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Beginning of the Civil War Powerpoint U.S. History i

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  • 1. The Beginning of the Civil War Powerpoint
  • 2. Results of the Election of 1860
  • 3. Confederate Secession
  • 4. Presidents and Vice Presidents of the two Nations
    • Abraham Lincoln
      • Lincoln was an Illinois man that definitely believed that slavery was wrong and today is credited with freeing the slaves, but, all the while, he simply wanted to “Save the Union.”
      • Lincoln’s political platform in 1860 was simply to end the extension of slavery into the territories.
  • 5. Presidents and Vice Presidents of the two Nations
    • Hannibal Hamlin
      • First Vice President under Abraham Lincoln, serving during Lincoln’s first term.
      • Hamlin was a member of the House and Senate from Maine before the Civil War.
      • A political moderate but was against the spread of slavery into the territories.
  • 6. Presidents and Vice Presidents of the two Nations
    • Andrew Johnson
      • Vice President of the U.S. in the second term of Abraham Lincoln
      • Andrew Johnson served public office in Tennessee both in the House of Representatives and in the Senate
  • 7. Presidents and Vice Presidents of the two Nations
    • Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederacy
      • Davis fought under General Zachary Taylor and politics opened up to him as he served in the cabinet of Zachary Taylor in 1853 and also served in the House and Senate.
      • From Mississippi
  • 8. Presidents and Vice Presidents of the two Nations
    • Alexander Stephens
      • Vice President of the Confederacy
      • Georgia man that served from 1843-1858 in the House and Senate and supposedly was going to retire from public life only to return when talk of secession in Georgia truly began brewing in 1860.
  • 9. Vital Statistics on Fort Sumter
    • The construction of Fort
    • Sumter began in 1829
    • The fort is situated
    • within Charleston Harbor
    • and was created to defend
    • the port of Charleston from
    • attack by sea. It sits roughly
    • 1 ½ miles away from two other Charleston forts of Fort Johnson
    • and Fort Moultrie
    • The walls of the fort were 5 feet
    • thick and stood 50 feet above
    • sea level.
  • 10. Fort Sumter from Charleston Harbor
  • 11. Fort Sumter Map for the surrounding area
  • 12. Leaders at Fort Sumter
    • Major Robert Anderson
      • Robert Anderson was sent by the U.S. War Department to Fort Moultrie at Charleston, South Carolina. This was done so that the Union could gain control of the Southern Coastal Forts.
      • Later he moved to Fort Sumter since it was easier to defend, only to run out of supplies there and vacate on April 15,1861.
  • 13. Major Robert Anderson (cont’d)
    • Anderson was a Kentucky man that actually favored slavery and married a Georgia girl
    • He had served in the Mexican War and in other various Native American insurrections
    • An expert at artillery
  • 14. Leaders at Fort Sumter
    • Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
      • (P.G.T. Beauregard)
      • Beauregard was known as a cavalryman and led the onslaught of Confederate artillery onto Fort Sumter. He knew that Union reinforcements were on their way, so he had to shell Fort Sumter to force a retreat and gain control of Charleston and this coastal fort for the C.S.A.
  • 15. Star of the West
    • The Star of the West was expected to reinforce the Union positions in Fort Sumter and reinforce the Union with 200 infantrymen and at least a few months worth of rations.
    • After Beauregard intercepted a message meant for Major Robert Anderson announcing the arrival of the Star of the West, the Confederates fired upon the ship and the ship retreated, taking the much needed reinforcements and rations with it.
  • 16. Beginning of the fight at Fort Sumter
    • After P.G.T. Beauregard twice attempted to negotiate a Union surrender of Fort Sumter on April 11 and then at 3:20 A.M. on April 12, a notice was given to Major Robert Anderson that the Confederates would start firing in one hour.
    • The first shot was fired by the commanding officer of Fort Johnson, Captain George James, who fired a 64-pounder Columbiad Mortar Cannon.
