What were the main issues in government during the time of the 1870’s and 1880’s (What all is going on in this time period)?
What did it mean to be a Captain of Industry? What did it mean to be a Robber Baron?
The Entrepreneurs and their achievements <ul><li>Andrew Carnegie </li></ul><ul><li>a. How did Carnegie begin his  working ...
Andrew Carnegie <ul><li>b. What business did Carnegie start that made him a very rich entrepreneur? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Andrew Carnegie <ul><li>c. How did Carnegie attempt to control the entire Steel Industry? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CARNEGIE C...
Andrew Carnegie <ul><li>d. What significant philanthropic contributions did Andrew Carnegie make to society? </li></ul><ul...
John D. Rockefeller <ul><li>a. How did Rockefeller begin his working life?  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HE BECAME THE ASSISTANT ...
John D. Rockefeller <ul><li>b. When did Rockefeller get his start in business?  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IN 1858, HE STARTED ...
John D. Rockefeller <ul><li>c. Rockefeller’s first true successful business venture took place as he invested in a  Meat a...
John D. Rockefeller <ul><li>f. How did Samuel Dodd, Rockefeller’s attorney, devise a plan to control the oil industry? </l...
John D. Rockefeller <ul><li>g. How did the Sherman Anti-trust Act eventually regulate the Standard Oil Trust? </li></ul><u...
J.P. Morgan <ul><li>a. Where did J.P. Morgan begin his working life?  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HE STARTED AS AN AGENT AND ATT...
J.P. Morgan <ul><li>b. How did J.P. Morgan begin his life as an entrepreneur? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HE BECAME A  PARTNER I...
J.P. Morgan <ul><li>c. What electric company merger did Morgan organize?  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EDISON GENERAL  ELECTRIC A...
J.P. Morgan <ul><li>f. What sorts of philanthropic contributions did J.P. Morgan make to society? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MO...
Immigration and Labor Unions The beginning of heavy immigration from Eastern Europe and Russia, along with the worker soli...
5. Why did Immigration increase greatly during the period of 1864? <ul><li>AS BUSINESSES GREW, THE NEED FOR WORKERS ALSO G...
6. What was the average workday for factory workers and did any states push for a shorter workday? <ul><li>The Average Wor...
7. Worker Safety- what were the average amount of workers killed on the job each week in 1882? <ul><li>675 workers were ki...
8. What percentage of American workers were children (age 10 and younger)?  <ul><li>5% , with many children working with t...
9. How spread out was wealth within America in the late 1800’s?   <ul><li>NOT SPREAD OUT WHATSOEVER, THE RICHEST 9% OF AME...
10. In 1848, Karl Marx and Frederich Engles created the Communist Manifesto, which pushed for Socialism and denounced the ...
Section IV. Labor Unions and Strikes 11. What was the first Labor Union?   <ul><li>THE FEDERAL SOCIETY OF JOURNEYMEN CORDW...
12. What was the first relatively successful Labor Union?  <ul><li>KNIGHTS OF LABOR  (THE NATIONAL TRADES UNION WAS SOMEWH...
12. What did the Knights of Labor rally for?  <ul><li>EQUAL PAY FOR EQUAL WORK </li></ul><ul><li>AN 8 HOUR WORKDAY </li></...
13. American Federation of Labor <ul><li>a. When was the AFL created?  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1886 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>b...
14. Name the 5 ways that Employers attempted to end membership in Labor Unions. <ul><li>FORBID ANY UNION MEETINGS </li></u...
15. Railroad Strike of 1877 <ul><li>a. Why did this Strike Occur?  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>– BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILROAD ANN...
16. Homestead Riot of 1892 <ul><li>a. What caused this riot? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>– ANDREW CARNEGIE WAS ON A TRIP IN EURO...
17. Pullman Strike of 1894 <ul><li>a. Why did this strike occur? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>– GEORGE PULLMAN, A RAIL CAR MAKER ...
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Chapter 14 Immigration and Labor Unions

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Chapter 14 Immigration and Labor Unions

  1. 1. What were the main issues in government during the time of the 1870’s and 1880’s (What all is going on in this time period)?
  2. 2. What did it mean to be a Captain of Industry? What did it mean to be a Robber Baron?
