Chapter 14 Expansion of American Industry

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Chapter 14 Expansion of American Industry

  1. 1. CHAPTER 14: THE EXPANSION OF AMERICAN INDUSTRY
  2. 2. 1. Everyday Life for individuals living during the late 1800’s -What inconveniences did these people face in comparison to our lifestyles today? <ul><li>LIGHTING AT NIGHT WAS DONE BY CANDLE OR GAS LAMPS IF EITHER COULD BE AFFORDED. </li></ul><ul><li>THE SUN DICTATED ALL DAILY ACTIVITIES </li></ul><ul><li>ICE BLOCKS USED FOR REFRIDGERATION HAD TO BE CHOPPED FROM PONDS IN THE WINTER AND PACKED IN SAWDUST AND THEN PLACED WITHIN ICE HUTS UNTIL SUMMER. </li></ul><ul><li>MOST AREAS STILL DID NOT HAVE RUNNING WATER OR EVEN A WELL RIGHT NEXT TO THEIR HOMES, WATER COMPANIES WERE OPERATING IN LARGER CITIES BUT NOT IN THE SMALLER CITIES AND TOWNS YET. SOME INDIVIDUALS HAD WELLS BUT MOST WOULD HAVE TO WALK EVERY MORNING TO THE LOCAL STREAM TO COLLECT WATER. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Completion of the Transcontinental Railroad PROMONTORY SUMMIT, UTAH <ul><li>MAY 10, 1869 </li></ul>
  4. 4. Transcontinenal Railroad <ul><li>In 1862, the U.S. Congress passed the Pacific Railway Act, which would offer 10 square miles of land on each side of the track and U.S. Government bonds which would be worth $16,000 per square mile of track laid to the companies that laid down the Transcontinental Railroad </li></ul>
  5. 5. Transcontinental Railroad <ul><li>The path of the railroad followed the beginning of the Oregon Trail and then picked up at the Mormon and California Trails </li></ul><ul><li>The Union Pacific Railroad Company began at Omaha and moved West </li></ul><ul><li>The Central Pacific Railroad Company began at Sacramento and moved East </li></ul><ul><li>1,776 miles long </li></ul>
  6. 6. WESTINGHOUSE AIR BRAKE 1869
  7. 7. Westinghouse Air Brake <ul><li>In the 1860s, locomotives had manual brakes on their tenders (fuel and water cars) and each freight car had a hand brake consisting of a mast-mounted hand-operated wheel that a “brakeman” turned to force iron blocks (shoes) against the treads of the wheels. When the engineer whistled for brakes to be applied, brakemen leapt from car to car of the moving train to apply brakes until the train was halted. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1880s, Scribner’s reported that each year 1,000 brakemen were killed and as many as 5,000 were injured, mostly from falls. </li></ul>
  8. 8. WESTINGHOUSE BRAKE <ul><li>Westinghouse system uses a reduction in air pressure in the train line to apply the brakes. When a train's engineer applies the brake by operating the locomotive brake valve, this causes the train brake line air to be vented to atmosphere, in turn triggering the triple valve on each car to feed air into its brake cylinder. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Granville Woods and the Railway Telegraph <ul><li>-In 1887, he patented the Railway Telegraph, which allowed communications between train stations regarding moving trains. Granville T. Woods ' invention made it possible for trains to communicate with the station and with other trains so they knew exactly where they were at all times. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Time Zones -Coordination of the use of train tracks and the arrival and departure time of trains required a standardized system of time, therefore the nation adopted a time zone system in 1883. This was done since localities all had previously set time based on the rising of the sun and many areas were not centralized upon one time. -Intercolonial, Eastern, Central, Mountain, and Pacific Time Zones created.
  11. 11. Other Facts of the Time Period <ul><li>i. By 1900, how many miles of railroad existed in the U.S.? </li></ul><ul><li>-190,000 MILES OF RAIL EXISTED </li></ul><ul><li>j. How much cheaper did the movement of goods become? </li></ul><ul><li>- FLOUR- 1865- $3.65 1895- $.68 </li></ul>
  12. 12. MORSE CODE SAMUEL MORSE 1844
  13. 13. MORSE CODE