    • This shot signaled the beginning of the Civil War and firing continued for the next 2 days.
  • 17. Battle at Fort Sumter Fort Sumter before the Battle Fort Sumter after the Battle
  • 18. Personality of importance at Fort Sumter
    • Louis T. Wigfall
      • Fiery Texas Senator that was not truly a soldier but a skilled orator.
      • Wigfall decided to take actions into his own hands at Fort Sumter and negotiate the terms of evacuation with Robert Anderson, so he commandeered a boat and negotiated the Union retreat without being ordered to do so by Beauregard.
  • 19. Fort Sumter Cannon inside Fort Sumter Aftermath inside Fort Sumter
  • 20. Charleston, South Carolina in ruins after the Battle of Fort Sumter
  • 21. Fort Sumter Bombardment
  • 22. End of the Battle at Fort Sumter
    • Confederate Victory as the bombardment and lack of supplies caused Major Robert Anderson to surrender Fort Sumter at 2:30 p.m. on April 13 and evacuated the Fort on April 14.
    • The only casualties of the battle at Fort Sumter were one death and three soldiers wounded, not from fighting, but from an explosion that occurred as a cannon exploded during the ceremony of saluting the flag
  • 23. Review Break-who are these men?
  • 24. Review Break Questions
    • What state is Andrew Johnson from?
    • Who led the Union at Fort Sumter?
    • Who led the Confederates at Fort Sumter?
    • How many Battle Casualties were there at Fort Sumter?
    • What makes Fort Sumter important?
    • What happened immediately after that changed the face of our nation?
  • 25. Battle of the First Bull Run at Manassas, Virginia
  • 26. Battle of the First Bull Run, July 20-21, 1861
  • 27. Bull Run
    • Bull Run is a creek that is located at Manassas, Virginia, which is roughly 30 miles Southwest of D.C. and 70 miles Northwest of the Confederate Capital of Richmond.
    • The general area around Bull Run has a few sloping hills but was mostly farmland at the time of the battle.
  • 28. Why did the Battle of Bull Run occur at Manassas, Virginia?
    • The Northern people, Abraham Lincoln, and the U.S. War Department was hungry for victory, so they sent Irvin McDowell to attempt to pressure the Confederate Capital of Richmond, forcing a battle before either side was ready to fight.
    • The Union encountered the Confederate army in a sloping farmland area of Manassas, Virginia
  • 29. Leaders at the First Bull Run
    • Winfield Scott
      • The overall Union Commander at the beginning of the War, Winfield Scott was an American hero by the time of the Civil War and became the first Union Commander.
      • Winfield Scott was a hero in the War of 1812 and in the Mexican War, but, by the beginning of the First Bull Run, Scott weighed over 300 pounds and suffered from a few illnesses, such as gout and vertigo.
      • He was so large that he could not even sit upon a horse, therefore, he could not be on the battlefield.
  • 30. Leaders at the First Bull Run
    • Irvin McDowell
      • Attended West Point and served in the Mexican War
      • Assigned as the Commander of the Union forces of Northeastern Virginia, the Division of the Potomac
      • McDowell had never even led a group larger than a company (100 troops) before the Battle of Bull Run, yet the U.S. war department put him in charge of the entire Army of the Potomac at the Battle of Bull Run, making him the first commander.
  • 31. Leaders at the First Bull Run
    • Joseph E. Johnston
      • The first Confederate commander Within the U.S. Army, he had served in the Mexican War and, at the time of the onset of the Civil War, he was the highest ranking U.S. General to resign and join the Confederacy. Johnston was the U.S. Quartermaster General, which means that he was in charge of supplies of the entire U.S. Army
      • Johnston actually remained Confederate Commander until The Battle of Seven Pines, a small battle that took place in 1862 just outside of Williamsburg, Virginia. He was wounded in this battle and when he returned to the army, Lee was the Commander and Johnston was assigned leadership of the West.
