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Beginning of the Civil War
 

Beginning of the Civil War

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    Beginning of the Civil War Beginning of the Civil War Presentation Transcript

    • The Beginning of the Civil War Powerpoint
    • Results of the Election of 1860
    • Confederate Secession
    • Presidents and Vice Presidents of the two Nations
      • Abraham Lincoln
        • Lincoln was an Illinois man that definitely believed that slavery was wrong and today is credited with freeing the slaves, but, all the while, he simply wanted to “Save the Union.”
        • Lincoln’s political platform in 1860 was simply to end the extension of slavery into the territories.
    • Presidents and Vice Presidents of the two Nations
      • Hannibal Hamlin
        • First Vice President under Abraham Lincoln, serving during Lincoln’s first term.
        • Hamlin was a member of the House and Senate from Maine before the Civil War.
        • A political moderate but was against the spread of slavery into the territories.
    • Presidents and Vice Presidents of the two Nations
      • Andrew Johnson
        • Vice President of the U.S. in the second term of Abraham Lincoln
        • Andrew Johnson served public office in Tennessee both in the House of Representatives and in the Senate
    • Presidents and Vice Presidents of the two Nations
      • Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederacy
        • Davis fought under General Zachary Taylor and politics opened up to him as he served in the cabinet of Zachary Taylor in 1853 and also served in the House and Senate.
        • From Mississippi
    • Presidents and Vice Presidents of the two Nations
      • Alexander Stephens
        • Vice President of the Confederacy
        • Georgia man that served from 1843-1858 in the House and Senate and supposedly was going to retire from public life only to return when talk of secession in Georgia truly began brewing in 1860.
    • Vital Statistics on Fort Sumter
      • The construction of Fort
      • Sumter began in 1829
      • The fort is situated
      • within Charleston Harbor
      • and was created to defend
      • the port of Charleston from
      • attack by sea. It sits roughly
      • 1 ½ miles away from two other Charleston forts of Fort Johnson
      • and Fort Moultrie
      • The walls of the fort were 5 feet
      • thick and stood 50 feet above
      • sea level.
    • Fort Sumter from Charleston Harbor
    • Fort Sumter Map for the surrounding area
    • Leaders at Fort Sumter
      • Major Robert Anderson
        • Robert Anderson was sent by the U.S. War Department to Fort Moultrie at Charleston, South Carolina. This was done so that the Union could gain control of the Southern Coastal Forts.
        • Later he moved to Fort Sumter since it was easier to defend, only to run out of supplies there and vacate on April 15,1861.
    • Major Robert Anderson (cont’d)
      • Anderson was a Kentucky man that actually favored slavery and married a Georgia girl
      • He had served in the Mexican War and in other various Native American insurrections
      • An expert at artillery
    • Leaders at Fort Sumter
      • Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
        • (P.G.T. Beauregard)
        • Beauregard was known as a cavalryman and led the onslaught of Confederate artillery onto Fort Sumter. He knew that Union reinforcements were on their way, so he had to shell Fort Sumter to force a retreat and gain control of Charleston and this coastal fort for the C.S.A.
    • Star of the West
      • The Star of the West was expected to reinforce the Union positions in Fort Sumter and reinforce the Union with 200 infantrymen and at least a few months worth of rations.
      • After Beauregard intercepted a message meant for Major Robert Anderson announcing the arrival of the Star of the West, the Confederates fired upon the ship and the ship retreated, taking the much needed reinforcements and rations with it.
    • Beginning of the fight at Fort Sumter
      • After P.G.T. Beauregard twice attempted to negotiate a Union surrender of Fort Sumter on April 11 and then at 3:30 A.M. on April 12, a notice was given to Major Robert Anderson that the Confederates would start firing in one hour.
      • The first shot was fired by the commanding officer of Fort Johnson, Captain George James, who fired a 64-pounder Columbiad Mortar Cannon.
      • This shot signaled the beginning of the Civil War and firing continued for the next 2 days.
    • Battle at Fort Sumter Fort Sumter before the Battle Fort Sumter after the Battle
    • Personality of importance at Fort Sumter
      • Louis T. Wigfall
        • Fiery Texas Senator that was not truly a soldier but a skilled orator.
        • Wigfall decided to take actions into his own hands at Fort Sumter and negotiate the terms of evacuation with Robert Anderson, so he commandeered a boat and negotiated the Union retreat without being ordered to do so by Beauregard.