  14. 14. Competition of Telegraph Companies <ul><li>What two telegraph companies began laying telegraph wire throughout the U.S.? </li></ul><ul><li>-American Telegraph Company and Western Union. </li></ul><ul><li>These companies merged in 1866 to become American Telephone and Telegraph. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1870, 100,000 miles of telegraph wire existed. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1900, Western Union and AT&T owned more tan 900,000 miles of telegraph wire and 63 millions telegraphs were sent per year </li></ul>
  15. 15. ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL AND THE FIRST TALKING TELEGRAPH (1876)
  16. 16. ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL AND THE FIRST TALKING TELEGRAPH
  17. 17. Alexander Graham Bell and the Talking Telegraph <ul><li>4. Who invented the Talking Telegraph in 1876? ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL </li></ul><ul><li>-What company did Bell set up in 1885? AMERICAN TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH COMPANY (AT&T) </li></ul><ul><li>-By 1900, 1.5 MILLION TELEPHONES million telephones were in use. </li></ul>
  18. 18. THOMAS EDISON AND THE FIRST LIGHT BULB (1879) “ I have not failed. I've just found 10,000 ways that won't work.”
  19. 19. GEORGE WESTINGHOUSE AND ALTERNATING CURRENT DIRECT CURRENT- ONLY CAN TRANSFER ENERGY FROM THE BATTERY AND IS ALWAYS AT A STEADY VOLTAGE ALTERNATING CURRENT- CAN PRODUCE HIGHER VOLTAGE AND EXCESS ENERGY CAN BE REUSED
  20. 20. HENRY BESSEMER AND THE BESSEMER PROCESS
  21. 21. Vital Info about the Bessemer Process <ul><li>The process is carried on in a large steel container lined with clay called the Bessemer converter . The capacity of a converter was from 8 to 30 tons of molten iron. At the top of the converter is an opening, usually tilted to the side relative to the body of the vessel, through which the iron is introduced and the finished product removed. </li></ul><ul><li>The bottom is perforated with a number of channels through which air is forced into the converter. The converter is pivoted so that it can be rotated, turned upright during conversion, and then rotated again for pouring out the molten steel at the end. </li></ul><ul><li>The oxidation process removes impurities such as silicon , manganese , and carbon as oxides, these oxides either escape as gas or form a solid. </li></ul><ul><li>The conversion process (called the &quot;blow&quot;) was completed in around twenty minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Before the Bessemer process , steel was manufactured by heating bars of wrought iron together with charcoal for periods of up to a week. </li></ul>
  22. 22. BROOKLYN BRIDGE JOHN ROEBLING WASHINGTON ROEBLING
  23. 23. Vital Facts about the Brooklyn Bridge <ul><li>THIS SUSPENSION BRIDGE HAD TO BE BUILD OVER 1595 FEET LONG (. 3 MILES) AND ALSO BE TALL ENOUGH TO ALLOW FOR FERRY TRAFFIC. THE HEIGHT OF THE BROOKLYN BRIDGE ROAD ABOVE SEA LEVEL WAS 135 FEET SO AS TO ALLOW FOR BOAT TRAFFIC. </li></ul><ul><li>THE PROBLEM WAS HOW TO KEEP THIS BRIDGE STURDY OVER SUCH A LONG DISTANCE, THE SOLUTION WAS STEEL CABLES CONNECTED TO TWO ANCHORAGES THAT EXTEND DEEP WITHIN THE EARTH BELOW THE EAST RIVER, 78 FEET DEEP WITHIN THE SAND OF THE RIVER. </li></ul><ul><li>LONGEST U.S. SUSPENSION BRIDGE UNTIL THE WILLIAMSBURG BRIDGE, A NEIGHBOR OF THE BROOKLYN BRIDGE, WAS BUILT IN 1903. THE LONGEST TODAY IN THE U.S. IS THE VERRAZANO NARROWS BRIDGE WHICH CONNECTS STATEN ISLAND AND BROOKLYN AND WAS COMPLETED IN 1964. </li></ul>
  24. 24. In the Making of the Brooklyn Bridge, an estimated 30-40 people died from different causes <ul><li>Some feel while working upon the steel cables that suspended the bridge </li></ul><ul><li>At least three individuals died from Caisson disease, called the bends, due to not adjusting to the air at sea level after being deep below </li></ul><ul><li>Other individuals were struck with work materials, such as John Roebling, who became stuck between timbers once after a ship crashed nearby to where he was standing. </li></ul>
  25. 25. REVIEW BREAK

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