way through the Wilderness
This attack would be perfect because “Stonewall” Jackson’s troops would exit the Wilderness ready to fight the relatively untrained German Immigrant soldiers under Union Major General Oliver Howard.
The dense forests of the Wilderness Oliver Howard, Union Major General
“ Stonewall” Jackson’s troops are successful on May 2 and the Rest of the Rebel Army arrives at Chancellorsville
“ Stonewall” Jackson’s troops encounter Oliver Howard’s Union troops while they are simply sitting around cooking dinner and playing cards, not ready for battle. Some surrender and most scatter back towards the Chancellors House and other Union lines.
The Chancellor’s House- the Headquarters of the Union army at Chancellorsville
On the evening of May 2, 1863, “Stonewall” Jackson is shot
When returning from a reconnaissance mission, the Confederate troops mistake “Stonewall” Jackson and others for Union cavalry.
Jackson was shot in the left arm
Jackson had the arm amputated but died from pneumonia 8 days later.
The site of the “Stonewall” Jackson shooting
May 3 Fighting
The next day, the Confederates attacked the concentrated Union lines primarily with Artillery fire (cannon). The cannon fire struck the Chancellor’s House and rocked its foundations, leaving Joseph Hooker badly injured.
Hooker gave the lead to Darius Couch as the Union lines reformed 1 mile Northwest of their previous positioning.
Hooker wanted Couch to reform and strike the Confederates but he decided not to attack.
End to the Battle of Chancellorsville
That diversionary Union force of John Sedgewick was now fighting Jubal Early on the Fredericksburg Heights, so Robert E. Lee returned to Fredericksburg to fend Sedgewick off.
The North lost again and suffered complete humiliation as they more than doubled the amount of Confederate troops at Chancellorsville but could not gain victory.