    • Fort Sumter Cannon inside Fort Sumter Aftermath inside Fort Sumter
    • Fort Sumter Bombardment
    • End of the Battle at Fort Sumter
      • Confederate Victory as the bombardment and lack of supplies caused Major Robert Anderson to surrender Fort Sumter at 2:30 p.m. on April 13 and evacuated the Fort on April 14.
      • The only casualties of the battle at Fort Sumter were one death and three soldiers wounded, not from fighting, but from an explosion that occurred as a cannon exploded during the ceremony of saluting the flag
    • Review Break-who are these men?
    • Review Break Questions
      • What state is Andrew Johnson from?
      • Who led the Union at Fort Sumter?
      • Who led the Confederates at Fort Sumter?
      • How many Battle Casualties were there at Fort Sumter?
      • What makes Fort Sumter important?
      • What happened immediately after that changed the face of our nation?
    • Battle of the First Bull Run at Manassas, Virginia
    • Battle of the First Bull Run, July 20-21, 1861
    • Bull Run
      • Bull Run is a creek that is located at Manassas, Virginia, which is roughly 30 miles Southwest of D.C. and 70 miles Northwest of the Confederate Capital of Richmond.
      • The general area around Bull Run has a few sloping hills but was mostly farmland at the time of the battle.
    • Why did the Battle of Bull Run occur at Manassas, Virginia?
      • The Northern people, Abraham Lincoln, and the U.S. War Department was hungry for victory, so they sent Irvin McDowell to attempt to pressure the Confederate Capital of Richmond, forcing a battle before either side was ready to fight.
      • The Union encountered the Confederate army in a sloping farmland area of Manassas, Virginia
    • Leaders at the First Bull Run
      • Winfield Scott
        • The overall Union Commander at the beginning of the War, Winfield Scott was an American hero by the time of the Civil War and became the first Union Commander.
        • Winfield Scott was a hero in the War of 1812 and in the Mexican War, but, by the beginning of the First Bull Run, Scott weighed over 300 pounds and suffered from a few illnesses, such as gout and vertigo.
        • He was so large that he could not even sit upon a horse, therefore, he could not be on the battlefield.
    • Leaders at the First Bull Run
      • Irvin McDowell
        • Attended West Point and served in the Mexican War
        • Assigned as the Commander of the Union forces of Northeastern Virginia, the Division of the Potomac
        • McDowell had never even led a group larger than a company (100 troops) before the Battle of Bull Run, yet the U.S. war department put him in charge of the entire Army of the Potomac at the Battle of Bull Run, making him the first commander.
    • Leaders at the First Bull Run
      • Joseph E. Johnston
        • The first Confederate commander Within the U.S. Army, he had served in the Mexican War and, at the time of the onset of the Civil War, he was the highest ranking U.S. General to resign and join the Confederacy. Johnston was the U.S. Quartermaster General, which means that he was in charge of supplies of the entire U.S. Army
        • Johnston actually remained Confederate Commander until The Battle of Seven Pines, a small battle that took place in 1862 just outside of Williamsburg, Virginia. He was wounded in this battle and when he returned to the army, Lee was the Commander and Johnston was assigned leadership of the West.
    • Strength of the Forces at the 1 st Bull Run
      • Union Forces numbered 35,000
      • Confederate forces numbered 32,500, though 10,000 of these did not show up until the night after the first day’s fighting.
      • Important Point- Abraham Lincoln only asked for 90 day enlistments from the Union soldiers due to the belief that the Union could win the war with one swift victory
    • First Days of the First Bull Run
    • July 21, 1 st Bull Run
      • Joseph Johnston set up his troops on the Western banks of Bull Run, and if they had to retreat, they would retreat to the high ground .
    • View of the Battlefield on the Second Day of the 1 st Bull Run
    • Fighting on the Second Day of the 1 st Bull Run
      • Fighting centered around Henry House Hill and the Stone House on the Second Day as the Union attempted to take the high ground from the Confederacy and win this battle in the process.
      • Though the Union did find some gaps within the Confederate Lines, these gaps were plugged by reinforcements from the troops of Thomas Jackson and Joseph Johnston
    • First Bull Run pictures
    • The Heroes of the First Bull Run
      • Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson
        • Jackson’s troops led the defense of Henry House Hill on July 21 st , 1861.