  3. 3. The Entrepreneurs and their achievements <ul><li>Andrew Carnegie </li></ul><ul><li>a. How did Carnegie begin his working life? CARNEGIE WORKED IN A COTTON MILL AT THE AGE OF 13 AND LATER WAS A SECRETARY TO THE SUPERINTENDENT OF THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD AT 18, MAKING HIS A TRUE RAGS TO RICHES STORY </li></ul>
  4. 4. Andrew Carnegie <ul><li>b. What business did Carnegie start that made him a very rich entrepreneur? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IN THE 1870’S CARNEGIE STARTED THE FIRST STEEL MILLS USING THE BESSEMER PROCESS, WHICH LATER BECAME KNOWN AS THE CARNEGIE STEEL CORPORATION. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Andrew Carnegie <ul><li>c. How did Carnegie attempt to control the entire Steel Industry? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CARNEGIE CUT HIS PRICES BY ORGANIZING SPECIAL DISCOUNTS FOR EXCLUSIVE USE OF RAIL LINES THAT WOULD BE USED TO TRANSPORT HIS STEEL. OTHER COMPANIES COULD NOT COMPETE WITH THE PRICES THAT CARNEGIE COULD OFFER AND HAD TO SHUT DOWN. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Andrew Carnegie <ul><li>d. What significant philanthropic contributions did Andrew Carnegie make to society? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-3000 PUBLIC LIBRARIES, GAVE AWAY OVER $350 MILLION BY THE TIME HE DIED. FUNDED CARNEGIE COLLEGE WHICH LATER BECAME CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY. CREATED OTHER RESEARCH AND ARTISTIC INSTITUTES, INCLUDING CARNEGIE HALL, A MUSIC HALL IN NYC. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. John D. Rockefeller <ul><li>a. How did Rockefeller begin his working life? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HE BECAME THE ASSISTANT BOOKKEEPER AT HEWITT & TUTTLE, WHERE HE LATER BECAME THE BOOKKEEPER AND CASHIER. HE HAD TAKEN BUSINESS CLASSES AT FOLSOM MERCANTILE COLLEGE </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. John D. Rockefeller <ul><li>b. When did Rockefeller get his start in business? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IN 1858, HE STARTED A FIRM CALLED CLARK AND ROCKEFELLER, WHICH INVESTED IN AN OIL REFINERY </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. John D. Rockefeller <ul><li>c. Rockefeller’s first true successful business venture took place as he invested in a Meat and Grain Partnership during the time of the Civil War. </li></ul><ul><li>d. John D. Rockefeller started the Standard Oil Company in 1870. </li></ul><ul><li>e. How did Rockefeller gain a shipping advantage over his competitors? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HE WOULD PURCHASE RAIL LINES IN ORDER TO KEEP HIS COMPETITORS FROM BEING ABLE TO MOVE THEIR OIL. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. John D. Rockefeller <ul><li>f. How did Samuel Dodd, Rockefeller’s attorney, devise a plan to control the oil industry? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HE FORMED A TRUST BY PULLING TOGETHER STANDARD OIL AND OTHER LEADING OIL COMPANIES THROUGHOUT THE NATION. ALTOGETHER THERE WERE 40 COMPANIES AND THE TRUST CONTROLLED MOST OF THE NATIONS OIL REFINING. THIS TRUST WOULD ENSURE THAT THERE WOULD BE LESS COMPETITION BETWEEN THESE COMPANIES AND THE BOARD WOULD ATTEMPT TO ELIMINATE ANY COMPETITION OUTSIDE OF THE TRUST. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. John D. Rockefeller <ul><li>g. How did the Sherman Anti-trust Act eventually regulate the Standard Oil Trust? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IN 1911, THE NATIONAL GOV. ENFORCED THIS ANTI-TRUST ACT, DECLARING THAT THE STANDARD OIL TRUST HAD TAKEN MONOPOLISTIC ACTIONS TO ELIMINATE COMPETITION FROM OPPOSING OIL COMPANIES. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>h. What sorts of philanthropic contributions did Rockefeller make to society? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GAVE AWAY $500 MILLION </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO </li></ul><ul><li>ROCKEFELLER INSTITUTE FOR MEDICAL RESEARCH AND GREAT SMOKY MOUNTAINS NATIONAL PARK </li></ul>
  12. 12. J.P. Morgan <ul><li>a. Where did J.P. Morgan begin his working life? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HE STARTED AS AN AGENT AND ATTORNEY IN NEW YORK FOR PEABODY AND COMPANY OF LONDON </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. J.P. Morgan <ul><li>b. How did J.P. Morgan begin his life as an entrepreneur? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HE BECAME A PARTNER IN THE FIRM OF DREXEL, MORGAN, AND COMPANY, WHICH LATER BECAME J.P. MORGAN AND COMPANY </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. J.P. Morgan <ul><li>c. What electric company merger did Morgan organize? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EDISON GENERAL ELECTRIC AND THOMSOM-HOUSTON ELECTRIC INTO GENERAL ELECTRIC IN 1891 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>d. J.P. Morgan created the United States Steel Company in 1901. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FIRST BILLION DOLLAR CORPORATION IN AMERICA AND THIS ALLOWED J.P. MORGAN TO BECOME QUITE WEALTHY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>e. What other businesses did Morgan own? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SHIPPING COMPANIES SUCH AS WHITE STAR LINE, INTERNATIONAL MERCANTILE MARINE COMPANY, LEYLAND LINE. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. J.P. Morgan <ul><li>f. What sorts of philanthropic contributions did J.P. Morgan make to society? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MORGAN WAS A COLLECTOR OF BOOKS AND PICTURES, AND ART, HE DONATED A LOT OF WORK TO THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART, THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, AND HE ALSO HELPED CREATED THE MEDICAL SCHOOL AT HARVARD. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Immigration and Labor Unions The beginning of heavy immigration from Eastern Europe and Russia, along with the worker solidarity movement.