  • 32. Strength of the Forces at the 1 st Bull Run
    • Union Forces numbered 35,000
    • Confederate forces numbered 32,500, though 10,000 of these did not show up until the night after the first day’s fighting.
    • Important Point- Abraham Lincoln only asked for 90 day enlistments from the Union soldiers due to the belief that the Union could win the war with one swift victory
  • 33. First Days of the First Bull Run
  • 34. July 21, 1 st Bull Run
    • Joseph Johnston set up his troops on the Western banks of Bull Run, and if they had to retreat, they would retreat to the high ground .
  • 35. View of the Battlefield on the Second Day of the 1 st Bull Run
  • 36. Fighting on the Second Day of the 1 st Bull Run
    • Fighting centered around Henry House Hill and the Stone House on the Second Day as the Union attempted to take the high ground from the Confederacy and win this battle in the process.
    • Though the Union did find some gaps within the Confederate Lines, these gaps were plugged by reinforcements from the troops of Thomas Jackson and Joseph Johnston
  • 37. First Bull Run pictures
  • 38. The Heroes of the First Bull Run
    • Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson
      • Jackson’s troops led the defense of Henry House Hill on July 21 st , 1861.
      • His line acted as a Stone Wall, not allowing the Union troops to take the heights of Henry House Hill
  • 39. The French Zouaves of New York
    • The 5th New York Volunteer Infantry, "Duryée's Zouaves," was one of the most renowned fighting regiments of the American Civil War. Their colorful Zouave uniform, precise maneuvers, effectiveness in combat and steady bearing under fire, won them universal respect and recognition. "I doubt whether it had an equal," General George Sykes said of the 5th New York, "and certainly no superior among all the regiments of the Army of the Potomac." Many observers considered the 5th New York to be the best-drilled volunteer unit in the Federal Army.
  • 40. Spectators had to flee with the Union Army! Called by many “The Great Skedaddle!”
    • A vast throng of Washingtonians followed the soldiers. The spectators brought along field glasses, picnic baskets and bottles of champagne. The onlookers believed it would not take long to teach the Rebels a lesson
    • The onlookers had to flee when they were surprised by the view of fleeing Union soldiers running back to Washington after an embarrassing loss on that Manassas Battlefield.
  • 41. Ending to The First Bull Run
    • Confederate Victory at 1 st Bull Run.
    • Union Soldiers fled over the hills and back into Maryland. When they returned, George B. McClellan would become their new Commander and plenty of training would be awaiting them in Maryland.
  • 42. Casualties at the 1 st Bull Run
    • Union
      • 2,900 total Casualties
    • Confederates
      • 1,900 total Casualties
    • Henry House Hill- the owner of the house, Mrs. Judith Henry refused to abandon her home and it was used by Confederate snipers to shoot at the Union. Henry remained in her bedroom and was the first civilian to die at the 1 st Bull Run as she was struck with a bullet meant for a sniper.
  • 43. Review Break
    • Where was the battle of the 1 st Bull Run?
    • How were “Stonewall” Jackson’s troops the heroes of the 1 st Bull Run?
  • 44. The Ironclads Hampton Roads, Va. March 9, 1862 Merrimack Vs. Monitor
  • 45. Hampton Roads region off of the Chesapeake Bay, Virginia
  • 46. The Merrimack (Virginia)
  • 47. The Merrimack (C.S.S. Virginia)
    • Virginia authorities took over the Norfolk Navy Yard after its evacuation by Federal forces and found the USS Merrimack burned and sunk.
    • During 1861 and the first two months of 1862, the Confederate States Navy raised and converted her into an ironclad ram, a new warship that could overcome the Union's great superiority in conventional warships.
    • They then renamed it the C.S.S. Virginia
    • The Merrimack carried a rifle at each end and two six-inch rifles and six nine-inch rifles on each side. It also held an iron ram, allowing the ship to be employed as a deadly weapon.