        • His line acted as a Stone Wall, not allowing the Union troops to take the heights of Henry House Hill
    • The French Zouaves of New York
      • The 5th New York Volunteer Infantry, "Duryée's Zouaves," was one of the most renowned fighting regiments of the American Civil War. Their colorful Zouave uniform, precise maneuvers, effectiveness in combat and steady bearing under fire, won them universal respect and recognition. "I doubt whether it had an equal," General George Sykes said of the 5th New York, "and certainly no superior among all the regiments of the Army of the Potomac." Many observers considered the 5th New York to be the best-drilled volunteer unit in the Federal Army.
    • Spectators had to flee with the Union Army! Called by many “The Great Skedaddle!”
      • A vast throng of Washingtonians followed the soldiers. The spectators brought along field glasses, picnic baskets and bottles of champagne. The onlookers believed it would not take long to teach the Rebels a lesson
      • The onlookers had to flee when they were surprised by the view of fleeing Union soldiers running back to Washington after an embarrassing loss on that Manassas Battlefield.
    • Ending to The First Bull Run
      • Confederate Victory at 1 st Bull Run.
      • Union Soldiers fled over the hills and back into Maryland. When they returned, George B. McClellan would become their new Commander and plenty of training would be awaiting them in Maryland.
    • Casualties at the 1 st Bull Run
      • Union
        • 2,900 total Casualties
      • Confederates
        • 1,900 total Casualties
      • Henry House Hill- the owner of the house, Mrs. Judith Henry refused to abandon her home and it was used by Confederate snipers to shoot at the Union. Henry remained in her bedroom and was the first civilian to die at the 1 st Bull Run as she was struck with a bullet meant for a sniper.
    • Review Break
      • Where was the battle of the 1 st Bull Run?
      • How were “Stonewall” Jackson’s troops the heroes of the 1 st Bull Run?
    • Beginning of 1862- McClellan, The Blockade, Forts Henry and Donelson, and the Ironclads A Taste of Success for the union at henry and donelson
    • The Blockade
      • The Union attempted to use a maneuver that the British had used upon the U.S. in previous wars- the Blockade.
        • Blockade- isolation of a nation, area, city, or harbor by hostile ships or forces in order to prevent the entrance and exit of traffic and commerce.
    • The Blockade
      • The U.S. War Department set up the Blockade Strategy Board, which first met on June 27, 1861.
      • This Strategy Board broke the southern ports into 4 regions, the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, The South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, the Eastern Gulf Blockading Squadron, and the Western Gulf Blockading Squadron
    • The Effects of The Blockade
      • Trading materials and guns were at an extremely high price now once the Blockade went into effect, some materials going up Tenfold in price.
      • Compound this fact with the problems that Confederate state governments were already facing with inflation
        • The state of Alabama would print $1,000,000 in Confederate Currency to support the War and the Government. This money was without gold or silver backing, therefore there was roughly 10% inflation per month in many states.
    • Results of the Blockade
      • The Southern Coastline was roughly 3,000 miles.
      • The Union only had 212 warships at the start of the war
      • When one port was found to be inaccessible, the Confederates would find another port.
      • Overall the Blockade was barely successful, and the prices of Confederate goods did rise, but it did not have that much to do with the Union Blockade
        • Northern Ships captured or destroyed over 1,400 Confederate ships
        • Northern ships capture over $31,000,000 worth in trade merchandise.
    • The Blockade and Irreparable Damage caused to the Confederacy, inflicted upon themselves
      • Even though the Union had imposed a blockade of shipping to and from the Confederacy, about 60% still got through at the height of the blockade
      • A large contributor to this failure was an embargo on cotton export imposed in 1861 by the Confederacy in an attempt to draw the European powers into the conflict.
      • Gold was quoted at a premium in Confederate notes in April 1861. By the end of that year, a paper dollar was quoted at 90 cents in gold; during 1862 that figure fell to 40 cents; during 1863, to 6 cents
    • Union Victory in the West- Forts Henry and Donelson
    • Battle of Forts Henry and Donelson February 4-16, 1862 Gaining Forts Henry and Donelson would continue the Anaconda Plan for the Union by gaining access to different big cities within the South and gaining access to two main rivers
      • Gaining Forts Henry and Donelson would give the Union control of The Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers which flow through Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, and Virginia. This would give them a chance to easily transport their goods through the South and attack other large cities.
      What advantages would the Union gain from taking over Forts Henry and Donelson?