  17. 17. 5. Why did Immigration increase greatly during the period of 1864? <ul><li>AS BUSINESSES GREW, THE NEED FOR WORKERS ALSO GREW. THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT CREATED THE CONTRACT LABOR ACT, WHICH ALLOWED BUSINESSES TO PAY FOR THE PASSAGE OF IMMIGRANTS TO AMERICA IN RETURN FOR UP TO A YEAR OF CONTRACTED LABOR. </li></ul><ul><li>During the time period of 1860-1900, 14 million people immigrated to the U.S. </li></ul>
  18. 18. 6. What was the average workday for factory workers and did any states push for a shorter workday? <ul><li>The Average Workday was 12 hours </li></ul><ul><li>MOST STATES DID PLACE A LIMIT OF 10 HOURS ON A WORKDAY, BUT STATES DID NOT ENFORCE THIS AS GOVERNMENT USED THE IDEA OF SOCIAL DARWINISM AND WOULD NOT REGULATE BUSINESS. </li></ul>
  19. 19. 7. Worker Safety- what were the average amount of workers killed on the job each week in 1882? <ul><li>675 workers were killed per week due to the unsanitary and dangerous conditions facing the workers </li></ul>
  20. 20. 8. What percentage of American workers were children (age 10 and younger)? <ul><li>5% , with many children working with textiles and some manufacturing </li></ul>
  21. 21. 9. How spread out was wealth within America in the late 1800’s? <ul><li>NOT SPREAD OUT WHATSOEVER, THE RICHEST 9% OF AMERICAN PEOPLE HELD 75% OF THE NATIONAL WEALTH, which leaves the remaining 91% of the population to spread out only 25% of the national wealth </li></ul>
  22. 22. 10. In 1848, Karl Marx and Frederich Engles created the Communist Manifesto, which pushed for Socialism and denounced the Capitalist system of business. <ul><li>-How does Socialism compare to Capitalism? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>THE GOVERNMENT OWNS THE MEANS OF BUSINESS AND TELLS PEOPLE WHAT TO MAKE AND WHAT JOB THEY WILL HOLD </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Section IV. Labor Unions and Strikes 11. What was the first Labor Union? <ul><li>THE FEDERAL SOCIETY OF JOURNEYMEN CORDWAINERS (LEATHER) </li></ul><ul><li>Why did this first union end? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT OUTLAWED IT AND BROKE IT UP PEACEFULLY, RULING THAT THE UNION GAVE THE GROUP AN UNEQUAL ADVANTAGE AGAINST THE BUSINESS OWNERS. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. 12. What was the first relatively successful Labor Union? <ul><li>KNIGHTS OF LABOR (THE NATIONAL TRADES UNION WAS SOMEWHAT SUCCESSFUL BUT THEY ONLY LASTED 3 YEARS DUE TO THE DEPRESSION OF 1887. </li></ul><ul><li>What types of people belonged to this Union? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BELONGING TO THE KNIGHTS OF LABOR WERE ALL SKILLED/UNSKILLED LABORERS BELONGED TO THE UNION, INCLUDED BLACKS AND WOMEN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1885, 700,000 people belonged to the Knights of Labor. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. 12. What did the Knights of Labor rally for? <ul><li>EQUAL PAY FOR EQUAL WORK </li></ul><ul><li>AN 8 HOUR WORKDAY </li></ul><ul><li>AN END TO CHILD LABOR </li></ul><ul><li>What means did the Knights go about achieving their goals? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strikes and work stoppages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What caused the downfall of the Knights of Labor in the 1890’s? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>THERE WAS A SERIES OF FAILED STRIKES AND THE KNIGHTS EVENTUALLY FELL APART DUE TO THEIR MEMBERSHIP OF UNSKILLED LABORERS </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. 13. American Federation of Labor <ul><li>a. When was the AFL created? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1886 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>b. Who was allowed to join the American Federation of Labor? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ONLY SKILLED WORKERS (LEATHER MAKERS, STEEL WORKERS, BLACKSMITHS, MINE WORKERS, AUTOMOBILE WORKERS) NOT INCLUDING BLACKS OR WOMEN </li></ul></ul><ul><li>c. The AFL had 250,000 members by 1892. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Were women or African Americans welcome into the AFL? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NO </li></ul></ul><ul><li>e. What did the AFL fight for? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BETTER WAGES, AN 8 HOUR WORKDAY, SAFER WORKING CONDITIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>f. How did the AFL fight for their goals? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>COLLECTIVE BARGAINING THROUGH NEGOTIATIONS, WALK-OUTS, OR STRIKES. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. 14. Name the 5 ways that Employers attempted to end membership in Labor Unions. <ul><li>FORBID ANY UNION MEETINGS </li></ul><ul><li>FIRED UNION ORGANIZERS </li></ul><ul><li>NEW EMPLOYEES HAD TO AGREE TO NOT JOIN A UNION </li></ul><ul><li>REFUSED TO BARGAIN COLLECTIVELY </li></ul><ul><li>WOULD NOT RECOGNIZE UNION WORKERS AS REPRESENTATIVES OF THE EMPLOYEES </li></ul>
  28. 28. 15. Railroad Strike of 1877 <ul><li>a. Why did this Strike Occur? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>– BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILROAD ANNOUNCED THEIR 2ND 10% WAGE CUT IN 8 MONTHS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>b. What caused Rutherford B. Hayes to send out federal troops to Pittsburgh, Chicago and St. Louis? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-WORKERS IN PITTSBURGH, CHICAGO, AND ST. LOUIS STRIKED. THE STRIKE IN PITTSBURGH TURNED INTO A RIOT AS RAILROAD WORKERS SET THE PROPERTY ABLAZE, CAUSING $5 MILLION IN DAMAGE. SOME RIOTERS WERE SHOT AND KILLED AS THE FEDERAL TROOPS PUT DOWN THE RIOT. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. 16. Homestead Riot of 1892 <ul><li>a. What caused this riot? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>– ANDREW CARNEGIE WAS ON A TRIP IN EUROPE AND HIS PARTNER, HENRY FRICK, CUT WORKERS WAGES AT CARNEGIE STEEL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>b. How did Henry Frick attempt to put down this riot? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>– FRICK HIRED A PRIVATE POLICE FORCE NAMED THE PINKERTONS WHO WERE KNOWN FOR THEIR VIOLENCE IN PUTTING DOWN STRIKES </li></ul></ul><ul><li>c. How did the strike end? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>– AN INDEPENDENT COMMUNIST ANARCHIST WHO WAS NOT ASSOCIATED WITH THE BUSINESS OF CARNEGIE STEEL ATTEMPTED TO KILL HENRY FRICK. THIS MAN WAS NAMED ALEXANDER BERKMAN. ALSO, FRICK WAS WOUNDED BUT HE WOULD NOT GIVE IN TO THE UNION. THE UNION EVENTUALLY GAVE UP IN MID-NOVEMBER OF 1892 AFTER BEING ON STRIKE SINCE JULY 6. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. 17. Pullman Strike of 1894 <ul><li>a. Why did this strike occur? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>– GEORGE PULLMAN, A RAIL CAR MAKER LAID OFF WORKERS AND CUT WAGES BY 25% DURING THE PANIC OF 1893. PULLMAN REFUSED TO BARGAIN WITH THE WORKERS AND SHUT DOWN THE PLANT. 120,000 RAILWAY WORKERS JOINED THE STRIKE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>b. How did Grover Cleveland end this strike? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>– AS THE STRIKE TURNED INTO A RIOT, THE PRESIDENT SENT IN 2,500 FEDERAL TROOPS TO PUT DOWN THE STRIKE AS THE NATION’S MAIL HAD BEEN STOPPED. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>c. How did the federal government declare that the strikers were violating the Sherman Anti-trust Act? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-THESE INDIVIDUALS SLOWED DOWN THE U.S. ECONOMY, AND, ACCORDING TO THE SHERMAN ANTI-TRUST ACT, THESE WORKERS TOGETHER WERE RESTRAINING INTERSTATE TRADE DUE TO THE SLOW-DOWN OF THE PLANT AND U.S. ECONOMY </li></ul></ul>
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