  • 48. The Success of the C.S.S. Virginia or the Merrimack
    • On March 8, 1862, The C.S.S. Virginia defeated the U.S.S. Cumberland and the U.S.S. Congress, sinking the Cumberland with cannon fire and battering the Congress onto land.
  • 49. The Monitor
  • 50. The Monitor
    • Built by Swedish-American John Ericsson, the Monitor was not expected to be able to float in the minds of most naval men. The Monitor had just reached Hampton Roads after a voyage from New York City.
    • The ship was considered small for a warship, only 172 feet long and 42 feet wide. Confederate sailors were baffled by the ship. One was quoted describing her as ". . . a craft such as the eyes of a seaman never looked upon before, an immense shingle floating on the water with a giant cheese box rising from its center" (Ward 101). The "cheese box" was a nine by twenty foot revolving turret with two massive guns inside.
  • 51. Battle between the Monitor and the Merrimack
    • March 9, 1862.
    • The Merrimack attempts to complete the efforts from the previous day and took off after the U.S.S. Minnesota, which she had run aground on March 8 but was not able to sink or destroy.
    • The Merrimack took off after the Minnesota and ran into the Monitor, which had made its way down from New York City.
    • The Monitor and the Merrimack engaged in a four-hour close-range duel, which resulted in a draw.
  • 52. Results of the Battle and the Lifespan of the Merrimack and the Monitor
    • The Union lost about 409 sailors and the Confederacy lost about 24 sailors.
  • 53. Results of the Battle and the Lifespan of the Merrimack and the Monitor
    • The Merrimack retreated towards the James River and placing herself between the Hampton Roads region and the Confederate Capitol of Richmond. In May of 1862, the Union recaptured the Norfork, Virginia shipping yard but found that the Confederates had destroyed the Merrimack in May of 1862 after learning that they could not lighten it enough to give it the ability to travel up the James River.
  • 54. Results of the Battle and the Lifespan of the Merrimack and the Monitor
    • The Monitor sank in December of 1862 off the coast of North Carolina as high waves caused the ship to go down. The Monitor’s heavy turret and low deck caused it to be insufficient in high tides.
  • 55. Battle of the Second Bull Run August 29-30, 1862
  • 56. What caused the battle of the Second Bull Run at Manassas, Virginia?
    • John Pope was assigned the Union Army of Northern Virginia and was told to pressure the Confederate Capital of Richmond
    • Robert E. Lee sent Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson to divert John Pope and also break off Pope’s Communication lines with Washington, D.C.
    John Pope
  • 57. How did John Pope encounter “Stonewall” Jackson?
    • Realizing that “Stonewall” Jackson had cut off his lines of communication, John Pope diverted his attention from Richmond and began heading North of Richmond into Northern Virginia, to the Battlefield of the 1 st Bull Run, Manassas, Virginia.
  • 58. What occurred in the Battle of the Second Bull Run?
    • During the first day, neither side gained ground, but John Pope was convinced that “Stonewall” Jackson was going to retreat on the evening after the first day’s fighting.
  • 59. Second Day of the Second Bull Run
    • Throughout the first day of the Battle of the 2 nd Bull Run, “Stonewall” Jackson had James Longstreet’s troops in reserve, only being used for their artillery fire, the Second Day is when they would show their might.
  • 60. Battle of the 2 nd Bull Run on August 30, 1862, the second day of the battle
    • “ Stonewall” Jackson’s troops stood their ground as John Pope of the Union kept bring assault after assault on his lines.
    • As Jackson’s troops began to run out of ammunition, James Longstreet’s troops, who were mostly used here as reinforcements, created a bayonet charge, forcing the Union troops to retreat East from the battlefield.
  • 61. Results of the Second Bull Run
    • “ Stonewall” Jackson and James Longstreet were successful in ending John Pope’s threat to the Confederate capital of Richmond
    • This thoroughly demoralized the Union troops and gave pride to the Confederates.
    • This showed Robert E. Lee that it was time to begin an attack upon Northern soil
    Thomas Jackson James Longstreet

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