Chapter 20 World War I Powerpoint


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Chapter 20 World War I Powerpoint

  1. 1. World War I The Domino Effect that led to the War, the Largest Battles, the entrance of the United States, and the Fourteen Points
  2. 2. The Assassination <ul><li>June 28, 1914. In an attempt to regain the former prominence exhibited by his home country of Serbia, Gavrilo Princip*, a Serbian Nationalist of the terrorist Black Hand Organization, assassinated the heir to the Austro-Hungarian Throne, Archduke Francis Ferdinand. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Confession <ul><li>Danilo Ilich is captured along with the members of the assassin party. Ilich confesses that the weapons used in the assassination were provided by the Serbian National Government. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Domino Effect begins… <ul><li>Austria-Hungary demands that Serbia punish those that took part in the plot to assassinate Franz Ferdinand. </li></ul><ul><li>Serbia takes no action, which causes Austria-Hungary to declare war upon Serbia. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Domino Effect <ul><li>Central Powers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Austria-Hungary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ottoman Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Triple Alliance/Entente </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serbia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belgium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(1917) United States </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Map detailing the Allied Powers and Central Powers entering the War in 1914
  7. 7. German Battle Plan <ul><li>The Germans hoped to defeat the French quickly so that they could concentrate upon their Eastern border in fighting against Russia, remaining out of a tender situation of fighting a war upon two fronts. The main plan was to take Paris, and they mistakenly brought Belgium into the War on the side of the Allies by invading France through Belgium. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Big Battles <ul><li>September 5-12, 1914 marks the Battle of the Marne in France. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The French defended Paris barely as the Germans came within 30 miles of city. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Casualties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allied </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>263,000 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Central </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>250,000 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. German Battle Plan- The Schlieffen Plan
  10. 10. Battle of Marne, France
  11. 11. Battle of Marne, France, 1914 <ul><li>French forces had been on the run since the beginning of the War and it seemed as though the Germans would sack Paris and destroy the French forces here at the Marne River. </li></ul><ul><li>On September 8, French reinforcements numbering 6,000 were ferried to the field in 600 taxi cabs and the French led an offensive and encircled the </li></ul><ul><li>German Second Army on September 8 th through </li></ul><ul><li>the 9 th . </li></ul><ul><li>After learning that their army was encircled, the Germans decided to retreat and entrench themselves towards Northeastern France, toward the Aisne River </li></ul><ul><li>The German retreat between September 9th and September 13th marked the abandonment of the Schlieffen Plan. Moltke, the German commander, is said to have reported to the German Kaiser Wilhelm: &quot;Your Majesty, we have lost the war.&quot; In the aftermath of the battle, both sides dug in and four years of stalemate ensued. </li></ul>
  12. 13. 6,000 miles of Trench lines span the Northeastern border of France
  13. 15. Big Battles <ul><li>Battle of Somme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>July 1- November 18, 1916 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First day was the bloodiest day in the history of Great Britain as the British lost around 58,000 due to casualties. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall Losses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allied </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over 571,000 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Central </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>434,000 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Battle of Somme, France
  15. 17. Battle of Somme, France <ul><li>The Allied Forces, especially the British Expeditionary Force, learned quickly about trench warfare as the first day of the Battle of Somme brought them nearly 58,000 casualties. </li></ul><ul><li>The Allies attempted to break through the German entrenchments as the Germans simply remained in the trenches and allowed the British to attack directly into their 10 shrapnel-filled land mines, one of which sent 21 tons of shrapnel into the attackers. </li></ul><ul><li>Few Allied attackers did make it to the German trenches, but without reinforcement, they were quickly executed by the German forces. </li></ul><ul><li>The Germans only suffered 8,000 casualties on the first day of this Battle of Somme, bringing the total casualty count to 66,000. </li></ul><ul><li>For the next 5 months, the two sides dug in and remained in a stalemate until the Germans retreated, this retreat only being a five mile retreat back towards the German border, where trench fighting would continue. </li></ul>
  16. 18. Entrance of the United States <ul><li>May 7, 1915, the Germans sank the British cruise ship, the Lusitania, killing 128 Americans, causing Woodrow Wilson to warn the Germans away from sinking American ships, giving them an ultimatum of possible war. </li></ul>
  17. 19. United States Entry <ul><li>The Germans continued to bomb United States trade ships with their U-boats, bringing the United States into the War in 1917. Woodrow Wilson immediately called for a draft, and the initial draft selected 4 Million Americans. Throughout 1917, the average of troops sent per day to assist the allies was roughly 10,000 troops. </li></ul>
  18. 20. 1917, Russia leaves the war. <ul><li>Discontent within Russia led to a rise in popularity of the Bolshevik Party, led by Vladimir Lenin. He promised to pull Russia out of the war and was able to gain power. The triumph of the Bolsheviks in November was followed in December by an armistice and negotiations with Germany. At first, the Bolsheviks refused to agree to the harsh German terms. But when Germany resumed the war and marched towards Russia, the new government accepted a treaty with the Germans on March 3, 1918. It took Russia out of the war and ceded vast territories, including Finland, and parts of Poland and Ukraine to the Central Powers. </li></ul><ul><li>The publication by the new Bolshevik government of the secret treaties were hailed across the world, either as a great step forward for the respect of the will of the people, or as a dreadful catastrophe which could destabilize the world. The existence of a new type of government in Russia led to the reinforcement in many countries of Communist Parties. </li></ul><ul><li>After the Russians dropped out of the war, the three country Entente no longer existed. </li></ul>
  19. 21. Ending of the War <ul><li>The entrance of the United States forces allowed the Allies to continue offensive attacks in Northeastern France and in 1918 led to the Meuse-Argonne Offensive which gained considerable ground in moving the Germans back to the border, exposing the fact that Germany could no longer muster a defense. </li></ul><ul><li>On October 30, 1918, the Ottoman Empire signed a cease-fire, with Austria-Hungary waiving a flag of truce on November 3, and, finally, Germany gave in and signed an armistice on November 1, 1918. </li></ul>
  20. 22. Total World War I Casualties--- almost 39,000,000 <ul><li>Allied Powers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known Military dead: 5,520,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military wounded: 12,831,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military missing: 4,121,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total casualties=22, 472,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Central Powers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known Military dead: 4,386,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military wounded : 8,388,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military missing: 3,629,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total Casualties= 16,403,000 </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. $33 Billion in Reparations and Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points <ul><li>Covenants of Peace between the warring nations and open diplomacy between involved nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute Freedom of Navigation upon the seas </li></ul><ul><li>The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the establishment of equality of trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point </li></ul><ul><li>A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims </li></ul><ul><li>Russia as will secure the best and freest cooperation of the other nations of the world in obtaining for her an unhampered and unembarrassed opportunity for the independent determination of her own political development and national policy and assure her of a sincere welcome into the society of free nations </li></ul><ul><li>Belgium, the whole world will agree, must be evacuated and restored, without any attempt to limit the sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored </li></ul><ul><li>The peoples of Austria-Hungary should be accorded the freest opportunity to autonomous development. </li></ul><ul><li>The Turkish portion of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>An independent Polish should be erected which should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish populations </li></ul><ul><li>A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike. </li></ul>