    • Leadership at Forts Henry and Donelson
    • Leaders in the Battles of Forts Henry and Donelson
      • Union
        • Ulysses S. Grant
          • Grant was a hero within the Mexican War as he fought with Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott and he helped take Mexico City with the U.S. Army during this War
          • He remained in the U.S. Army until 1854 and then retired, perhaps to be with his wife and child, though he stated no reason for resignation.
          • A drunk and unsuccessful in many jobs, Grant was a clerk as his brother’s leather goods shop to begin the Civil War
    • Leaders in the Battles of Forts Henry and Donelson
      • Union
        • Ulysses S. Grant
          • When the war began, he accepted Lincoln’s call and begin recruiting Volunteers and was chosen to be the Brigadier General of Volunteers
          • John C. Fremont, the Commander of the Western Theater of the Union, appointed Grant as the Commander in charge of the district of Southeastern Missouri
    • Leaders in the Battles of Forts Henry and Donelson
      • Confederates
        • Colonel Lloyd Tilghman
          • A former railroad engineer that had previously graduated from West Point and served in the U.S. Military in the late 1840’s in the West, Tilghman was placed in charge of Forts Henry and Donelson by Western Theater Commander Albert Sidney Johnson.
          • Shot and killed later in 1863 at the Battle of Champion hill as part of the Union Vicksburg Campaign.
    • Overall Action Map at Forts Henry and Donelson
    • The Battle at Fort Henry
      • On February 6, 1862, Ulysses S. Grant and Andrew Foote, who controlled a 7 ship Union flotilla, attacked Fort Henry. With only the naval ships attacking, Confederate Colonel Lloyd Tilghman was forced to retreat to Fort Donelson 12 miles away.
      • At Fort Henry, Ulysses S. Grant’s attacking force numbered 15,000 versus Tilghman’s defense force of 3,400
      • There were 17 Confederate guns at Fort Henry for Tilghman, but only 9 were above the water of the Tennessee River at present time
      • Ulysses S. Grant would give chase the next day to gain Fort Donelson as soon as possible.
    • The Battle at Fort Donelson
      • Ulysses S. Grant attacked the Fort by land first on February 13 and then Andrew Foote’s gunboat Flotilla arrived on February 14.
      • The Union numbered over 24,500 in their attack force versus 16,171 Confederates at Fort Donelson with their Fort commander John B. Floyd.
      • Andrew Foote attacked Donelson on February 14, but the Confederates successfully repelled Foote’s attack and 8 Union sailors were killed along with 4 Union ships being struck at least 20 times.
      • One ship, the Union ship St. Louis, floated aimlessly downriver without any control while the Louisville was disabled and could not move and the Pittsburg began taking on water.
      John B. Floyd
    • The Battle at Fort Donelson
      • On February 15, John B. Floyd and the Confederates attempted to make an attack to create a path of retreat as they knew that the attacking force of Grant was much stronger.
      • They focused on the Right Flank of the Union forces at Fort Donelson and they had created gaps in the flank.
      • Nathan Bedford Forrest of the Confederacy called for a complete assault upon the Union’s Right but the troops of Simon Buckner did not attack as soon as ordered, which allowed Lewis Wallace to reform lines and close the gaps within the Union.
    • The Battle at Fort Donelson
      • Ulysses S. Grant, who was previously not upon the battlefield, arrived and ordered a counter attack at the Confederates at 1:30, which found great success as they surrounded the Confederates.
      • In all of the fighting throughout the overall three days, the Confederates lost over 13,000 in casualties and after the February 15 assault created by Grant, they surrendered Unconditionally on February 16.
      • The Union lost 2,691 but now had much greater access to the Cumberland and the Tennessee Rivers
      • Now the focus of Grant would be on the Mississippi
    • -------Review------- -How many Confederate ships were captured by the Union through the Blockade? -How much Confederate Merchandise was confiscated through the Blockade? -Where are forts Henry and Donelson? -Why did Lloyd Tilghman not have a great opportunity to defend Fort Henry? -What were the Number of soldiers for the Union and confederacy at Fort Donelson? -What is significant about the union victory at these two forts?
    • The Ironclads Hampton Roads, Va. March 9, 1862 Merrimack Vs. Monitor
    • Hampton Roads region off of the Chesapeake Bay, Virginia
    • The Merrimack (Virginia)
    • The Merrimack (C.S.S. Virginia)
      • Virginia authorities took over the Norfolk Navy Yard after its evacuation by Federal forces and found the USS Merrimack burned and sunk.
      • During 1861 and the first two months of 1862, the Confederate States Navy raised and converted her into an ironclad ram, a new warship that could overcome the Union's great superiority in conventional warships.
      • They then renamed it the C.S.S. Virginia
      • The Merrimack carried a rifle at each end and two six-inch rifles and six nine-inch rifles on each side. It also held an iron ram, allowing the ship to be employed as a deadly weapon.
    • The Success of the C.S.S. Virginia or the Merrimack
      • On March 8, 1862, The C.S.S. Virginia defeated the U.S.S. Cumberland and the U.S.S. Congress, sinking the Cumberland with cannon fire and battering the Congress onto land.
    • The Monitor
    • The Monitor
      • Built by Swedish-American John Ericsson, the Monitor was not expected to be able to float in the minds of most naval men. The Monitor had just reached Hampton Roads after a voyage from New York City.
      • The ship was considered small for a warship, only 172 feet long and 42 feet wide. Confederate sailors were baffled by the ship. One was quoted describing her as ". . . a craft such as the eyes of a seaman never looked upon before, an immense shingle floating on the water with a giant cheese box rising from its center" (Ward 101). The "cheese box" was a nine by twenty foot revolving turret with two massive guns inside.
    • Battle between the Monitor and the Merrimack
      • March 9, 1862.
      • The Merrimack attempts to complete the efforts from the previous day and took off after the U.S.S. Minnesota, which she had run aground on March 8 but was not able to sink or destroy.
      • The Merrimack took off after the Minnesota and ran into the Monitor, which had made its way down from New York City.
      • The Monitor and the Merrimack engaged in a four-hour close-range duel, which resulted in a draw.
    • Results of the Battle and the Lifespan of the Merrimack and the Monitor
      • The Union lost about 409 sailors and the Confederacy lost about 24 sailors.
    • Results of the Battle and the Lifespan of the Merrimack and the Monitor
      • The Merrimack retreated towards the James River and placing herself between the Hampton Roads region and the Confederate Capitol of Richmond. In May of 1862, the Union recaptured the Norfork, Virginia shipping yard but found that the Confederates had destroyed the Merrimack in May of 1862 after learning that they could not lighten it enough to give it the ability to travel up the James River.
    • Results of the Battle and the Lifespan of the Merrimack and the Monitor
      • The Monitor sank in December of 1862 off the coast of North Carolina as high waves caused the ship to go down. The Monitor’s heavy turret and low deck caused it to be insufficient in high tides.
    • Battle of the Second Bull Run August 29-30, 1862
    • What caused the battle of the Second Bull Run at Manassas, Virginia?
      • John Pope was assigned the Union Army of Northern Virginia and was told to pressure the Confederate Capital of Richmond
      • Robert E. Lee sent Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson to divert John Pope and also break off Pope’s Communication lines with Washington, D.C.
      John Pope
    • How did John Pope encounter “Stonewall” Jackson?
      • Realizing that “Stonewall” Jackson had cut off his lines of communication, John Pope diverted his attention from Richmond and began heading North of Richmond into Northern Virginia, to the Battlefield of the 1 st Bull Run, Manassas, Virginia.
    • What occurred in the Battle of the Second Bull Run?
      • During the first day, neither side gained ground, but John Pope was convinced that “Stonewall” Jackson was going to retreat on the evening after the first day’s fighting.
    • Second Day of the Second Bull Run
      • Throughout the first day of the Battle of the 2 nd Bull Run, “Stonewall” Jackson had James Longstreet’s troops in reserve, only being used for their artillery fire, the Second Day is when they would show their might.
    • Battle of the 2 nd Bull Run on August 30, 1862, the second day of the battle
      • “ Stonewall” Jackson’s troops stood their ground as John Pope of the Union kept bring assault after assault on his lines.
      • As Jackson’s troops began to run out of ammunition, James Longstreet’s troops, who were mostly used here as reinforcements, created a bayonet charge, forcing the Union troops to retreat East from the battlefield.
    • Results of the Second Bull Run
      • “ Stonewall” Jackson and James Longstreet were successful in ending John Pope’s threat to the Confederate capital of Richmond
      • This thoroughly demoralized the Union troops and gave pride to the Confederates.
      • This showed Robert E. Lee that it was time to begin an attack upon Northern soil
      Thomas Jackson James Longstreet